Grand Lodge of Kentucky
The Grand Lodge of Kentucky is one of two state organizations that supervise Masonic lodges in the state of Kentucky. It was established in 1800; the Grand Lodge of Virginia established Lexington Lodge #25, the first Masonic lodge west of the Alleghany Mountains, in what is now Lexington, Kentucky, on November 17, 1788. GLVA established other lodges in Frankfort, Georgetown and Shelbyville; the process to separate from the GLVA started on September 8, 1800, was completed to form the Grand Lodge of Kentucky on October 16, 1800. Half of the original Grand Officers were from the Lexington Lodge, renumbered to Lexington #1. Members of Lexington Lodge #1 would include Henry Clay. By the 1820s, the fifty-five Lodges in Kentucky had a combined membership of 1800. However, the tide of Anti-Masonry caused a reduction to only 1300 members in thirty-seven lodges by 1840. Membership in the 20th century was 100,675 in 479 lodges in 1961, 83,000 in 457 lodges by the end of June 1989. By 2012, membership had fallen below 48,000.
A Grand Hall for the Grand Lodge was completed in Lexington on October 26, 1826, after plans for it started in 1813 and begun in 1824. While being built, the Grand Lodge was blessed to meet with fellow Freemason Marquis de Lafayette in 1825. Among the notable events of the building was use as a hospital during a cholera outbreak in 1833, as well as the only two Indian Masons received in Lexington. After three years of discussion, the headquarters of the Grand Lodge were moved to Louisville in 1833. After the Grand Hall was destroyed by fire on 1837; when a new Grand Hall was built on the site of the original on September 1, 1841, the Grand Lodge returned to Lexington until 1858, when it returned to Louisville, where the headquarters remains to this day. After the Anti-Masonic movement petered out, the Grand Lodge founded several institutions. In 1841 the Masonic University was started in La Grange, but it closed in 1881; the Grand Lodge founded an Old Masons' Home in Shelbyville in 1901, a Masonic Widows and Orphans Home in Louisville in 1867, due to the number of widows and orphans caused by the American Civil War.
World War I and the ensuing Spanish influenza outbreak caused overcrowding, a larger orphan's home was constructed at the present-day location, with residents moving to it in 1926. The largest concentration of orphans at the home was 632 in 1930; the last orphan left in 1989, resulting in the home being for senior care. Both now accept residents; the Home is the oldest Masonic foundation in North America. Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. and A. M.: Grand Annual Communication. Louisville: Grand Lodge of Kentucky. 1867. OCLC 4902524. Official Site Masonic Homes of Kentucky
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane, it was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean, it is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs; the many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco. With fiscal incentives by the government, many industrial companies were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial hub of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil, with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife plus 32,500 in the Metro Area, totaling more than 85,000. A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical hub. Recife stands out as a major tourist attraction of the Northeast, both for its beaches and for its historic sites, dating back to both the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization of the region; the beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers south of the city, has been awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists. The Historic Centre of Olinda, 7 kilometers north of the city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982, both cities' Brazilian Carnival are among the world's most famous.
The city is an education hub, home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife for their studies. Recife and Natal are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, a World Heritage Site; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Recife hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup; the city, despite having a higher crime rate than the southern region of Brazil, is considered the safest state capital in northeastern region. It has a much lower crime than other regional capitals, such as Salvador or São Luís, yet despite that crime rose 440% in 2015. Recife began as a collection of fishing shacks and warehouses on the delta between the Capibaribe and Beberibe Rivers in the captaincy of Pernambuco, sometime between 1535 and 1537 in the earliest days of Portuguese colonisation of Terra de Santa Cruz called Brazil, on the northeast coast of South America.
