Mormonism and violence
Mormons have both used and been subjected to significant violence throughout much of the religion's history. In the early history of the United States, violence was used as a form of control. Many people of different faiths used violence in order to harass and persecute people who adhered to different religious beliefs. Mormons were violently persecuted and pushed from Ohio to Missouri, from Missouri to Illinois and from Illinois, they were pushed west to the Utah Territory. There were incidents of massacre, home burning and pillaging, followed by the death of their prophet, Joseph Smith. Smith died from multiple gunshot wounds in a gun battle. There were notable incidents in which Mormons perpetrated violence. Under the direction of Mormon prophets and apostles, Mormons burned and looted Daviess County and killed members of the Missouri state militia, carried out an extermination order on the Timpanogos. Other Mormon leaders led the Mountain Meadows Massacre, Battle Creek massacre, Circleville Massacre.
Mormons have been a major part in several wars, including the 1838 Mormon War, Walker War and Black Hawk War. The memory of this violence has affected both the history and the doctrines of the Latter Day Saint movement. Early Mormon history is marked by many instances of violence, which have helped to shape the church's views on violence; the first significant instance occurred in Missouri. Mormons who lived there tended to vote as a bloc, which lead to the unseating of the local political leadership. Differences culminated in hostilities and the eventual issuing of an executive order by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs declaring "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, must be exterminated or driven from the State." Three days a militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. The Extermination Order was not formally rescinded until 1976. In Nauvoo, conflict was based on the tendency of Mormons to "dominate community and political life wherever they landed."
The city of Nauvoo had become the largest in Illinois, the city council was predominantly Mormon, the Nauvoo Legion continued to grow. Other issues of contention included polygamy, freedom of speech, anti-slavery views during Smith's presidential campaign, the deification of man. After the destruction of the press of the Nauvoo Expositor, Joseph Smith was arrested and incarcerated in Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844; the conflict in Illinois became so severe that most of the residents of Nauvoo fled across the Mississippi River in February 1846. After Mormons established a community hundreds of miles away in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, anti-Mormon activists in the Utah Territory convinced President Buchanan that the Mormons in the territory were rebelling against the United States under the direction of Brigham Young. In response in 1857 Buchanan sent one-third of United States's standing army to Utah in what is known as the Utah War. During the Utah War, the Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred.
Religious justification for capital punishment is not unique to Mormonism. Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was a strong proponent of capital punishment, he favored execution methods that involved the shedding of blood as retribution for crimes of bloodshed. In 1843, he or his scribe commented that the common execution method in Christian nations was hanging, "instead of blood for blood according to the law of heaven." In a March 4, 1843, debate with church leader George A. Smith, who argued against capital punishment, Smith said that if he had the opportunity to enact a death penalty law, he "was opposed to hanging" the convict. In the church's April 6, 1843, general conference, Smith said he would "wring a thief's neck off if I can find him. If I cannot bring him to justice any other way." Sidney Rigdon, Smith's counselor in the First Presidency supported capital punishment involving the spilling of blood, stating, "There are men standing in your midst that you cant do anything with them but cut their throat & bury them."
On the other hand, Smith was willing to tolerate the presence of men "as corrupt as the devil himself" in Nauvoo, who "had been guilty of murder and robbery," in the chance that they might "come to the waters of baptism through repentance, redeem a part of their allotted time". Brigham Young, Smith's successor in the LDS Church held views on capital punishment that were similar to those of Smith. On January 27, 1845, he spoke approvingly of Smith's toleration of "corrupt men" in Nauvoo who were guilty of murder and robbery on the chance that they might repent and be baptized. On the other hand, on February 25, 1846, after the Saints had left Nauvoo, Young threatened adherents who had stolen wagon cover strings and rail timber with having their throats cut "when they get out of the settlements where his orders could be executed"; that year, Young gave orders that "when a man is found to be a thief... cut his throat & thro' him in the River." Young stated that the decapitation of repeated sinners "is the law of God & it shall be executed."
