Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency, salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices and deacons, Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity. Historians trace the earliest church labeled Baptist back to 1609 in Amsterdam, in accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christs atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect. Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious persecution of English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies, in the mid-18th century, the First Great Awakening contributed to Baptist growth in both New England and the South.
Baptist missionaries have spread their church to every continent, the largest Baptist denomination is the Southern Baptist Convention, with the membership of associated churches totaling more than 15 million. Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations and this view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most widely accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal and it was a time of considerable political and religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical truth had been discovered, during the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation, there were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses.
Of those most critical of the Churchs direction, some chose to stay and they became known as Puritans and are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction, historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christs College, reared in the Church of England, he became Puritan, English Separatist, and a Baptist Separatist, and ended his days working with the Mennonites. He began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of great danger and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers. In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others, in 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled The Character of the Beast, or The False Constitution of the Church.
In it he expressed two propositions, infants are not to be baptized, and second, Antichristians converted are to be admitted into the true Church by baptism. Hence, his conviction was that a church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith
Flag of Benin
The national flag of Benin is a flag consisting of two horizontal yellow and red bands on the fly side and a green vertical band at the hoist. Adopted in 1959 to replace the French Tricolour, it was the flag of the Republic of Dahomey until 1975, the new regime renamed the country and changed the flag to a green field with a red star in the canton. This version was utilized until the regime collapsed in 1990, coinciding with the Revolutions of 1989, the new government promptly restored the original pre-1975 flag. Under French colonial rule over Dahomey, French authorities forbade the colony from having its own regional flag and this was because they were worried that this could increase nationalistic sentiment and lead to calls for independence. However, with the rise of the movement in Africa. This was granted on December 4,1958, and a search for a national flag began soon after, the new flag was chosen on November 16,1959, and remained unchanged when Dahomey became independent less than a year on August 1,1960.
In 1972, a coup took place in the country. In order to symbolize the revolutionary change, the renamed the country to Benin. This featured a green field charged with a red star in the top-left canton. However, the flag was never adopted by law, making it only the de facto flag of Benin. The socialist regime was replaced and the flag from 1959 was reinstated on August 1,1990. The colours of the flag carry cultural and regional meanings, the yellow and green allude to the northern savannas and palm groves located in the south of the country, while the red symbolizes the blood shed by those who fought for Dahomey. Furthermore, the colours are the same as the ones utilized in the flag of Ethiopia and this honours the oldest independent country in Africa and the only nation other than Liberia to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa. Benin at Flags of the World
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Yoruba religious beliefs are part of itan, the complex cultural concepts which make up the Yoruba society. According to Kola Abimbola, the Yoruba have evolved a robust cosmology, in brief, it holds that all human beings possess what is known as Ayanmo and are expected to eventually become one in spirit with Olodumare. Furthermore, the thoughts and actions of each person in Ayé interact with all living things. Each person attempts to achieve transcendence and find their destiny in Orun-Rere, ones ori-inu must grow in order to consummate union with ones Iponri. Those who stop growing spiritually, in any of their lives, are destined for Orun-Apadi. Life and death are said to be cycles of existence in a series of physical bodies while ones spirit evolves toward transcendence and this evolution is said to be most evident amongst the Orishas, the divine viziers of Olorun. Iwapẹlẹ meditative recitation and sincere veneration is sufficient to strengthen the ori-inu of most people, well-balanced people, it is believed, are able to make positive use of the simplest form of connection between their Oris and the omnipotent Olu-Orun, an adura for divine support.
Prayer to ones Ori Orun produces a sensation of joy. Elegbara initiates contact with spiritual realm on behalf of the petitioner, and transmits the prayer to Ayé and he transmits this prayer without distorting it in any way. Thereafter, the petitioner may be satisfied with a personal answer, in the event that he or she is not, the Ifá oracle of the Orisha Orunmila may be consulted. All communication with Orun, whether simplistic in the form of a prayer or complicated in the form of that done by an initiated Babalawo. In the Yoruba belief system, Olodumare has ase over all that is, Olodumare is the most important state of existence. Regarded as being all-encompassing, no gender can be assigned, hence, it is common to hear references to it or they. They are the owner of all heads, for during human creation, perhaps one of the most important human endeavors extolled within the Yoruba literary corpus is the quest to better ones Iwa. Central to this is the theme of righteousness, both individual and collective, the Yoruba regard Olodumare as the principal agent of creation.
According to a Yoruba account of creation, during a stage in this process. The earth being one of these was visited but deemed too wet for conventional life, after a successful period of time, a number of divinities led by Obatala were sent to accomplish the task of helping earth develop its crust. On one of their visits to the realm, the arch-divinity Obatala took to the equipped with a mollusk that concealed some form of soil, winged beasts
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
West African Vodun
It is practiced by some Gun people of Lagos and Ogun in southwest Nigeria. All the aforementioned peoples belong to Gbe speaking ethnic groups of West Africa, patterns of worship follow various dialects, practices and rituals. The Creator embodies a dual cosmogonic principle of which Mawu the moon and Lisa the sun are respectively the female and male aspects, in other traditions, Legba is represented as Mawus masculine counterpart, thus being represented as a phallus or as a man with a prominent phallus. Dan, who is Mawus androgynous son, is represented as a rainbow serpent, as the mediator between the spirits and the living, Dan maintains balance, order and communication. All creation is considered divine and therefore contains the power of the divine and this is how medicines such as herbal remedies are understood, and explains the ubiquitous use of mundane objects in religious ritual. Vodun talismans, called fetishes, are such as statues or dried animal or human parts that are sold for their healing.