It was way station for Portuguese sailors and passing ships. The first documented reference to the settlement with its "arrecife dos navios" was in the royal Charter Act of March 12, 1537, establishing Olinda, 6 kilometres to the north, as a village, with its port where the Beberibe River meets the sea. Olinda had been settled in 1536 by Captain General Duarte Coelho, a Portuguese nobleman and administrator of the captaincy of Pernambuco; the city is named for the long reef recife running parallel to the shoreline which encloses its harbour. The reef is not as sometimes stated, a coral reef, but a consolidated ancient beach, now as firm and hard as stone. In 1541, Coelho returned from the Kingdom of Portugal with the machinery for an engenho, with it, his brother-in-law established the first mill named Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, in the floodplain of the Beberibe River at Recife. At that time the banks of the Capibaribe River were covered by sugar cane. Recife was capital of the 17th century New Holland established by the Dutch West India Company and was called Mauritsstad.
The Mascate War of 1710–1711 pitted merchants of Recife against those of nearby Olinda. Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife's weather is warm, it has a number of islands, rivers and bridges that crisscross the city and has been called "The Venice of Brazil". The city is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels, resulting in poor soil quality as the heavy dense rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and the area enjoys a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the South Atlantic Ocean to the east. Recife has a tropical climate, more a tropical monsoon climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by pleasant westwardly trade winds blowing in from the ocean. January and February are the warmest months, with mean temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 22 °C, with sun. July
Papal ban of Freemasonry
The Catholic Church first prohibited Catholics from membership in Masonic organizations and other secret societies in 1738. Since at least eleven popes have made pronouncements about the incompatibility of Catholic doctrines and Freemasonry. From 1738 until 1983, Catholics who publicly associated with, or publicly supported, Masonic organizations were censured with automatic excommunication. Since 1983, the prohibition on membership exists in a different form. Although there was some confusion about membership following the 1965 Second Vatican Council, the Church continues to prohibit membership in Freemasonry because it concluded that Masonic principles and rituals are irreconcilable with Catholic doctrines; the current norm, the 1983 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's Declaration on Masonic associations, states that "faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion" and membership in Masonic associations is prohibited. The most recent CDF document about the "incompatibility of Freemasonry with the Catholic faith" was issued in 1985.
In 1736, the Inquisition investigated a Masonic lodge in Florence, which it condemned in June 1737. The lodge had been founded in 1733 by the English Freemason Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, but accepted Italian members, such as the lodge's secretary Tommaso Crudeli. In 1736, on 26 December, Andrew Michael Ramsay delivered an oration to a masonic meeting in Paris on the eve of the election of Charles Radclyffe as Grand Master of the French Freemasons. In March 1737 he sent an edited copy to the chief minister, Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, seeking his approval for its delivery to an assembly of Freemasons, his approval of the craft in general. Fleury's response was to brand the Freemasons as traitors, ban their assemblies; this ban, the Italian investigation led, in 1738, to Pope Clement XII promulgating In eminenti apostolatus, the first canonical prohibition of Masonic associations. Clement XII wrote that the reasons for prohibiting masonic associations are that members, "content with form of natural virtue, are associated with one another" by oaths with "grave penalties" "to conceal in inviolable silence whatever they secretly do together."
These associations have aroused suspicions that "to join these associations is synonymous with incurring the taint of evil and infamy, for if they were not involved in evil doing, they would never be so averse to the light." "The rumor has so grown that" several governments have suppressed them "as being opposed to the welfare of the kingdom." Clement XII wrote, that these kinds of associations are "not consistent with the provisions of either civil or canon law" since they harm both "the peace of the civil state" and "the spiritual salvation of souls." Pope Leo XII attempted to assess the influence of anti-social organizations. Leo XII inserted and confirmed the texts of Clement XII, Benedict XIV, Pius VII, in his 1825 constitution Quo graviora "to condemn them in such a way that it would be impossible to claim exemption from the condemnation." The ban in In eminenti apostolatus was reiterated and expanded upon by Benedict XIV, Pius VII, Leo XII, Pius VIII, Gregory XVI, Pius IX. "The decisive impetus for the Catholic anti-Masonic movement" was Humanum genus, promulgated by Pope Leo XIII in 1884.
