Religion in ancient Tamil country
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The Sangam period in Tamilakam (c. 200 BCE to 200 CE) was characterized by the coexistence of many religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism alongside the ethnic religions of the Tamil people. The monarchs of the time practiced religious tolerance and openly encouraged religious discussions and invited teachers of every sect to the public halls to preach their doctrines.
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|History of Tamil Nadu|
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- 1 Tamil religions
- 2 Divinity of kings
- 3 Hinduism
- 4 Jainism
- 5 Buddhism
- 6 Christianity
- 7 Judaism
- 8 Philosophies of religion
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
Tamil religions denotes the religious traditions and practices of Tamil-speaking people. The Tamils are native to modern state of India known as Tamil Nadu and the northern and eastern part of Sri Lanka. Tamils lives also outside their native boundaries due to migration such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain, United States, Canada, Réunion, Myanmar, Mauritius and in countries in Europe. Many emigrant Tamils retain elements of a cultural, linguistic, and religious tradition that predates the Christian era.
Early Tamil religion
A Neolithic cattle-herding culture existed in South India several millennia prior to the Christian era. By the first century, a relatively well-developed civilization had emerged. It is described in some detail in Tamil texts such as the Tholkappiyam (third BCE) and by the Sankam poets—an "academy" of poets who wrote in the first two centuries of the Common Era.
Ancient Tamil grammatical works Tholkappiyam, the ten anthologies Pathuppāṭṭu, the eight anthologies Eṭṭuttokai sheds light on early religion of ancient Tamil people. Murugan was glorified as, the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent, as the favored god of the Tamils. Shiva was also seen as the supreme God. Early iconography of Murugan and Shiva and their association with native flora and fauna goes back to Indus Valley Civilization. The Sangam landscape was classified into five categories, thinais, based on the mood, the season and the land. Tolkappiyam, mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such Murugan in Kurinji-the hills, Thirumal in Mullai-the forests, Kaali in Pālai-the deserts, Indra in Marutham-the plains and Varuna in Neithal-the coasts and the seas. Other gods mentioned were Krishna and Balaram who were all assimilated into Sangam religion over time. Dravidian influence on early Vedic religion is evident, many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language, the language of the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed to Dravidian languages. This represents an early religious and cultural fusion or synthesis between ancient Tamils and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, flora and fauna that went on to influence Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
The cult of the mother goddess is treated as an indication of a society which venerated femininity. This mother goddess was conceived as a virgin, one who has given birth to all and one. The temples of the Sangam days, mainly of Madurai, seem to have had priestesses to the deity, which also appear predominantly a goddess. In the Sangam literature, there is an elaborate description of the rites performed by the Kurava priestess in the shrine Palamutircholai.
"Veriyattam" refers to spirit possession of women, who took part in priestly functions. Under the influence of the god, women sang and danced, but also read the dim past, predicted the future, diagnosed diseases. Twenty two poets of the Sangam age in as many as 40 poems portray Veriyatal. Velan is a reporter and prophet endowed with supernatural powers. Veriyatal had been performed by men as well as women.
Among the early Tamils the practice of erecting hero stones (nadukkal) had appeared, and it continued for quite a long time after the Sangam age, down to about 11th century. It was customary for people who sought victory in war to worship these hero stones to bless them with victory.
Theyyam is a ritual shaman dance popular in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Theyyam migrates into the artist who has assumed the spirit and it is a belief that the god or goddess comes in the midst of fathering through the medium of possessed dancer. The dancer throws rice on the audience and distributes turmeric powder as symbols of blessing. Theyyam incorporates dance, mime and music and enshrines the rudiments of ancient tribal cultures which attached great importance to the worship of heroes and the spirits of ancestors, is a socio-religious ceremony. There are over 400 Theyyams performed, the most spectacular ones are those of Raktha Chamundi, Kari Chamundi, Muchilottu Bhagavathi, Wayanadu Kulaven, Gulikan and Pottan. These are performed in front of shrines, sans stage or curtains.
The early character of Tamil religion was celebrative. It embodied an aura of sacral immanence, sensing the sacred in the vegetation, fertility, and color of the land. The summum bonum of the religious experience was expressed in terms of possession by the god, or ecstasy. Into this milieu there immigrated a sobering influence—a growing number of Jain and Buddhist communities and an increasing influx of northerners.
The layout of villages can be assumed to be standard across most villages. An Amman (mother goddess) is at the centre of the villages while a male guardian deity (Tamil: காவல் கடவுள், kāval kaṭavuḷ ?) has a shrine at the village borders. Nowadays, Amman can be either worshipped alone or as a part of the Vedic pantheon.
Divinity of kings
Pre-Sangam and Sangam age
Throughout Tamil Nadu, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance. The King was 'the representative of God on earth' and lived in a koyil, which means the "residence of God". The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil (Tamil: கோயில்). Titular worship was also given to Kings.
only the King is the life-breath
of a kingdom.
The Kingdom suffered by famine or disorder when the King erred. These elements were incorporated later into Hinduism like the legendary marriage of Shiva to Queen Meenatchi who ruled Madurai or Wanji-ko, a god who later merged into Indra. Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the "Three Glorified by Heaven", (Tamil: வான்புகழ் மூவர், Vāṉpukaḻ Mūvar ?). In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple.
At the birth of Raja Raja Chola I, the Thiruvalangadu inscription states, "Having noticed by the marks (on his body) that Arulmozhi was the very Thirumal, the protector of the three worlds, descended on earth..." During the Bhakti movement, poets often compared gods to kings.
