Neohumanism is a holistic philosophical theory elaborated by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in his 1982 book, The Liberation of Intellect, Neohumanism. With neohumanism, Sarkar redefines both humanity and humanism, as well as commonly associated concepts. In addition, Sarkar introduces many new concepts intended to both individual and collective progress. In this philosophy universalism plays a central role, if humanism tends to only cover the human dimension in a human-centric view, according to Sarkar, is instead the elevation of humanism to universalism. It can be defined as a stage beyond the other forms of religious bounded beliefs rather it concentrate over spiritual realm and it doesnt have any grouped intention, rather it focus on personal existence. Sarkar wrote that neohumanism manifests in three stages of development, the first stage of neohumanism is spiritual practice to enhance the physical and spiritual well-being of the practitioner. The stage of spiritual practice indirectly benefits society through the service that is part of spiritual practice.
The second stage of neohumanism is spiritual principle and its impact is mainly in the mental and spiritual realms, both individual and collective. The third and final stage of neohumanism is spiritual mission, according to neohumanism, when an individuals existential nucleus merges with the Cosmic Existential Nucleus, she/he attains the consummation of her/his existence. Neohumanism asserts that this supreme status ensures the future of not only the world but of the animal. Sarkar describes neohumanism as follows, What is neohumanism, Neohumanism is humanism of the past, humanism of the present, and humanism – newly explained – of the future. Explaining humanity and humanism in a new light will widen the path of human progress, Neohumanism will give new inspiration and provide a new interpretation for the very idea of human existence. This section describes some key concepts or constructs of neohumanism, the concepts are listed in alphabetical order for easier reference. According to neohumanism, love for the Supreme is the highest and most valuable treasure of humanity, neohumanism deems devotion to be a very tender inner asset, frequently assailed by materialism and other onslaughts from the external world.
Neohumanism defines dogma as a mental prison, in other words, a dogma is any concept that one is expected to accept without question. Neohumanism perceives such conduct as fundamentally contrary to nature, which includes a constant quest for mental expansion. Hence, the position of neohumanism on dogma is that all dogma must be eradicated, Neohumanism discourages both geosentiment and sociosentiment, because both tend to be injurious to society. However, neohumanism observes that, of the two, sociosentiment is more pernicious
American Humanist Association
In 1927 an organization called the Humanist Fellowship began at a gathering in Chicago. In 1928 the Fellowship started publishing the New Humanist magazine, H. G. Creel was the first editor. The New Humanist was published from 1928 to 1936, by 1935 the Humanist Fellowship had become the Humanist Press Association, the first national association of humanism in the United States. The first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933, signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, but the majority were ministers and theologians. They identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason, upon ordination these ministers were accorded the same rights and privileges granted by law to priests and rabbis of traditional theistic religions. Curtis Reese was a leader in the 1941 reorganization and incorporation of the Humanist Press Association as the American Humanist Association, along with its reorganization, the AHA began printing The Humanist magazine.
The AHA was originally headquartered in Yellow Springs, San Francisco, subsequently, the AHA moved to Washington, D. C. In 1952 the AHA became a member of the International Humanist and Ethical Union in Amsterdam. As an international coalition of Humanist organizations, the IHEU stands today as the international umbrella group for Humanism. The AHA was the first national organization to support abortion rights. Around the same time, the AHA joined hands with the American Ethical Union to help establish the rights of conscientious objectors to the Vietnam War. This time saw Humanists involved in the creation of the first nationwide memorial societies, in 1991 the AHA took control of the Humanist Society, a religious Humanist organization that now runs the celebrant program. Since 1991 the organization has worked as an adjunct to the American Humanist Association to certify qualified members to serve in this capacity as ministers. The Humanist Societys ministry prepares Humanist Celebrants to lead ceremonial observances across the nation, Celebrants provide millions of Americans an alternative to traditional religious weddings, memorial services, and other life cycle events.