There are no documented instances of such a sentence being carried out on the Mormon Trail. In the Salt Lake Valley, Young acted as the executive authority while the Council of Fifty acted as a legislatur
Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in, or threaten, loss of life or significant bodily harm, in order to achieve political or ideological gains through threat or intimidation. It is sometimes considered an act of Internet terrorism where terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks of personal computers attached to the Internet by means of tools such as computer viruses, computer worms and other malicious software and hardware methods and programming scripts. Cyberterrorism is a controversial term; some authors opt for a narrow definition, relating to deployment by known terrorist organizations of disruption attacks against information systems for the primary purpose of creating alarm, panic, or physical disruption. Other authors prefer a broader definition. Participating in a cyberattack affects the terror threat perception if it isn't done with a violent approach. By some definitions, it might be difficult to distinguish which instances of online activities are cyberterrorism or cybercrime.
Cyberterrorism can be defined as the intentional use of computers and public internet to cause destruction and harm for personal objectives. Experienced cyberterrorists, who are skilled in terms of hacking can cause massive damage to government systems, hospital records, national security programs, which might leave a country, community or organization in turmoil and in fear of further attacks; the objectives of such terrorists may be political or ideological since this can be considered a form of terror. There is much concern from government and media sources about potential damage that could be caused by cyberterrorism, this has prompted efforts by government agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigations and the Central Intelligence Agency to put an end to cyber attacks and cyberterrorism. There have been several minor instances of cyberterrorism. Al-Qaeda utilized the internet to communicate with supporters and to recruit new members. Estonia, a Baltic country, evolving in terms of technology, became a battleground for cyberterror in April, 2007 after disputes regarding the removal of a WWII soviet statue located in Estonia's capital Tallinn.
There is debate over the basic definition of the scope of cyberterrorism. There is variation in qualification by motivation, targets and centrality of computer use in the act. Depending on context, cyberterrorism may overlap with cybercrime, cyberwar or ordinary terrorism. Eugene Kaspersky, founder of Kaspersky Lab, now feels that "cyberterrorism" is a more accurate term than "cyberwar", he states that "with today's attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they will strike again. It's not cyber-war, but cyberterrorism." He equates large-scale cyber weapons, such as the Flame Virus and NetTraveler Virus which his company discovered, to biological weapons, claiming that in an interconnected world, they have the potential to be destructive. If cyberterrorism is treated to traditional terrorism it only includes attacks that threaten property or lives, can be defined as the leveraging of a target's computers and information via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption of infrastructure.
Many academics and researchers who specialize in terrorism studies suggest that cyberterrorism does not exist and is a matter of hacking or information warfare. They disagree with labeling it as terrorism because of the unlikelihood of the creation of fear, significant physical harm, or death in a population using electronic means, considering current attack and protective technologies. If death or physical damage that could cause human harm is considered a necessary part of the cyberterrorism definition there have been few identifiable incidents of cyberterrorism, although there has been much policy research and public concern. Modern terrorism and political violence is not defined and some scholars assert that it is now "unbounded" and not concerned with physical damage There is an old saying that death or loss of property are the side products of terrorism, the main purpose of such incidents is to create terror in peoples' minds and harm bystanders. If any incident in cyberspace can create terror, it may be rightly called cyberterrorism.
For those affected by such acts, the fears of cyberterrorism are quite real. As with cybercrime in general, the threshold of required knowledge and skills to perpetrate acts of cyberterror has been diminishing thanks to available hacking suites and online courses. Additionally, the physical and virtual worlds are merging at an accelerated rate, making for many more targets of opportunity, evidenced by such notable cyber attacks as Stuxnet, the Saudi petrochemical sabotage attempt in 2018 and others. Assigning a concrete definition to cyberterrorism can be hard, due to the difficulty of defining the term terrorism itself. Multiple organizations have created their own definitions. There is controversy concerning overuse of the term, hyperbole in the media and by security vendors trying to sell "solutions". One way of understanding cyberterrorism involves the idea that terrorists could cause massive loss of life, worldwide economic chaos and environmental damage by hacking into critical infrastructure systems.