Leo XIII wrote that his primary objection to Masonry was naturalism, his accusations were about pantheism and naturalism. Leo XIII analysed continental Grand Orient type philosophical "principles and practices." While naturalism was present everywhere in other types of lodges, "the subversive, revolutionary activity characteristic of the Grand Orient lodges of the continent" was not. Leo XIII "emphasises that'the ultimate and principle aim' of Masonry'was to destroy to its foundations any civil or religious order established throughout Christendom, bring about in its place a new order founded on laws drawn out of the entrails of naturalism'." Under 1917 CIC, in effect May 1918 to November 1983, Catholics associated with Masonry were: automatically, i.e. latae sententia, deprived of marriage in the Catholic Church, excluded from Catholic associations, deprived of Catholic funeral rites, invalidated from novitiate, invalidated reception of personal jus patronatus, with additional penalties against clergy and members of secular institutes.
Under 1917 CIC, books which argue that "Masonic sects" and similar groups are "useful and not harmful to the Church and civil society" were prohibited. The Catholic Church began an evaluation of its understanding of Masonry during, Vatican II. Throughout the jubilee of 1966, Pope Paul VI granted every confessor the faculty to absolve censures and penalties of 1917 CIC canon 2335 incurred by penitents who separated themselves from Masonic association and promised to repair and prevent, as far as possible, any scandal and damage they caused. In addition, Saint Padre Pio demonstrated the power of conversion by speaking with a member of the Italian parliament, a self professed agnostic and freemason. Pio converted the man to Catholicism. After a four-year investigation in five Scandinavian Bishops' Conference countries, the CES decided in 1967 to apply the 1966 post-conciliar norms in De Episcoporum Muneribus, "which empowers bishops in special cases to dispense from certain injunctions of Canon Law."
The CES permitted, within its jurisdiction, converts to Catholicism to retain their Swedish Rite membership, "but only with the specific permission of that person's bishop."In early 19
The metric system is an internationally recognised decimalised system of measurement. It is in widespread use, where it is adopted, it is the only or most common system of weights and measures, it is now known as the International System of Units. It is used to measure everyday things such as the mass of a sack of flour, the height of a person, the speed of a car, the volume of fuel in its tank, it is used in science and trade. In its modern form, it consists of a set of base units including metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time and ampere for electrical current, a few others, which together with their derived units, can measure any physical quantity. Metric system may refer to other systems of related base and derived units defined before the middle of the 20th century, some of which are still in limited use today; the metric system was designed to have properties that make it easy to use and applicable, including units based on the natural world, decimal ratios, prefixes for multiples and sub-multiples, a structure of base and derived units.
It is a coherent system, which means that its units do not introduce conversion factors not present in equations relating quantities. It has a property called rationalisation that eliminates certain constants of proportionality in equations of physics; the units of the metric system taken from observable features of nature, are now defined by phenomena such as the microwave frequency of a caesium atomic clock which measures seconds. One unit, the kilogram, remains defined in terms of a man-made artefact, but scientists voted to change the definition to one based on Planck's constant via a Kibble balance; the new definition is expected to be formally propagated on 20 May 2019. While there are numerous named derived units of the metric system, such as watt and lumen, other common quantities such as velocity and acceleration do not have their own unit, but are defined in terms of existing base and derived units such as metres per second for velocity. Though other or widespread systems of weights and measures continue to exist, such as the British imperial system and the US customary system of weights and measures, in those systems most or all of the units are now defined in terms of the metric system, such as the US foot, now a defined decimal fraction of a metre.
The metric system is extensible, new base and derived units are defined as needed in fields such as radiology and chemistry. The most recent derived unit, the katal, for catalytic activity, was added in 1999. Recent changes are directed toward defining base units in terms of invariant constants of physics to provide more precise realisations of units for advances in science and industry; the modern metric system consists of four electromechanical base units representing seven fundamental dimensions of measure: length, time, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, quantity of substance. The units are: the metre for length kilogram for mass second for time ampere for electromagnetism kelvin for temperature candela for luminous intensity mole for quantityTogether they are sufficient for measuring any known quantity, without reference to further quantities or phenomena; the metre, ampere and mole are all defined in terms of other base units. For example, the speed of light is defined as 299,792,458 metres per second, the metre is derived from that constant and the definition of a second.