After this transfer, the AHA commenced the process of jettisoning its religious tax exemption, today the AHA is recognized by the U. S. Internal Revenue Service as a nonprofit, tax exempt,501, membership numbers are disputed, but Djupe and Olson place it under 50,000. The AHA has over 575,000 followers on Facebook and over 42,000 followers on Twitter, the AHA is the supervising organization for various Humanist affiliates and adjunct organizations. The Black Humanist Alliance of the American Humanist Association was founded in 2016 as a pillar of its new Initiatives for Social Justice, like the Feminist Humanist Alliance and the LGBT Humanist Alliance, the Black Humanist Alliance uses an intersectional approach to addressing issues facing the Black community
A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community, Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and performance. Rituals are a feature of all human societies. Even common actions like hand-shaking and saying hello may be termed rituals, the field of ritual studies has seen a number of conflicting definitions of the term. One given by Kyriakidis is that a ritual is an outsiders or etic category for a set activity that, to the outsider, seems irrational, non-contiguous, or illogical. The term can be used by the insider or emic performer as an acknowledgement that this activity can be seen as such by the uninitiated onlooker, the English word ritual derives from the Latin ritualis, that which pertains to rite. In Roman juridical and religious usage, ritus was the way of doing something, or correct performance.
The word ritual is first recorded in English in 1570, there are hardly any limits to the kind of actions that may be incorporated into a ritual. Catherine Bell argues that rituals can be characterized by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, Ritual utilizes a limited and rigidly organized set of expressions which anthropologists call a restricted code. Maurice Bloch argues that ritual obliges participants to use this formal oratorical style, which is limited in intonation, vocabulary, loudness, in adopting this style, ritual leaders speech becomes more style than content. Because this formal speech limits what can be said, it induces acceptance, Bloch argues that this form of ritual communication makes rebellion impossible and revolution the only feasible alternative. Ritual tends to support forms of social hierarchy and authority. Rituals appeal to tradition and are concerned to repeat historical precedents accurately. Traditionalism varies from formalism in that the ritual may not be yet still makes an appeal to historical.
An example is the American Thanksgiving dinner, which may not be formal, the appeal to history is important rather than accurate historical transmission. Catherine Bell states that ritual is invariant, implying careful choreography and this is less an appeal to traditionalism than a striving for timeless repetition. The key to invariance is bodily discipline, as in prayer and meditation meant to mold dispositions. This bodily discipline is frequently performed in unison, by groups, Rituals tend to be governed by rules, a feature somewhat like formalism
Secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god. It does not, assume that humans are inherently evil or innately good. Rather, the humanist life stance emphasizes the unique responsibility facing humanity, along with this, an essential part of secular humanism is a continually adapting search for truth, primarily through science and philosophy. Many secular humanists derive their moral codes from a philosophy of utilitarianism, ethical naturalism, or evolutionary ethics, the Happy Human is the official symbol of the IHEU as well as being regarded as a universally recognised symbol for those who call themselves Humanists. Secular humanist organizations are found in all parts of the world and those who call themselves humanists are estimated to number between four and five million people worldwide. The meaning of the phrase secular humanism has evolved over time, the phrase has been used since at least the 1930s, and in 1943, the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Temple, was reported as warning that the Christian tradition.
Was in danger of being undermined by a Secular Humanism which hoped to retain Christian values without Christian faith, the release in 1980 of A Secular Humanist Declaration by the newly formed Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism gave secular humanism an organisational identity within the United States. However, many adherents of the approach reject the use of the secular as obfuscating and confusing. All too often secular humanism is reduced to a sterile outlook consisting of more than secularism slightly broadened by academic ethics. This kind of hyphenated humanism easily becomes more about the adjective than its referent, adherents of this view, including the International Humanist and Ethical Union and the American Humanist Association, consider that the unmodified but capitalised word Humanism should be used. The endorsement by the IHEU of the capitalization of the word Humanism, the American Humanist Association began to adopt this view in 1973, and the IHEU formally endorsed the position in 1989.
