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Religious institute

A religious institute is a type of institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church where its members take religious vows and lead a life in community with fellow members. Religious institutes are one of the two types of institutes of consecrated life. Societies of apostolic life resemble religious institutes in that its members live in community, but differ as their members do not take religious vows, they pursue the apostolic purpose of the society to which they belong, while leading a life in common as brothers or sisters and striving for the perfection of charity through observing the society's constitutions. In some of these societies the members assume the evangelical counsels by a bond other than that of religious vows defined in their constitutions. Since each and every religious institute has its own unique aim, or charism, it has to adhere to a particular way of religious living, conducive to it, whether "contemplative", "enclosed", mendicant, or apostolic, thus some religious institutes – of nuns who are subject to "Papal Enclosure" – isolate their members from the outside world, of which the "grilles" in their parlours and churches are tangible evidence.

Other religious institutes have apostolates that require their members to interact with the secular world, such as teaching, medical work, producing religious artworks and texts and making vestments and writing religious instruction books, while maintaining their distinctiveness in communal living. Several founders, in view of their aim, require the members of their institute not only to profess the three Evangelical Counsels of chastity, obedience, but to vow or promise stability or loyalty, maybe certain disciplines, such as self-denial, silence. Religious orders are subdivided as: monastic made up of monks and/or nuns who are bound to live and work at their monastery and recite the Liturgy of the Hours in common mendicant made up of friars who, while living and praying in common, may have a more active apostolate, depend on alms for their support canons regular made up of canons and canonesses regular, who sing the liturgy in choir and may run parish-like apostolates clerics regular made up of priests who are vowed religious and who have a more active apostolateIn each instance, the term "regular" means those following a rule.

Traditionally, institutes for men are referred to as the "First Orders" and those of women as the "Second Orders". Some religious orders, for example the Franciscans or the Dominicans, have "Third Orders" of associated religious members who live in community and follow a rule, or lay members who, without living in formal community with the order, have made a private vow or promise to it, such as of perseverance in pious life, hence are not "religious", to say, not members of the Consecrated life. In common parlance, all members of male religious institutes are termed "monks" and those of female religious institutes "nuns", although in a more restricted sense, a monk is one who lives in a monastery under a monastic rule such as that of Saint Benedict and the term "nun" was in the 1917 Code of Canon Law reserved for members of a women's religious institute of solemn vows, is sometimes applied only to those who devote themselves wholly to the contemplative life and belong to one of the enclosed religious orders living and working within the confines of a monastery and reciting the Liturgy of the Hours in community.

Religious who are not clergy tend to be called "Brother" or "Sister", while the term "friar" properly refers to a member of a male mendicant order. Priests in vows retain their usual title of "Father", "Reverend Father". With a few exceptions, all men in vows who are not priests and would therefore not be addressed as "Father" are addressed as "Brother". Women religious are addressed as "Sister"; the 1917 Code of Canon Law reserved the term "nun" for women religious who took solemn vows or who, while being allowed in some places to take simple vows, belonged to institutes whose vows were solemn. It used the word "sister" for members of institutes for women that it classified as "congregations"; the current Code of Canon Law has dropped those distinctions. Some women superiors are properly addressed as "Mother" or "Reverend Mother". Benedictines have traditionally used the form of address "Dom" for men and "Dame" for solemnly professed nuns. What are now called religious institutes were distinguished as either religious orders, whose members took solemn vows, or religious congregations, whose members took simple vows.

Since the 1983 Code of Canon Law, only the term "religious institute" is used, while the distinction between solemn and simple vows is still maintained. Canon lawyer Nicholas Cafardi writes that, since "religious institute" is the legal term in canon law, he regards the term "religious order" as a colloquialism. Admittance to a religious institute is regulated not only by Church law and the religious Rule it has adopted but by its own norms. Broadly speaking, after a lengthy period spanning postulancy and novitiate and whilst in "temporary vows" to test their vocation with a particular

Mikre Beach

Mikre Beach is the beach extending 2.2 km on the southeast coast of Snow Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is bounded by Cape Conway to the southwest, the island’s ice cap to the northwest and Pazardzhik Point to the northeast, is snow-free in summer; the beach is named after the settlement of Mikre in Northern Bulgaria. Mikre Beach is located at 62°50′15″S 61°24′30″W. Bulgarian mapping in 2009. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2009. ISBN 978-954-92032-6-4 L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands. Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2009. ISBN 978-954-92032-6-4 Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Mikre Beach. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission.

Mikre Beach. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

Nathaniel Lucas

Nathaniel Lucas was a convict transported to Australia on the First Fleet. His occupation was listed as carpenter. Lucas was born in Leatherhead, England, to parents John Lucas & Mary Bradford in 1764. Lucas was tried at the Old Bailey, London on 7 July 1784 for feloniously stealing clothing with a value of 40 shillings. Lucas was sentenced to transportation for seven years and left England on the Scarborough in May 1787. After the First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788, Phillip ordered Lieutenant Philip Gidley King to lead a party of fifteen convicts and seven free men to take control of Norfolk Island and prepare for its commercial development. Lucas was aboard HMS Supply, which arrived at Norfolk on 6 March 1788. On board Supply Nathaniel met Olivia Gascoigne whom he married on 5 November 1791, on Norfolk Island. Nathaniel and Olivia had thirteen children, although twins were killed at the age of two years when a large Norfolk Island Pine fell on the Lucas house. In 1791 he received a grant of fifteen acres and in 1793 purchased another sixty acres from Charles Heritage, a former marine.

Lucas took up farming and in August 1802 sold wheat and pork worth £450 to the government stores on the island. On 22 May, Lucas was appointed Master Carpenter at Norfolk Island. In April 1805, Lucas returned with his family to Sydney in the Investigator; the ship carried materials for a government windmill which Lucas was to erect in Sydney, he was allowed to carry materials for another windmill for himself. Nathaniel brought several pairs of capital mill stones; the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. Dated 23 June 1805. An excellent Post Mill, the first, erected in the settlement is now completed by Mr Nathaniel Lucas, behind Back Row East, it was finished within the space of six weeks. In 1808, Nathaniel was appointed superintendent of carpenters in Sydney and held this position until his retirement in December 1814.3 Jan 1810 Nathaniel was noted to be on the list of persons holding civil and military employment at Sydney and settlements adjacent, as Superintendent of Carpenters.

From 1810 until his death, Nathaniel appears on numerous Colonial Secretary's documents. The majority of these documents refer to Nathaniel surveying land or property and constructing or repairing various structures.1812, saw the completion of a Post Windmill behind the Battery at Dawes Point. The price of grinding wheat into flour was fifteen pence per bushel, if brought and taken away by the owners of the wheat, or eighteen pence per bushel if brought and taken away by the owners of the Mill. During the construction of the St Luke's Church Liverpool in 1818, designed by Francis Greenway, Greenway alleged that Lucas was much addicted to the bottle and that he was using poor stone at the church. After some days of being noticed absent, his body was discovered on the bank of a local river, it was determined. Glenda Miskelly. "NATHANIEL LUCAS AND OLIVIA GASCOIGNE". Fellowship of First Fleeters. Retrieved 10 November 2017