As a result, in dimensional analysis, they remain wholly separate concepts. There are 22 derived units with special names in the metric system, these are defined in terms of the base units or other named derived units. Eight of these units are electromagnetic quantities: volt, a unit of electrical potential ohm, a unit of electrical resistance tesla, a unit of magnetic flux density weber, a unit of magnetic flux farad, a unit of electrical capacitance henry, a unit of electrical inductance siemens, a unit of electrical conductance coulomb, a unit of electrical chargeFour of these units are mechanical quantities: watt, a unit of mechanical or electrical power newton, a unit of mechanical force joule, a unit of mechanical, electrical or thermodynamic energy pascal, a unit of pressureFive units represent measures of electromagnetic radiation and radioactivity: becquerel, a unit of radioactive decay sievert, a unit of absorbed ionising radiation gray, a unit of ionising radiation lux, a unit of luminous flux lumen, a unit of luminous intensityTwo units are measures of circular arcs and spherical surfaces: radian, a unit of circular arc steradian, a unit of spherical surface areaThree units are miscellaneous: degree Celsius, a unit of thermodynamic temperature katal, a unit of catalytic activity hertz, a unit of cycles per second Although SI, as published by the CGPM, should, in theory, meet all the requirements of commerce and technology, certain customary units of measure have acquired established positions within the world community.
In order that such units are used around the world, the CGPM catalogued such units in Tables 6 to 9 of the SI brochure. These categories are: Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units; this list includes the hour and minute, the angular measures, the historic metric units, the litre and hectare Non-SI units whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally. This list includes various units of measure used in atomic and nuclear physics and in astronomy such as the dalton, the electron mass, the electron volt, the astronomical unit
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Grand Lodge of Missouri
The Grand Lodge of Missouri is one of two statewide organizations that oversee Masonic lodges in the state of Missouri. It was established on April 21, 1821, it is located in Missouri. The first Lodge in Missouri was created by residents of Ste. Genevieve, Missouri; the charter was issued on November 14, 1807 on a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for the Louisiana Lodge No. 109, to be held in St. Genevieve, Territory of Louisiana with the following officers: Aaron Elliott, Master. On September 15, 1808, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a warrant to Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Fiveash Riddick, Senior Warden, Rufus Easton, Junior Warden, for Saint Louis Lodge No. 111. This Lodge was constituted November 8, 1808, by Otho Shrader under dispensation dated September 16, 1808; the Grand Lodge of Tennessee granted charters to three Lodges in Missouri Territory: Missouri Lodge No. 12, in St. Louis, October 8, 1816, Joachim Lodge No. 25, at Herculaneum, October 5, 1819, St. Charles Lodge No.
28, at St. Charles, October 5, 1819. In 1820 Unity Lodge was established at Jackson under dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Indiana, it was in existence when the Grand Lodge of Missouri was organized, was rechartered by it as Unity Lodge No. 6. On February 22, 1821, representatives from Missouri Lodge No. 12, Joachim Lodge No. 25, St. Charles Lodge No. 28, assembled in the hall of Missouri Lodge and resolved to organize a grand Lodge for the State of Missouri. The Grand Lodge was organized April 21, 1821, a constitution and by-laws were adopted; the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons of the State of Missouri was incorporated by act of the General Assembly of Missouri February 17, 1843. An amendment to this act, repealing its requirement of operation of a college, was approved February 11, 1861. By act of the General Assembly approved February 13, 1864, certain named members of the"Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons were incorporated as "The Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons."
By act of the General Assembly approved March 22, 1870, the Grand Lodge of Ancient and Accepted Masons of the State of Missouri was, among other things, "authorized to own property of any value not exceeding $300,000.00." By decree of the Circuit Court of the City of Saint Louis entered November 18, 1933, the corporate names used in these legislative acts were replaced by "\The Grand Lodge of Ancient and Accepted Masons of the State of Missouri, now the correct corporate name of the Grand Lodge, the powers of the corporation with reference to the Masonic Home and to the holding of property, were amplified. The present Constitution was adopted May 28, 1866, with a Code of By-Laws, amended through the years; the By-Laws are subject to change by the action of the Grand Lodge members at the annual communication of the Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge operated Masonic College in Lexington, Missouri during the middle part of the 19th century. President Harry Truman was a prominent Missouri mason. Author Samuel Clemens affiliated with Polar Star Lodge Number 79 in St. Louis Missouri.