In 2002 the IHEU General Assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration and this declaration makes exclusive use of capitalized Humanist and Humanism, which is consistent with IHEUs general practice and recommendations for promoting a unified Humanist identity. To further promote Humanist identity, these words are free of any adjectives, such usage is not universal among IHEU member organizations, though most of them do observe these conventions. Historical use of the humanism, is related to the writings of pre-Socratic philosophers. These writings were lost to European societies until Renaissance scholars rediscovered them through Muslim sources, in 1851 George Holyoake coined the term secularism to describe a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life. The modern secular movement coalesced around Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh and their intellectual circle, the first secular society, the Leicester Secular Society, dates from 1851.
Similar regional societies came together to form the National Secular Society in 1866, holyoakes secularism was strongly influenced by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and of modern sociology. Comte believed human history would progress in a law of three stages from a phase, to the metaphysical, toward a fully rational positivist society
The New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, although analytically often considered to be religious, those involved in it typically prefer the designation of spiritual and rarely use the term New Age themselves. Many scholars of the subject refer to it as the New Age movement, although others contest this term, such prominent occult influences include the work of Emanuel Swedenborg and Franz Mesmer, as well as the ideas of Spiritualism, New Thought, and Theosophy. Although the exact origins of the phenomenon remain contested, it is agreed that it developed in the 1970s and it expanded and grew largely in the 1980s and 1990s, in particular within the United States. By the start of the 21st century, the term New Age was increasingly rejected within this milieu, despite its highly eclectic nature, a number of beliefs commonly found within the New Age have been identified.
Theologically, the New Age typically adopts a belief in a form of divinity which imbues all of the universe. There is thus a strong emphasis on the authority of the self. This is accompanied by a belief in a wide variety of semi-divine non-human entities, such as angels and masters, with whom humans can communicate. There is a focus on healing, particularly using forms of alternative medicine. Those involved in the New Age have been primarily from middle, the New Age has generated criticism from established Christian organisations as well as modern Pagan and indigenous communities. From the 1990s onward, the New Age became the subject of research by scholars of religious studies. The New Age phenomenon has proved difficult to define, with much scholarly disagreement as to its scope, the scholars Steven J. Sutcliffe and Ingvild Sælid Gilhus have even suggested that it remains among the most disputed of categories in the study of religion. According to Hammer, this New Age was a fluid and fuzzy cultic milieu and he thus argued against the idea that the New Age could be considered a unified ideology or Weltanschauung, although he believed that it could be considered a more of less unified movement.
Conversely, various scholars have suggested that the New Age is insufficiently homogenous to be regarded as a singular movement. There is no authority within the New Age phenomenon that can determine what counts as New Age. Many of those groups and individuals who could analytically be categorised as part of the New Age reject the term New Age in reference to themselves, some even express active hostility to the term. Rather than terming themselves New Agers, those involved in this milieu commonly describe themselves as spiritual seekers, other figures have argued that the sheer diversity of the New Age renders it too problematic for such use. In discussing the New Age, academics have varyingly referred to New Age spirituality and those involved in the New Age rarely consider it to be religion—negatively associating that term solely with organized religion—and instead describe their practices as spirituality
Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of using such technologies. The transhumanist philosophies of Max More and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner have been influenced strongly by Nietzschean thinking, by way of contrast, The Transhumanist Declaration. advocates the well-being of all sentience. Fundamental ideas of transhumanism were first advanced in 1923 by the British geneticist J. B. S, in particular, he was interested in the development of the science of eugenics and the application of genetics to improve human characteristics, such as health and intelligence. His article inspired academic and popular interest and these ideas have been common transhumanist themes ever since. The biologist Julian Huxley is generally regarded as the founder of transhumanism, the term itself, derives from an earlier 1940 paper by the Canadian philosopher W. D. Lighthall. Huxleys definition differs, albeit not substantially, from the one commonly in use since the 1980s, the ideas raised by these thinkers were explored in the science fiction of the 1960s, notably in Arthur C.