The nature of cyberterrorism covers conduct involving computer or Internet technology that: is motivated by a political, religious or ideological cause is intended to intimidate a government or a section of the public to varying degrees interferes with infrastructureThe term "cyberterrori
Violent non-state actor
In international relations violent non-state actors are individuals and groups that are wholly or independent of state governments and which threaten or use violence to achieve their goals. VNSAs vary in their goals and methods, they may include narcotics cartels, popular liberation movements and ideological organizations, self-defence militia, paramilitary groups established by state governments to further their interests. While some VNSAs oppose governments, others are allied to them; some VNSAs are organized as paramilitary groups, adopting methods and structure similar to those of state armed forces. Others may be informally structured and use violence in other ways, such as kidnapping, using improvised explosive devices, or hacking into computer systems. Thomas and Casebeer asserted in 2005 that "VNSA play a prominent destabilizing role in nearly every humanitarian and political crisis faced by the international community"; as a new type of actor in international relations, VNSAs represent a departure from the traditional Westphalian sovereignty system of states in two ways: by providing an alternative to state governance.
Phil Williams stated in 2008 that in the 21st century, they "have become a pervasive challenge to nation-states". Williams argues that VNSAs develop out of poor state governance but contribute to the further undermining of governance by the state, he explains that when weak states are "unable to create or maintain the loyalty and allegiance of their populations", "individuals and groups revert to or develop alternative patterns of affiliation". This causes the family, clan or other group to become "the main reference points for political action in opposition to the state". According to Williams, globalization has "not only... challenged individual state capacity to manage economic affairs, it has provided facilitators and force multipliers for VNSAs". Transnational flows of arms, for example, are no longer under the exclusive surveillance of states. Globalization helps VNSAs develop transnational social capital and alliances as well as funding opportunities; the term has been used in several papers published by the US military.
Some common and influential types of VNSAs include: Criminal organizations. Drug cartels, for example, may carry out assassinations, thefts, extortions. People's sections of them that have chosen guerrilla tactics to pursue their aims. An example is the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency in central India. Private military companies, corporations that either have their own, or hire, private military services. An example is floating armouries in the Indian Ocean. Religious or ideological groups, such as Boko Haram in and around Nigeria, that espouse armed violence as a moral or sacred duty. Citizen militia, which may form to protect a locality from attack, such as the anti-balaka movement in the Central African Republic. Paramilitary groups, which make use of military methods and structures to pursue their agenda, such as the now-decommissioned Irish Republican Army. Warlords, who are leaders using armed violence to exercise military and political control over territory within a sovereign state. Warlords have a long history in Afghanistan, for example.
Phil Williams, in an overview article, identifies five types of VNSAs: Warlords Militias Insurgencies Terrorist organizations Criminal organizations and gangs There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. An attempt at a global definition appears in the working draft of Comprehensive Convention Against International Terrorism, which defines terrorism as a type of act, rather than as a type of group. "terrorism" in the draft refers to the threatened or actual intentional injury to others, serious damage to property resulting in major economic loss:when the purpose of the conduct, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a Government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act. Since the definition encompasses the actions of some violent non-state actors and not others, disagreements remain and the treaty has yet to be agreed, as of 2015.
For example, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has called for acts of terrorism to be distinguished from:the legitimate struggle of peoples under foreign occupation and colonial or alien domination in the exercise of their right to self-determination in accordance with the principles of international law". Violent non-state actors have drawn international condemnation for relying on children under the age of 18 as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles. In 2017, for example, the United Nations identified 14 countries where children were used by armed groups: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria, The Philippines, South Sudan, Sudan and Yemen. Not all armed groups use children, 60 that used to do so have entered agreements to reduce or end the practice since 1999. For example, by 2017 the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines had released nearly 2,000 children from its ranks, the FARC-EP guerilla movement in Colombia agreed in 2016 to stop recruiting children.