The brick temple excavated in 2005 dates to the Sangam period and is believed to be the oldest Hindu temple to be found in Tamil Nadu. The temple faces north, unlike most Hindu temples which face either east or west and is believed to have been constructed even before shilpa shastras were written
During the Sangam period, Shiva, Murugan, Thirumal and Kotravai were some of the popular deities. The poetic division of the landscape into five regions also associated each region with its own patron deity. The people of the pastoral lands or the Mullai regions worshipped Thirumal. The Marutham people worshipped Indra or Ventan, while the Neithal people considered Varunan or Katalon to be their patron deity and the Palai people worshipped Korravai or Kali. Other popular deities of this age were Kama the god of love, Surya the sun, Chandra the moon and Yama the god of death. The Brahmins of the Tamil country attached great importance to the performance of Vedic sacrifices. Priests learned in the Vedic rites typically performed them under the patronage of the kings.
The temples of the Sangam age were built out of perishable materials such as plaster, timber and brick, which is why little trace of them is found today. The only public structures of any historical importance belonging to this age that have survived to this day are the rock-beds hewn out of natural rock formation, that were made for the ascetics. The Silappatikaram and the Sangam poems such as Kaliththokai, Mullaippāṭṭu and Purananuru mention several kinds of temples such as the Puranilaikkottam or the temple at the outskirts of a city, the Netunilaikkottam or the tall temple, the Palkunrakkottam the temple on top of a hill, the Ilavantikaippalli or the temple with a garden and bathing ghat, the Elunilaimatam or a seven storeyed temple, the Katavutkatinakar or the temple city.
Some of the popular festivals of this age were Karthigaideepam, Tiruvonam, Kaman vizha and Indira vizha. Karthigaideepam was otherwise known as Peruvizha and was celebrated in the Tamil month of Karthigai every year. The Kaaman vizha was held in the spring and during this festival, men and women dressed up well and participated in dancing. Indravizha included the performance of Vedic sacrifices, prayers to various gods, musical recitals and dancing.
The exact origins of Jainism in Tamil Nadu is unclear. However, Jains flourished in Tamil Nadu at least as early as the Sangam period. Tamil Jain tradition places their origins are much earlier. Some scholars believe that the author of the oldest extant work of literature in Tamil (3rd century BCE), Tolkāppiyam, was a Jain.
Scholars consider the Tirukkural by Valluvar to be the work by a Jain. It emphatically supports vegetarianism (Chapter 26) and states that giving up animal sacrifice is worth more than a thousand offerings in fire (verse 259).
Silappatikaram, a major work in Tamil literature, was written by a Camaṇa, Ilango Adigal. It describes the historical events of its time and also of the then-prevailing religions, Jainism, Buddhism and Shaivism. The main characters of this work, Kannagi and Kovalan, who have a divine status among Tamils, were Jains.
There was a permanent Jaina assembly called a Sangha established about 604 CE in Maturai. It seems likely that this assembly was the model upon which tradition fabricated the cangkam legend."
The Buddhists worshiped the impressions of Buddha’s feet engraved on stone and platforms made of stone that represented his seat. The pious Buddhist walked round them, with his right side towards them and bowed his head as a token of reverence. The Silapatikaram mentions that the monks worshipped Buddha by praising him as the wise, holy and virtuous teacher who adhered to his vows strictly, as the one who subdued anger and all evil passions and as the refuge of all mankind. Manimekalai is a sequel to the Silapathikaram, which tellst the story of Buddhism of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi.
In the Buddhist Viharas or monasteries, learned monks preached their sermons, seated in a place which was entirely concealed from the view of the audience. The Buddhists did not observe the distinctions of caste and invited all ranks to assemble on a footing of equality. Self-control, wisdom and charity were among the virtues preached and practiced by the monks, who were numerous in the ancient Tamil country.
Christianity is said to be introduced in India by St. Thomas the Apostle who landed at Muziris on Malabar Coast in the year 52 AD. These ancient Christians are today known as Saint Thomas Christians or Syriac Christians or Nasrani. They are now divided into different denominations namely, Syro-Malabar Catholic, Syro-Malankara Catholic, Malankara Orthodox, Jacobite and Malankara Marthoma. Syriac Christians followed the same rules of caste and population as that of Hindus and sometimes they were even considered as population neutralizers. They tend to be endogamous, and tend not to intermarry even with other Christian groupings. Saint Thomas Christians derive status within the caste system from the tradition that they were elites, who were evangelized by St. Thomas. Also, internal mobility is allowed among these Saint Thomas Christian sects and the caste status is kept even if the sect allegiance is switched (for example, from Syriac Orthodox to Syro-Malabar Catholic). Despite the sectarian differences, Syriac Christians share a common social status within the Caste system of Kerala and is considered as Forward Caste.
The traditional account is that traders from Judea arrived in the city of Cochin, Kerala in 562 BCE, and that more Jews came as exiles from Israel in the year 70 CE after the destruction of the Second Temple. The distinct Jewish community was called Anjuvannam. The still-functioning synagogue in Mattancherry belongs to the Paradesi Jews, the descendants of Sephardim that were expelled from Spain in 1492.
Philosophies of religion
The secular identity of the Sangam literature is often celebrated to represent the tolerance among Tamil people. Es Vaiyāpurip Piḷḷai, concludes in his History of Tamil language and literature: beginning to 1000 A. D.:
|— Es Vaiyāpurip Piḷḷai, History of Tamil language and literature: beginning to 1000 A. D.|
Most scholars agree that the lack of 'god' should not be inferred to be atheistic. The Tamil books of Law, particularly the Tirukkural, is considered as the Perennial philosophy of Tamil culture because of its universalisability.
Ūzh and Vinai
Kaṭavuḷ and Iyavuḷ
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|Sri Lankan Tamils|
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