Clarkes 2001, A Space Odyssey, in which an alien artifact grants transcendent power to its wielder, japanese Metabolist architects produced a manifesto in 1960 which outlined goals to encourage active metabolic development of our society through design and technology. What I think will be known by all the people, there is no more individual consciousness, only the will of mankind as a whole. The concept of the singularity, or the ultra-rapid advent of superhuman intelligence, was first proposed by the British cryptologist I. J. Good in 1965, Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the activities of any man however clever. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, computer scientist Marvin Minsky wrote on relationships between human and artificial intelligence beginning in the 1960s. The coalescence of an identifiable transhumanist movement began in the last decades of the 20th century, in 1972, Robert Ettinger contributed to the conceptualization of transhumanity in his book Man into Superman.
FM-2030 published the Upwingers Manifesto in 1973, the first self-described transhumanists met formally in the early 1980s at the University of California, Los Angeles, which became the main center of transhumanist thought. Here, FM-2030 lectured on his Third Way futurist ideology, FM-2030 and Vita-More soon began holding gatherings for transhumanists in Los Angeles, which included students from FM-2030s courses and audiences from Vita-Mores artistic productions. In 1982, Vita-More authored the Transhumanist Arts Statement and, six years later, produced the cable TV show TransCentury Update on transhumanity, a program which reached over 100,000 viewers. In 1986, Eric Drexler published Engines of Creation, The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which discussed the prospects for nanotechnology and molecular assemblers, and founded the Foresight Institute. As the first non-profit organization to research, advocate for, and perform cryonics, in 1988, the first issue of Extropy Magazine was published by Max More and Tom Morrow.
Transhumanism shares many elements of humanism, including a respect for reason and science, a commitment to progress, Transhumanism differs from humanism in recognizing and anticipating the radical alterations in the nature and possibilities of our lives resulting from various sciences and technologies
Unitarians believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings and is a savior but a human being rather than a deity. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of sin, predestination. Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism depending on ones stance or viewpoint, perhaps it being described a part of Nontrinitarianism, or both, is more accurate. The Unitarian movement was not called Unitarian initially and it began almost simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians, in England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where todays British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In J. Gordon Meltons Encyclopedia of American Religions, it is classified among the family of churches.
Unitarianism is a noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement. In that case it would be a belief system not necessarily associated with the Unitarian religious movement. Although these groups are unitarians in the sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement, for the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism. Recently some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism and these likewise have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement. The term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church, in the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism, for example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship.
As a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they were members of churches that belonged to the American Unitarian Association, after several decades, the non-theistic members outnumbered the theological Unitarians. A similar, though much smaller, phenomenon has taken place in the Unitarian churches in the United Kingdom and other countries. Unitarian theology, therefore, is distinguishable from the system of modern Unitarian and Unitarian Universalist churches. This article includes information about Unitarianism as a theology and about the development of theologically Unitarian churches, for a more specific discussion of Unitarianism as it evolved into a pluralistic liberal religious movement, see Unitarian Universalism. Unitarianism, both as a theology and as a family of churches, was defined and developed in Poland, England, Wales
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from experience, interpreted through reason and logic. Positivism holds that knowledge is found only in this derived knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence, Positivism holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected, as are metaphysics and theology, Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so does society, and further developed positivism into a Religion of Humanity. The English noun positivism was re-imported in the 19th century from the French word positivisme, the corresponding adjective has been used in similar sense to discuss law since the time of Chaucer. Wilhelm Dilthey popularized the distinction between Geisteswissenschaft and Naturwissenschaften, the consideration that laws in physics may not be absolute but relative, and, if so, this might be more true of social sciences, was stated, in different terms, by G. B.
Vico, in contrast to the positivist movement, asserted the superiority of the science of the human mind, Positivism asserts that all authentic knowledge allows verification and that all authentic knowledge assumes that the only valid knowledge is scientific. Émile Durkheim reformulated sociological positivism as a foundation of social research, Wilhelm Dilthey, in contrast, fought strenuously against the assumption that only explanations derived from science are valid. Dilthey was in part influenced by the historicism of Leopold von Ranke, at the turn of the 20th century the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, rejected the doctrine, thus founding the antipositivist tradition in sociology. Later antipositivists and critical theorists have associated positivism with scientism, science as ideology, but can any one conceive of a more pointless philosophy, seeing that what we can say clearly amounts to next to nothing. If we omitted all that is unclear we would probably be left with completely uninteresting, Logical positivists rejected metaphysical speculation and attempted to reduce statements and propositions to pure logic.