In other situations, t
Definitions of terrorism
There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions. Moreover, governments have been reluctant to formulate an agreed-upon and binding definition. Difficulties arise from the fact that the term has become politically and charged. In the United States of America, terrorism is defined in Title 22 Chapter 38 U. S. Code § 2656f as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents". In general, terrorism is classified as: the use of violence or of the threat of violence in the pursuit of political, ideological or social objectives acts committed by non-state actors acts reaching more than the immediate target victims and directed at targets consisting of a larger spectrum of society both mala prohibita and mala in se The following criteria of violence or threat of violence fall outside of the definition of terrorism: wartime or peacetime acts of violence committed by a nation state against another nation state regardless of legality or illegality that are carried out by properly uniformed forces or legal combatants of such nation states reasonable acts of self-defense, such as the use of force to kill, apprehend, or punish criminals who pose a threat to the lives of humans or property legitimate targets in war, such as enemy combatants and strategic infrastructure that form an integral part of the enemy's war effort collateral damage, including the infliction of incidental damage to non-combatant targets during an attack on or attempting to attack legitimate targets in warThere are many reasons for the failure to achieve universal consensus regarding the definition of terrorism.
In a briefing paper for the Australian Parliament, Angus Martyn stated that "he international community has never succeeded in developing an accepted comprehensive definition of terrorism. During the 1970s and 1980s, the United Nations attempts to define the term foundered due to differences of opinion between various members about the use of violence in the context of conflicts over national liberation and self-determination." These divergences have made it impossible to conclude a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism that incorporates a single, all-encompassing binding, criminal-law definition of terrorism. In the meantime, the international community adopted a series of sectoral conventions that define and criminalize various types of terrorist activities. In addition, since 1994, the United Nations General Assembly has condemned terrorist acts using the following political description of terrorism: "Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, ideological, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them."
A 2003 study by Jeffrey Record for the United States Army quoted a source that counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. Record continued: "Terrorism expert Walter Laqueur has counted over 100 definitions and concludes that the'only general characteristic agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence.' Yet terrorism is hardly the only enterprise involving the threat of violence. So does war, coercive diplomacy, bar room brawls"; the term "terrorism" comes from French terrorisme, from Latin: terror, "great fear", "dread", related to the Latin verb terrere, "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a panic and state of emergency in Rome in response to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe in 105 BCE; the French National Convention declared in September 1793 that "terror is the order of the day". The period 1793–94 is referred to as La Terreur. Maximilien Robespierre, a leader in the French revolution proclaimed in 1794 that "Terror is nothing other than justice, severe, inflexible."The Committee of Public Safety agents that enforced the policies of "The Terror" were referred to as "Terrorists".
The word "terrorism" was first recorded in English-language dictionaries in 1798 as meaning "systematic use of terror as a policy". Although the Reign of Terror was imposed by the French government, in modern times "terrorism" refers to the killing of people by non-governmental political activists for political reasons as a public statement; this meaning originated with Russian radicals in the 1870s. Sergey Nechayev, who founded the People's Reprisal in 1869, described himself as a "terrorist". German radicalist writer Johann Most helped popularize the modern sense of the word by dispensing "advice for terrorists" in the 1880s. According to Myra Williamson: "The meaning of "terrorism" has undergone a transformation. During the reign of terror a regime or system of terrorism was used as an instrument of governance, wielded by a established revolutionary state against the enemies of the people. Now the term "terrorism" is used to describe terrorist acts committed by non-state or subnational entities against a state."
