Suicide in Iran
Suicide in Iran is believed to be a growing concern in recent years. Iran rates third highest among Islamic countries. According to statistics, each day more than 13 people take their lives by suicide in Iran; some studies show that in 2013, for instance, the average rate of suicide in Iran was 6 in every 100,000 people. Economic problems, mental illnesses, cultural obligations, political issues and social pressures are the major factors for suicide commission in Iran; the word "suicide" in Persian dictionaries like Moeen and Amid, has been defined as "killing self by any means". The Oxford English Dictionary records the first use of the word "suicide" by Walter Charleton in 1651; the word suicide in French was used by Pierre Desfontaines for the first time. This word was accepted by the French Academy of Sciences. Ali EslamiNasab, considers the combination of two Latin words sui and cide a correct term for suicide; the concept of suicide in the Moaser Persian Dictionary is defined as "the intentional termination of life by one's own intention and own hands".
The first sociological analysis of suicide has been put forward by the French sociologist, Émile Durkheim. He states in his 1897 book suicide that "suicide is any type of death, a direct or indirect cause of the victim's own positive or negative acts that he/she was aware of in advance". Durkheim categorized suicides into the following four types all of which are related to the relationship of the individual to society: 1- Egoistic suicide, the cause of individualism and the separation from the society. 2- Altruistic suicide that occurs when the individual has a deep attachment to the society. 3- Anomic suicide, the cause of anomie and lawlessness in the society. 4- Fatalistic suicide that occurs when the wills and incentives of the members of the society is under the restrict control of the society. In the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud was the first to review suicide from a psychological point of view, he considered suicide as "the ultimate anger towards self caused by the unconscious". Freud, divided human instincts into two categories: death instinct and life instinct.
He believed that the death instinct starts after birth and intends to return in the future. This instinct is the cause of extinction and termination of generation. On the other hand, the life instinct is the cause of friendship, reproduction. Freud developed his theory of death instinct, in opposition to libido. Erwin Stengel is the first person to differentiate between suicide and suicide intention from a psychological point of view. After some research, he dedicated an independent branch of psychology to the suicide intention. Research has suggested that unlike suicide the intention of suicide has other goals than just simple "self destruction". Kayral has mentioned the following four goals of suicide intention: 1- an invitation or asking for help and support. According to Eslaminasab, the following five behaviors of suicide ideation, threatening to commit suicide, suicide gesture, suicide attempt and successful suicide, are categorized under suicidal behavior; the term "suicidology" became prevalent in the 1960s.
It was first used in 1929 by W. A. Bonger. Suicidology is the scientific study of its different aspects. Suicide in Iran is believed to be a growing concern over recent years. According to World Health Organization in 2014 the suicide rate of Iran was 5,3 in every 100,000 people. In that year, the rate of suicide based on gender was 7 for men. Seasonally, most suicides occurred in summer with the rate of 35,2% of all suicides. Based on a meta-analytical research, in Iran, the rate of attempted and successful suicides among married couples is higher than other groups; the statistics provided by the Medical Jurisprudence Organization of Iran show that 54% of suicides ending in death occurred among people under 30 years of age and that people who lived in the cities, had statistically higher rates of suicides than people living in rural areas. According to the field research questionnaires given to the suicidal patients referred to Loghman Hospital from 1970 to 1972, family-related issues, with a prevalence of 56%, were the most important reasons of committing suicide..
In this study, family-related issues consisted of conflicts between married couples and their parents, improper interpersonal relations between parents and their children or other siblings with each other. Such issues were most frequent among 20 - to 24-year-olds; these two age periods combined were the cause of 56% of total suicides related to family issues. In general, 81% of suicides related to family issues were committed by youths from 10 to 34 years old. In addition, family-related issues, were the most prevalent reason among children from 10 to 14 years old. In the aforementioned study, love-related issues with a prevalence of 28% were the second most frequent reason of suicide and the most frequent age period was from 15 to 24. In this study, housing and educational failure, have been categorized under society-related issues, the third reason of suicide with the highest frequency in patients from the age of 20 to 24 years old. In this study, financial issues were the lowest cause of suicide with 6% of all committed suicides.