Strong critiques of this approach by philosophers such as Karl Popper, Willard Van Orman Quine and Thomas Kuhn have been highly influential, in historiography the debate on positivism has been characterized by the quarrel between positivism and historicism. Arguments against positivist approaches in historiography include that history differs from sciences like physics and ethology in subject matter and that much of what history studies is nonquantifiable, and therefore to quantify is to lose in precision. Experimental methods and mathematical models do not generally apply to history, Positivism in the social sciences is usually characterized by quantitative approaches and the proposition of quasi-absolute laws. A significant exception to this trend is represented by cultural anthropology, in psychology the positivist movement was influential in the development of operationalism. Economic thinker Friedrich Hayek rejected positivism in the sciences as hopelessly limited in comparison to evolved and divided knowledge.
For example, much legislation falls short in contrast to pre-literate or incompletely defined common or evolved law, in contemporary social science, strong accounts of positivism have long since fallen out of favour
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette
Pierre Gaspard Chaumette was a French politician of the Revolutionary period. Chaumette was born in Nevers France,24 May 1763, into a family of shoemakers who wanted him to enter the Church, however he did not have a vocation and instead sought his fortune as a cabin boy. After only reaching the rank of helmsman, he returned to Nevers to study his main interests, botany and he studied surgery and made a long voyage in the company of an English doctor, serving as his secretary. He became surgeon to the Brothers of Charity at Moulins, Chaumette studied medicine at the University of Paris in 1790, but gave up his career in medicine at the start of the Revolution. Chaumette began his career as member of the Jacobin Club editing the progressive Revolutions de Paris journal from 1790. His oratory skills proved him a spokesperson of the Cordelier Club, and more importantly. As member of the Paris Commune during the insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was delegated to visit the prisons, with full power to arrest suspects.
He led a deputation from the Commune and argued before the National Convention that failing to punish Louis XVI for his crimes was causing high prixes, Chaumette held a strong opinion about the fate of Louis XVI after his fall. He was greatly outspoken in his demand for the kings blood, Chaumette was a leading and vocal opponent of the Girondists. He was one of the instigators of the attacks of 31 May and Jacques Hébert acted as prosecutors on behalf of the Tribunal which tried the Girondists in October 1793. Chaumette made a contribution to establishing the Reign of Terror. In early September 1793 there was fear and unrest in Paris over prices, food shortages, war, on 4 September Hebert appealed to the sections to join the Commune in petitioning the National Convention with radical demands. The next day, led by Chaumette and the mayor of Paris, Chaumette is considered one of the ultra-radical enragés of the French Revolution. He demanded the formation of a Revolutionary Army which was to force avarice and greed to yield up the riches of the earth” in order to redistribute wealth, and feed troops and he is associated much more with his views on the de-Christianization movement, however.
Chaumette was an ardent critic of Christianity, which he charged with consisting of ridiculous ideas that have been helpful to despotism. In his views, he was influenced by atheist and materialist writers Paul dHolbach, Denis Diderot. Chaumette saw religion as a relic of superstitious eras that did not reflect the achievements of the Age of Enlightenment. Indeed, for Chaumette church and counterrevolution were one and the same, thus, he proceeded to pressure several priests and bishops into abjuring their positions
The Ethical movement is an outgrowth of secular moral traditions in the 19th century, principally in Europe and the United States. Subsequent godless congregational movements include the Sunday Assembly, practitioners of Ethical Culture focus on supporting one another in becoming better people, and on doing good in the world. The Ethical movement was an outgrowth of the loss of faith among the intellectuals of the Victorian era. A precursor to the doctrines of the movement can be found in the South Place Ethical Society, founded in 1793 as the South Place Chapel on Finsbury Square. In the early century, the chapel became known as a radical gathering-place. At that point it was a Unitarian chapel, and that movement, like Quakers, in decades, the chapel moved away from Unitarianism, changing its name first to the South Place Religious Society, the South Place Ethical Society and is now Conway Hall Ethical Society. The Fellowship of the New Life was established in 1883 by the Scottish intellectual Thomas Davidson and its objective was The cultivation of a perfect character in each and all.