Often described as mother is the first daughter of a matriarchal lineage of a family collective. She holds the right to lead the ceremonies incumbent to the clan, marriages and she is considered one of the most important members of community. She will lead the women of a village when her family collective is the ruling one and her dominant role has often been confused with or associated to that of a high priestess which she is not. In the past when the men of the villages would go to war, the High priestess is, on the other hand, the woman chosen by the oracle to care for the convent. Priestesses, like priests, receive a calling from an oracle and they will join their clans convent to pursue spiritual instruction. It is an oracle that will designate the high priest and high priestess among the new recruits. Only blood relatives were allowed in the convent, strangers are forbidden. In modern days, some of the rules have been changed, strangers are allowed to worship only the spirits of the standard pantheon.
Confusion and an amalgam are often made between Vodun and Bò called O bò or Juju in Yoruba, Bò is an occult science whose priests are called Bòkônon or Bòkôtônon in opposition to Vodunsi and Vodunon. Contrary to popular beliefs, in West African Vodun, spells are not cast upon someone, Vodun is a religion in which an important part is devoted to the cult of the ancestors. Even if the origin of humanity and the world are explained in Vodun mythology, the followers believe that the answer to such question is beyond human reach. Priority is given to the ancestors with them interceding on behalf of their families, while an Almighty creator is recognized in Vodun pantheon, the believers do not address themselves to that particular deity
In monotheism, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith. The concept of God as described by most theologians includes the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, divine simplicity, many theologians describe God as being omnibenevolent and all loving. Furthermore, some religions attribute only a purely grammatical gender to God and corporeity of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the immanent transcendence of Chinese theology. God has been conceived as personal or impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, in pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, God is not believed to exist, while God is deemed unknown or unknowable within the context of agnosticism, God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the greatest conceivable existent. Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God, there are many names for God, and different names are attached to different cultural ideas about Gods identity and attributes.
In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one true Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, He Who Is, I Am that I Am, in the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, consubstantial in three persons, is called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In Judaism, it is common to refer to God by the titular names Elohim or Adonai, in Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a concept of God. In Chinese religion, God is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it, other religions have names for God, for instance, Baha in the Baháí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus, the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan.
The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was likely based on the root * ǵhau-, in the English language, the capitalized form of God continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic God and gods in polytheism. The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, in many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning The God, Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. Mazda, or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå and it is generally taken to be the proper name of the spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means intelligence or wisdom. Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning placing ones mind, Waheguru is a term most often used in Sikhism to refer to God
Ogun or Ogoun is an Orisha, Loa in Haiti, and Vodun. He is a warrior and a spirit of metal work, as well as rum. In Yoruba religion, Ogun is a primordial Orisha who first appeared as a hunter named Tobe Ode and he was the husband of Oya. He is said to be the first Orisha to descend to the realm of Ile Aiye, in some traditions he is said to have cleared a path for the other gods to enter Earth using a metal ax and with the assistance of a dog. To commemorate this, one of his names, or oriki, is Osin Imole or the first of the primordial Orisha to come to Earth. He is the god of war and metals, in his earthly life Ogun is said to be the first king of Ife. When some of his subjects failed to respect, Ogun killed them. He disappeared into the earth at a place called Ire-Ekiti, with the promise to help those who call on his name and his followers believe him to have wo ile sun, to have disappeared into the earths surface instead of dying. Throughout his earthly life, he is thought to have fought for the people of Ire and he is now celebrated in Ekiti and Ondo States.
Ogun is the deity of hunters and drivers in the Yoruba religion. Followers of traditional Yoruba religion can swear to tell the truth in court by kissing a piece of iron in the name of Ogun, drivers carry an amulet of Ogun to ward off traffic accidents. The primary symbols of Ogun are iron and the palm frond and they symbolize Oguns role in transformation and function. Iron is the emblem of Ogun. Ogun altars and ceremonies display and use iron objects both in Yoruba areas and the across the African diaspora. Followers of Ogun wear chains of iron implements, Ogun festivals feature the display of knives, blacksmith implements, wrenches, meats are a sacrifice for Ogun. Dogs are the companions of hunters, but Oguns personality is seen as doglike, able to face danger. Other sacrificial animals associated with Ogun are the spitting cobra, its behavior is aggressive and blacksmiths avoid eating or witnessing the mating of blacksnakes. Other important sacrificial offerings to Ogun are the Clarias submarginatus, alligator pepper, kola nuts, palm wine and red palm oil, small rats, salt, tortoise, many of these sacrificial offerings were carried into New World traditions
Ouidah /ˈwiːdə/, historically called Whydah /ˈhwaɪdə/, Juida by the French and Ajudá by the Portuguese, formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people, in local tradition Kpase is supposed to have founded the town. This probably happened towards the end of the sixteenth century, the town was originally known as Glēxwé, literally Farmhouse, and was part of the Kingdom of Whydah. Whydah troops pushed their way into the African interior, capturing millions of people through tribal wars, and selling them to the Europeans and Arabs. The Kingdom was ruled by King Haffon, who received his crown as a gift from Portugal, until, in 1727. The factory at Saber, once the town and Seat of Trade, was burnt to the ground. This country, which was the pleasantest in all parts, is now laid waste by fire and sword. The land which constituted the Kingdom of Whydah became a city in the new Kingdom of Dahomey.