In a study done on 260 suicides refereed to the Me
A suicide bag known as an exit bag or hood, is a euthanasia device consisting of a large plastic bag with a drawcord used to commit suicide through inert gas asphyxiation. It is used in conjunction with a flow of an inert gas like helium or nitrogen, which prevents the panic, sense of suffocation and struggling before unconsciousness, known as the hypercapnic alarm response caused by the presence of high carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood; this method makes the direct cause of death difficult to trace if the bag and gas canister are removed before the death is reported. Suicide bags were first used during the 1990s; the method was developed in North America. Self-administered and assisted suicides by asphyxiation using a plastic bag with helium were first recorded in the 1990s. Since the 2000s, guides have spread on the internet, in print and on video and the frequency of suicides by this method has increased; the suicide bag with inert gas method was developed by John Hofsess and the NuTech group, which consisted of Hofsess, Derek Humphry and physicians.
In the book Final Exit by Derek Humphry, a suicide bag was described as a large plastic bag with an adjustable velcro strip around the neck. Its use with inert gases was mentioned in the Supplement to Final Exit in 2000; the pro-euthanasia group Exit Australia distributed a manufactured version of the bag in Australia in 2002, alarming government officials and pro-life groups. The Australian chapter of Right to Life expressed concern that they would be used by vulnerable people. In 2007, The Vancouver Sun cited Russel Ogden, Canadian criminologist and right-to-die advocate, who said that the combination of a suicide bag and helium was "a method of choice" within the right-to-die movement for people who are terminally ill and that its promotion does not appear to cause an increase in the number of suicides. However, he said that he has no way of knowing if the method was being used by people with terminal illness or by people who are mentally ill. In 2008, Ludwig Minelli, founder of Dignitas, filmed four people committing suicide by helium inhalation.
Subsequent to this, the method "has been winning supporters both in the USA and in Europe as a reliable and painless way to die". In 2009, Philip Nitschke, founder of voluntary euthanasia organisation Exit International, wrote in a member newsletter that nitrogen has a lower risk of an adverse reaction by the body than helium and is more available than helium in Australia and New Zealand. Nitschke's organisation sells suicide kits that contain nitrogen regulators, he promotes the use of nitrogen and suicide bags with lectures and films, such as Doing it with Betty – in which an elderly woman describes how to make a plastic'exit' bag, with published materials such as workshop handbooks. Nitschke calls the suicide bag death a "hypoxic death", likens it to pneumonia, the "old person's friend", where hypoxia occurs because pneumonic inflammation stops the lungs extracting sufficient oxygen from the air, "a peaceful death results". In 2015 author and right-to-die advocate Derek Humphry reported that Worthington Industries, the world's largest manufacturer of disposable helium cylinders, had announced that their helium cylinders will guarantee only 80% helium, with up to 20% air, making them inappropriate for use with a suicide bag in Humphry's opinion.
Dutch psychiatrist Boudewijn Chabot, in his 2015 book Dignified Dying, calls the suicide bag with inert gas method "rapid and safe". It is not illegal to own a suicide bag in any jurisdiction. Selling suicide bags is prohibited in some places. In 2011, the FBI raided a small mail-order business in California. In July 2011, this raid caused Oregon to be the first US state to pass legislation prohibiting the sale of kits containing suicide bags or hoods. Canadian right-to-die advocates stopped shipping suicide bags to Australia in 2001, when the Australian government announced that it would review their importation. In 2002, the Queensland Police in Australia said that suicide bags did not violate any laws at that time, the Australian federal government said it would look into banning them. Exit Australia gave them away to members upon request. A hypoxic, carbon dioxide free metabolically inert gas is provided for inhalation by confining the gas supply and the head in an impermeable bag which prevents contamination with oxygen from the surrounding air, minimising the amount of gas required.