They wanted to transform society by setting an example of simplified living for others to follow. Davidson was a proponent of a structured philosophy about religion, ethics. And we now form ourselves into a Society, to be called the Guild of the New Life, although the Fellowship was a short-lived organization, it spawned the Fabian Society, which split in 1884 from the Fellowship of the New Life. In his youth, Felix Adler was being trained to be a rabbi like his father, Samuel Adler, as part of his education, he enrolled at the University of Heidelberg, where he was influenced by neo-Kantian philosophy. He was especially drawn to the Kantian ideas that one could not prove the existence or non-existence of deities or immortality, during this time he was exposed to the moral problems caused by the exploitation of women and labor. These experiences laid the groundwork for the ethical movement. Upon his return from Germany, in 1873, he shared his vision with his fathers congregation in the form of a sermon.
Due to the reaction he elicited it became his first and last sermon as a rabbi in training. By 1886, similar societies had sprouted up in Philadelphia, Chicago, in effect, the movement responded to the religious crisis of the time by replacing theology with unadulterated morality. It aimed to disentangle moral ideas from religious doctrines, metaphysical systems, and ethical theories, Adler was particularly critical of the religious emphasis on creed, believing it to be the source of sectarian bigotry. He therefore attempted to provide a universal fellowship devoid of ritual and ceremony, for the same reasons the movement adopted a neutral position on religious beliefs, advocating neither atheism nor theism, agnosticism nor deism
A local church is a Christian religious organization or community that meets in a particular location. Many are formally organized, with constitutions and by-laws, maintain offices, are served by clergy or lay leaders, Local churches often relate with, affiliate with, or consider themselves to be constitutive parts of denominations, which are called churches in many traditions. Non-denominational churches are not part of denominations, but may consider themselves part of larger church movements without institutional expression and it may be united with other congregations under the oversight of a council of pastors as are Presbyterian churches. It may be united with other parishes under the oversight of bishops, as are Anglican, the local church may function as the lowest subdivision in a large, global hierarchy under the leadership of one priest, such as the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. Such association or unity is a churchs ecclesiastical polity, among congregational churches, since each local church is autonomous, there are no formal lines of responsibility to organizational levels of higher authority.
Deacons of each church are elected by the congregation, in many such local churches, the role of deacons includes pastoral and nurturing responsibilities. Typically, congregational churches have informal worship styles, less structured services, Local churches united with others under the oversight of a bishop are normally called parishes, by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran communions. Each parish usually has one parish church, though seldom. The parish church has always been fundamental to the life of every parish community, for example, in the Church of England, parish churches are the oldest churches to be found in England. A number are substantially of Anglo-Saxon date and all subsequent periods of architecture are represented in the country, most parishes have churches that date back to the Middle Ages. Thus, such local churches tend to favor traditional, formal styles, liturgy. Local parishes of the Roman Catholic Church, like episcopal parishes, favor formal worship styles, vestments are valued to inculcate the solemnity of the Holy Eucharist and are typically more elaborate than in other churches. A local church may be a mission, that is a church under the sponsorship of a larger congregation.
Often congregational churches prefer to call such local mission churches church plants, a local church may work in association with parachurch organizations. While ParaChurch Organizations/Ministries are vital to accomplishing specific missions on behalf of the church they do not normally take the place of the local church, the word denomination is sometimes used as a synonym of local church. Sometimes, denomination is used to mean the whole tradition to which the church belongs. So, for example, some refer to the United Methodist Church as a denomination. The Local Churches Ecclesia Ecclesiastical polity Congregational church Parish Particular church Simple church Early centers of Christianity