Ben Saul has noted that a "A combination of pragmatic and principled arguments supports the case for defining terrorism in international law", including the need to condemn violations to human rights, to protect the state and deliberative politics, to differentiate public and private violence, to ensure internati
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals. Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through their own interpretation of the Quran and Hadith; the motivation for Islamic terrorism in part comes from the idea of Islamic supremacy, encapsulated in the formula, "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."The highest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism occur in Iraq, Nigeria and Syria. In 2015 four Islamic extremist groups were responsible for 74% of all deaths from terrorism: ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2016. In recent decades, such incidents have occurred on a global scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but several other countries, including those within the European Union, Australia, Israel, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Such attacks have targeted non-Muslims. In a number of the worst-affected Muslim-majority regions, these terrorists have been met by armed, independent resistance groups, state actors and their proxies, elsewhere by condemnation coming from prominent Islamic figures; the literal use of the phrase "Islamic terrorism" is disputed. Such use in Western political speech has variously been called "counter-productive", "highly politicized, intellectually contestable" and "damaging to community relations". However, others have referred to the refusal to use the term as an act of "self-deception", "full-blown censorship" and "intellectual dishonesty"; some Muslim commentators assert that extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites. From their political position, they developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shi'a Muslims; the Kharijites were noted for adopting a radical approach of takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.
After failed post-colonial attempts at state formation and the creation of Israel, a series of Marxist and anti-Western transformations and movements swept throughout the Arab and Islamic world. The growth of these nationalist and revolutionary movements, along with their views that terrorism could be effective in reaching their political goals, generated the first phase of modern international terrorism. In the late 1960s, Palestinian secular movements such as Al Fatah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine began to target civilians outside the immediate arena of conflict. Following Israel's 1967 defeat of Arab forces, Palestinian leaders began to see that the Arab world was unable to militarily confront Israel. During the same time, lessons drawn from revolutionary movements in Latin America, North Africa, Southeast Asia as well as during the Jewish struggle against Britain in Palestine, saw the Palestinians turn away from guerrilla warfare towards urban terrorism; these movements were secular in nature but their international organization served to spread terrorist tactics worldwide.
While secular Palestinians were the most significant movement in the 1970s, religiously motivated groups grew after the failure of Arab nationalism in the 1967 war. In the Middle East, Islamic movements came into conflict with secular nationalism. Islamic groups were supported by Saudi Arabia. According to Bruce Hoffman of RAND, in 1980 two out of 64 groups were categorized as having religious motivation, in 1995 half were religiously motivated with the majority having Islam as their guiding force; the year 1979 was a turning point in international terrorism. Throughout the Arab world and the West, the Iranian Islamic revolution ignited fears of a wave of revolutionary Shia Islam. Meanwhile, the Soviet–Afghan War and the subsequent anti-Soviet mujahedin war, lasting from 1979 to 1989, started the rise and expansion of terrorist groups. Since their beginning in 1994, the Pakistani-supported Taliban militia in Afghanistan has gained several characteristics traditionally associated with state-sponsors of terrorism, providing logistical support, travel documentation, training facilities.
Since 1989 the increasing willingness of religious extremists to strike targets outside immediate country or regional areas highlights the global nature of contemporary terrorism. The 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, are representative of this trend. The Global Terrorism Index report of 2015 illuminate the rise in death due to terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attack in this graphic: Since World War II, Muslim immigrants have emigrated to western countries in large numbers because fellow Muslim countries that are well-off economically and do not accept them. Out of the 57 Muslim majority countries, only two nations offer a formal path for immigrants to become naturalized citizens, regardless of birthplace, religious beliefs, marital status or ethnic origin; the oil-rich Gulf states do not grant citizenship to immigrants, regardless of how long they have resided in those countries. To make matters more difficult, Gulf states have stringent laws which explicitly state that an immigrant or expat can become a citizen only if his/her father was a citizen or, in some cases, if an expat woman marries an Arab national.
These laws make it impossible for expats to gain citizenship. In 2014, the self-appointed Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the unrecognised Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, took advantage of this resentment among
A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution, such as a primary school, secondary school, or university, involving the use of firearms. Incidents that involve four or more deaths are categorized as mass shootings. According to studies, factors behind school shooting include family dysfunction, lack of family supervision, mental illness. Among the topmost motives of attackers were: bullying/persecution/threatened and revenge, while 54% reported having numerous reasons; the remaining motives included an attempt to solve a problem, suicide or depression, seeking attention or recognition. School shootings have sparked a political debate over gun violence, zero tolerance policies, gun rights and gun control; the United States has the highest number of school-related shootings. The results from the study indicated that perpetrators came from varying backgrounds, making a singular profile difficult when identifying possible assailant. For example, some perpetrators were children of divorce, lived in foster homes, or came from intact nuclear families.