Inhalation of oxygen deficient or oxygen free gas not only fails to replenish oxygen used in normal metabolism, but causes the blood passing through the capillaries of the gas exchange regions of the lungs to lose residual oxygen in relation to the concentration difference between the oxygen in the alveolar air and in the blood in the alveolar capillaries. This causes a far quicker drop in blood oxygen level than holding the breath; the deoxygenated blood passes through the systemic circulation to the vital organs, including the brain, lowers oxygen concentrations below the level required to sustain consciousness, when it is insufficient to keep the heart functioning, cardiac arrest will occur. For the most people, an alveolar oxygen tension of less than 30 millimetres of mercury or 4% by volume at atmospheric pressure is not sufficient to support consciousness; the urge to breathe in normal humans is co
A crisis hotline is a phone number people can call to get immediate emergency telephone counseling by trained volunteers. The first such service was founded in England in 1953 and such hotlines have existed in most major cities of the English speaking world at least since the mid-1970s. Set up to help those contemplating suicide, many have expanded their mandate to deal more with emotional crises. Similar hotlines operate to help people in other circumstances, including rape victims, bullying victims, runaway children, human trafficking victims, people who identify as LGBT or intersex; such services began in 1953, when Chad Varah, an English vicar, founded The Samaritans service, which soon established branches throughout the United Kingdom. The first Samaritans branch in the United States was established in Boston in 1974. In addition to Boston, there are Samaritan branches in Falmouth, the Merrimack Valley, the Fall River/New Bedford area. Outside of Massachusetts, there are branches in New York City, Hartford and Keene, New Hampshire.
In the United States, the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center was founded in 1958 and was the first in the country to provide a 24-hour suicide prevention crisis line and use community volunteers in providing hotline service. San Francisco Suicide Prevention started a hotline "Call Bruce" in 1962. A similar service, was established in Australia in 1963. Another service, the volunteer-run crisis helpline, Lifelink Samaritans Tas. Inc called Launceston Lifelink, was established in Tasmania in 1968 by concerned citizens of Launceston, Tasmania who decided to create a phone service based on the principles of The Samaritans; the rationale was that people become suicidal because they cannot discuss their emotional pain with family and friends. This service provides emotional support 24 hours a day to people throughout Tasmania and does not have any religious affiliations; the organization is a member of Befrienders Worldwide and has a "twinning" relationship with Northampton Samaritans in the UK.
Lifelink Samaritans are the oldest telephone befriending service in Tasmania and the fourth oldest in Australia and it receives at least 5,000 calls a year. One criticism of suicide hotlines in the past was that those who were determined to kill themselves were unlikely to call one; those with social anxiety may not have the emotional resources to do so. There is little evidence. A 2007 study suggests as people's thoughts of suicide decreased during a call to a crisis line, were lessened for several weeks after their call; these callers are known as frequent, multiple or repeat callers. Some countries regulate the use of the term "counselor". Telephone counseling and crisis hotlines provide a similar telephone support service, both accept crisis and non-crisis calls. In the United States, many college campuses have established telephone counseling lines serviced by student volunteers to compensate for the high demand placed on college mental health services; these hotlines serve callers in crisis, but serve to provide a listening ear for people who "just need to talk."
Hotlines are staffed by volunteers, are not intended to replace professional, long-term counseling services. They are rather intended to carry callers through an immediate situation; such hotlines exist at the University of Maryland, the University of Minnesota, Tufts University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Drexel University, Caldwell University, Texas A&M University. The term "emotional support helpline" is sometimes used – which does not imply crisis or counseling, can include email and text messaging; such services have allowed for the wider dissemination of resources for people facing mental health crises. With developments in mobile telephony, the use of text or SMS has been utilized by counseling services. Youthline, a youth-oriented crisis helpline in New Zealand began providing a text messaging counseling support line in 2004 Examples include: The Volunteer Emotional Support Helplines represents 1200 member centres in 61 countries, it has been formed by: Befrienders Worldwide IFOTES – International Federation of Telephone Emergency Services Lifeline International Hotline Complaint system List of counseling topics List of suicide crisis lines Telephone counseling Crisis Hotline: Veterans Press 1
A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more people before killing themself. The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms linked to the first form: Murder linked with suicide of a mentally unstable person with a homicidal ideation. Many spree killings have ended in suicide, such as in many school shootings; some cases of religiously-motivated suicides may involve murder. All categorization amounts to forming somewhat arbitrary distinctions where relating to intention in the case of psychosis, where the intention is/are more than not to be irrational. Ascertaining the legal intention is inapplicable to cases properly categorized as insanity. According to the psychiatrist Karl A. Menninger and suicide are interchangeable acts – suicide sometimes forestalling murder, vice versa. Following Freudian logic, severe repression of natural instincts due to early childhood abuse, may lead the death instinct to emerge in a twisted form; the cultural anthropologist Ernest Becker, whose theories on the human notion of death is influenced by Freud, views the fear of death as a universal phenomenon, a fear repressed in the unconscious and of which people are unaware.