Ultramontanism is a clerical political conception within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope. The term's origins are in ecclesiastical language from the Middle Ages: when a non-Italian was elected to the papacy, he was said to be papa ultramontano, that is, a pope from beyond the mountains. Foreign students at medieval Italian universities were referred to as ultramontani; the word was revived but the meaning reversed after the Protestant Reformation in France, to indicate the "man beyond the mountains" located in Italy. In France, the name ultramontain was applied to people who supported papal authority in French affairs, as opposed to the Gallican and Jansenist factions of the indigenous French Catholic Church; the term was intended to be insulting, or at least to imply a lack of true patriotism. From the 17th century, ultramontanism became associated with the Jesuits. In the 18th century the word passed to Austria, where it acquired a much wider significance, being applicable to all the conflicts between church and state, the supporters of the Church being called ultramontanes.
In Great Britain and Ireland, it was a reaction to Cisalpinism, the stance of moderate lay Catholics who sought to make patriotic concessions to the Protestant state to achieve Catholic emancipation. In Canada, the majority of Canadian Catholic clergy despised the French Revolution and its anti-clerical bias and looked to Rome for both spiritual and political guidance. There were many laymen and laywomen who supported these ideals as key to preserving Canadian institutions and values. For this reason they were called ultramontanists; the ultramontanes distrusted both the Protestant anglophone and francophone politicians, but the Church found it easier to deal with British governors, who appreciated the role of the Church in containing dissent, than with the francophone liberal professionals who were secularists. According to Jeffrey P. von Arx,The threat to the Catholic Church and the papacy through the 19th century was real, the church’s reaction to that threat was understandable. Indeed, the church remained threatened on all sides.
On the left, secular liberals sought to reduce or eliminate the role of the church in public life and civil society. The more radical heirs of the revolution and the socialists and communists into whom they evolved remained committed to the church’s utter destruction, but the threat was from the nationalist right. Otto von Bismarck’s Kulturkampf was aimed directly at the Catholic Church, imposing state supervision of Catholic schools and seminaries and government appointment of bishops with no reference to Rome; the response was a condemnation of Gallicanism as heretical, e condemn and reject the opinions of those who hold that this communication of the supreme head with pastors and flocks may be lawfully obstructed. The Council asserted papal primacy. In July 1870, the it issued the Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, defining four doctrines of the Catholic faith: the apostolic primacy conferred on Peter, the perpetuity of this primacy in the Roman pontiffs, the meaning and power of the papal primacy, Papal infallibility.
E teach and declare that, by divine ordinance, the Roman Church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other Church, that this jurisdictional power of the Roman Pontiff is both episcopal and immediate. Both clergy and faithful, of whatever rite and dignity, both singly and collectively, are bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, this not only in matters concerning faith and morals, but in those which regard the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world." Von Arx compares this to "...the great empires and national states of the 19th century, which used new means of communication and transportation to consolidate power, enforce unity and build bureaucracies." "Cardinal Henry Edward Manning in Great Britain thought unity and discipline within the church were of the utmost importance in protecting the church and advancing its interests in a liberal, democratic state, so he was one of the strongest advocates of the ultramontane position."
The English bishops at the Council were characterized by their ultramontanism and described as "being more Catholic than the Pope himself". Other Christian groups outside the Catholic Church declared this as the triumph of what they termed "the heresy of ultramontanism", it was decried in the "Declaration of the Catholic Congress at Munich", in the Theses of Bonn, in the Declaration of Utrecht, which became the foundational documents of Old Catholics who split with Rome over the declaration on infallibility and supremacy, joining the Old Episcopal Order Catholic See of Utrecht, independent from Rome since 1723. As with previous pronouncements by the pope, Liberals across Europe were outraged by the doctrine of infallibility and many countries reacted with laws to counter the influence of the church; the term "ultramontanism" was revived during the French Third Republic as a pejorative way to describe policies that went against laïcité a concept rooted in the French Revolution. French philosopher Jacques Maritain, noted the distinction between the models found in France and the separation of church and state in the United States in the mid-twentieth century.
He considered the US model of