The Portuguese, English and French all constructed forts in the city to protect their interests in slaving, in 1680 the Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe was authorized to erect a fort. The fort had an important impact in Benin, greatly contributing to both the Portuguese and African slave trade and its importance is attested by the fact that the Portuguese language was the only foreign language that the Kings of Dahomey authorised. In January 1722 the pirate Bartholomew Roberts sailed into the harbour and it was only when French presence in the region started threatening Portugals interests that the settlement was again permanently manned. This didnt prevent the French conquest of Dahomey, after this, São João Baptista de Ajudá – now reduced to the territory actually within the walls of the fort – lost what remained of its importance. The fort was reoccupied by Portugal in 1865, in this period it served as a base for a brief Portuguese attempt to create a protectorate in the Kingdom of Dahomey of which the city of Hweda was part.
When the fort was captured, they were escorted to the Nigerian border. Only in 1975, after the Portuguese Estado Novo regime had been due to the Carnation Revolution at Lisbon. This was followed by the restoration, which was paid for by Portugal. The fort is a square with towers at the four corners. It comprises a church and officers quarters, the Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá now houses a museum
Coat of arms of Benin
The coat of arms of Benin, originally introduced in 1964, was readopted in 1990 after being replaced in 1975. At the top of the emblem is the national crest that consists of two horns with corn in the ear and filled with sand and these are reputed to stand for prosperity. Below the crest is a shield that contains the coat of arms of Benin. The shield is broken into four quadrants, the top left quadrant contains a castle in the style of the Somba, representative of the history of Benin. In the top quadrant, is the Star of Benin. Below this is a ship, that stands for the arrival of Europeans in Benin, in the lower left quadrant is a palm tree. The shield is supported by a pair of leopards, the animal of Benin. Below the shield is the motto of Benin in French, in 1975, the Peoples Republic of Benin adopted a new coat of arms which reflected the countrys adherence to Marxism-Leninism. Coat of arms of Benin In The World All Countries Coat of arms
The cathedral of Notre Dame de Miséricorde, commonly known as Cotonou Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral, located near the Ancien Pont Bridge in Cotonou, Benin. It is noted for its distinct burgundy and white striped tiled architecture and its tower stands towards the rear end left side of the main building. After several names changes under Dahomey, on 14 September 1955 it was promoted as the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cotonou
Demographics of Benin
The demographics of Benin include population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The majority of Benin’s 9.32 million people live in the south, the population is young, with a life expectancy of 62 years. About 42 African ethnic groups live in country, these various groups settled in Benin at different times. French is the language but is spoken more in urban than in rural areas. The literacy rate is 52. 2% adult males and 23. 6% adult females, recent migrations have brought other African Nationals to Benin, Togolese, etc. The foreign community includes many Lebanese and Indians involved in trade, the personnel of the many European Embassies and Foreign Aid Missions and of nongovernmental organizations and various missionary groups account for a large number of the 5,500 European population. Several religions are practiced in Benin, African Traditional Religion is widespread, and its practices vary from one ethnic group to the other.
Arab merchants introduced Islam in the north and among the Yoruba, European missionaries brought Christianity to the south and central areas of Benin. Muslims account for 20% of the population and Christians for 30%, many nominal Muslims and Christians continue to practice African Traditional Religion traditions. It is believed that West African Vodun originated in Benin and was introduced to Brazil, according to the 2010 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 8850000 in 2010, compared to only 2255000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43. 7%,53. 3% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3% were of 65 years or older, registration of vital events is in Benin not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates and deaths Data are projections presented in Annuaire Statistique 2010. The latter is represented by Hausa living mostly as merchants in the north, while Nilo-Saharan is represented by the Dɛndi, descending from the Songhai Empire.
The Dɛndi language predominates along the Niger River in the far north, and is used as a lingua franca in Muslim areas throughout the north, in Alibori and Donga provinces. Other Kwa languages are spoken by the Anii in southern Donga in the region of Bassila, and the Fooɖo in western Donga near the town of Ouaké. The largest ethnic group are the Fon, with 1.7 million speakers of the Fon language, followed by the various Yoruba groups, the Aja, the Bariba, the Ayizo, the Fulani, and the Gun. Near the ports in the south can be many people who are descended from returned Brazilian slaves. There are numbers of Europeans, principally French, and people from the western Asia, mainly Lebanese