The majority of individuals had or never gotten into trouble at school and had a healthy social life. Some experts such as Alan Lipman have warned against the dearth of empirical validity of profiling methods. One assumption into the catalytic causes of school shootings comes from the "non-traditional" household perspective, which focuses on how family structure and family stability are related to child outcomes. Broadly speaking, proponents of this hypothesis claim that family structures such as single mothers, same-sex parents, extended family, or cohabitation are more harmful to the development of a child's mental well-being, than heterosexual, married parents; this perspective is found to back federal efforts such as the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 and US federal tax incentives. However, these assumptions on the detrimental effects of "non-traditional" family structures have been shown to be false flags, with the true issues lying within socio-economic realities.
Longitudinal research has shown the robust, positive effects of higher incomes and higher education levels on child well-being and emotional development, which reflects on the family stability, not family structure. Further, proponents of this hypothesis cite family statistics for those who commit crimes, but leave out how these compare to other populations, including the general population. For example, a 2009 survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration revealed that substance abuse amongst children raised by single mothers was higher than children raised by their biological parents. However, the percentage of substance abuse amongst children raised by single-mothers was not only remarkably low, but only 1.2% higher than children raised by both their parents. Those rates reveal to be smaller when compared to other demographics of the same time period. According surveys commissioned by to the National Institute on Drug Abuse between 20%–30% of teenagers used/abused illicit substances, a much higher rate than single-mother households.
Another example of poorly cited statistics to further this narrative can be found in children who have lost at least one parent. In the U. S. the rate of parental death before age 16 is 8%. The rate of parental death is disproportionately high for prisoners, however, it is disproportionately high for high-performing scientists and US presidents. Harvard's Baker Foundation Professor, Emerita, Dr. Teresa M. Amabile states, "Those kinds of events can crush a child, they can lead to a lot of problems, they can lead to incredible resilience and superhuman behaviors if people can come through those experiences intact. I don’t know if we — we being the field in general — have discovered what the keys are, what makes the difference for kids." Understanding that socio-economic factors have greater effects on child development and emotional stability have led many to argue that single-parent and other non-traditional households should be afforded equivalent incentives by the state, as are afforded married households, that focussing on family structure rather than family stability derails efforts to understand the realities of mass-shooters.
“Studies have found that within offenders’ families, there is a lack of supervision, low emotional closeness, intimacy”. In a 2018 publication, Dr. George S. Everly, Jr, of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health outlined an accumulation of seven, recurring themes that warrant consideration regarding school shooters. One factor is that school shooters tended to isolate themselves, "exhibited an obsessive quality that led to detailed planning, but they seemed to lack an understanding of the consequences of their behavior and thus may have a history of adverse encounters with law enforcement." A criticism in the media of past shooters was questioning how so much planning could commence without alerting the parents or guardians to their efforts. However, this has proven to be as difficult of a question to answer as anticipating any of the past school shootings. Data from the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, covering decades of US school shootings, reveals that 68% of shooters obtained weapons from their home or the home of a relative.
Since 1999, out of 145 US school shootings committed by children/adolescents, 80% of the guns used were taken from their homes or relative's home. The availability
A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of firearms-related violence. There is no accepted definition of the term "mass shooting"; the United States' Congressional Research Service acknowledges that there is not a broadly accepted definition, defines a "public mass shooting" as an event where someone selects four or more people indiscriminately, kills them, echoing the FBI's definition of the term "mass murder". Individuals or organizations may commit a mass shooting in non-public places. Terrorist groups in recent times have used the tactic of mass shootings to further their political aims. Individuals who commit mass shootings may fall into any of a number of categories, including killers of family, of coworkers, of students, of random strangers. Individuals' motives for shooting vary. Responses to mass shootings take a variety of forms, depending on the context: number of casualties, the country, political climate, other factors; some media cover mass shootings extensively and sensationally, the effect of that coverage has been examined.
Countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia have changed their gun laws in the wake of mass shootings. In contrast, the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, as interpreted, prohibits laws which disallow firearm ownership outright and United States residents own 42 percent of the world's guns; the characterization of an event as a mass shooting depends upon definition and definitions vary. Under U. S. federal law the Attorney General may on a request from a state assist in investigating "mass killings", rather than mass shootings. The term was defined as the murder of four or more people with no cooling-off period but redefined by Congress in 2013 as being murder of three or more people. In "Behind the Bloodshed", a report by USA Today, a mass killing is defined as any incident in which four or more were killed and includes family killings. A crowdsourced data site cited by CNN, MSNBC, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Economist, the BBC, etc. Mass Shooting Tracker, defines a mass shooting as any incident in which four or more people are shot, whether injured or killed.
A noteworthy connection has been reported in the U. S. between mass shootings and domestic or family violence, with a current or former intimate partner or family member killed in 76 of 133 cases, a perpetrator having been charged with domestic violence in 21. The lack of a single definition can lead to alarmism in the news media, with some reports conflating categories of crimes. However, according to the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012, signed into law in January 2013, a mass killing is defined as a killing with at least three deaths, excluding the perpetrator. Another unofficial definition of a mass shooting is an event involving the shooting of five or more people with no cooling-off period. In Australia, a 2006 paper defined a mass shooting as "one in which ⩾5 firearm‐related homicides are committed by one or two perpetrators in proximate events in a civilian setting, not counting any perpetrators". Crime violence research group Gun Violence Archive, whose research is used by all major American media outlets defines Mass Shooting as "FOUR or more shot and/or killed in a single event, at the same general time and location not including the shooter" differentiating between Mass Shooting and Mass Murder and not counting shooters as victims.
An act is defined as terrorist if it "appears to have been intended" to intimidate or to coerce people. A U. S. Congressional Research Service report explicitly excluded from its definition of public mass shootings those in which the violence is a means to an end, for example where the gunmen "pursue criminal profit or kill in the name of terrorist ideologies". Mass shootings have occurred on the African continent, including the 2016 Grand Bassam attack in C’ôte d’Ivoire, 2015 Sousse attacks, the 2015 Bamako hotel attack, the 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi and the 1994 Kampala wedding massacre. Most mass shootings in Africa have stemmed from terrorism, with tourists and diplomats being the targets. Workplace violence and prejudice against ethnic minorities have less-frequently been involved in such spontaneous acts of mass violence. Several mass shootings have occurred in Asia, including the 1878 Hyderabad shooting, the 1938 Tsuyama massacre, the 1948 Babrra massacre, the 1983 Pashupatinath Temple shooting, the 1993 Chongqing shooting, the 1994 Tian Mingjian incident.
One of the earliest documented cases of a mass shooting in world history was the 1878 Hyderabad shooting, in which 6 were killed and a further 4 were injured by a sepoy in the British Indian Army in Hyderabad, British Raj. The single deadliest event was the 2008 Mumbai attacks in which 164 people were killed and a further 308 people were wounded by terrorists. South Korea has suffered multiple mass shootings in the South Korean Army due to soldier's stress and conflicts from its violence and detention from society. Japan has as few as two gun-related homicides per year; these numbers include all homicides in the country, not just mass shootings. There have been many mass shootings in Israel such as the 1972 Lod Airport Massacre, which killed 26 and injured 80, the 2002 Bat Mitzvah massacre and the June 2016, massacre at the popular Sarona center complex. There have been two mass shootings by Jews in Israel. In 1991, Ami Popper was convicted of murdering seven Palestinian men in a mass shooting carried out in 1990.
In 1994 Baruch Goldstein murdered 29 Muslims worshipping and injuring a further 125