This fear can move individuals toward heroism, but to scapegoating. Failed attempts to achieve heroism, according to this view, can lead to mental illness and/or antisocial behavior. In a study related to murder–suicide, Milton Rosenbaum discovered the murder–suicide perpetrators to be vastly different from perpetrators of homicide alone. Whereas murderer–suicides were found to be depressed and overwhelmingly men, other murderers were not depressed and more to include women in their ranks. In the U. S. the overwhelming number of cases are male-on-female. Around one-third of partner homicides end in the suicide of the perpetrator. From national and international data and interviews with family members of murder–suicide perpetrators, the following are the key predictors of murder–suicide: a history of substance abuse, the male partner some years older than the female partner, a break-up or pending break-up, a history of battering, suicidal contemplation by the perpetrator. Though there is no national tracking system for murder–suicides in the United States, medical studies into the phenomenon estimate between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per year in the US, with the majority occurring between spouses or intimate partners and the vast majority of the perpetrators being male.
Depression, marital or/and financial problems, other problems are motivators. Homicides which are followed by suicide make headline news; the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control reports that an estimated 1 million adults reported attempting suicide in 2011, there were over 38,000 completed suicides in the same period; the estimate of 624 murder-suicide events per year, indicates that murders are associated with suicidal events only about 0.06% of the time. In 18th-century Denmark, people wishing to commit suicide would sometimes commit murder in order to receive the death penalty, they believed murder followed by repentance would allow them to end their life while avoiding damnation. Crime of passion Mass murder School shooting Serial killer Spree killer Shinjū Suicide attack Suicide by pilot van Wormer, K.. Death by Domestic Violence: Preventing the Murders and Murder–Suicides. Westport, CT: Praeger
Suicide in South Korea
Suicide in South Korea is the 10th highest rate in the world according to the World Health Organization, as well as the second highest suicide rate in the OECD after Lithuania. The high suicide rates compared to other countries in the developed world is only exacerbated by the large amount of suicide among the elderly. One factor of suicide among elderly South Koreans is due to the amount of widespread poverty among senior citizens in South Korea, with nearly half of the country's elderly population living below the poverty line. Combined with a poorly-funded social safety net for the elderly, this can result in them killing themselves not to be a financial burden on their families, since the old social structure where children looked after their parents has disappeared in the 21st century; as a result, people living in rural areas tend to have higher suicide rates. This is due to high rates of elderly discrimination when applying for jobs, with 85.7% of those in their 50s experiencing discrimination.
Age discrimination directly correlates to suicide, on top of influencing poverty rates. Suicide is the number one cause of death among South Koreans aged 10 to 39. However, proactive government efforts to decrease the rate have shown effectiveness in 2014, when there were 27.3 suicides per 100,000 people, a 4.1% decline from the previous year and the lowest in 6 years since 2008's 26.0 people. An high suicide rate among the elderly is a major contributing factor to South Korea's overall suicide rate. Many impoverished elderly people kill themselves as to not be a burden on their families, since the South Korean welfare system is poorly funded and the tradition of children caring for their parents in old age has disappeared in the 21st century; as a result, people living in rural areas have higher suicide rates. Although lower than the rate for the elderly, grade school and college students in Korea have a higher than average suicide rate. On average, men have a suicide rate, twice as high as women.
However, the suicide attempt rate is higher for women than men. According to a study, because men use more severe and lethal suicide methods, men have higher suicidal completion rate than women; the Risk-Rescue Rating Scale, which measures the lethality of the suicidal method by gauging the ratio between five risk and five rescue factors, averaged out to be 37.18 for men and 34.00 for women. One study has translated this to the fact that women attempt to commit suicide more as a demonstration, while men commit suicide with a determined purpose. Compared to other OECD countries, South Korea's female suicide rate is highest with 15.0 deaths by suicide per 100,000 deaths according to the suicidal rate list, while the male suicide rate is third highest with 32.5 per every 100,000 deaths. Women had a higher increase of proportional suicide rate over men between 1986 and 2005. Men increased by 244%, while women increased by 282%. Socioeconomic status is measured by a population's level of education, degree of urbanity and deprivation of the residence.
Low socioeconomic status, high stress, inadequate sleep, alcohol use, smoking are associated with suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The economic hardship factor is noted as the most referred cause for elderly suicides; as 71.4% of the elderly population is uneducated and 37.1% of them live in rural areas, they are more to face economic hardship, which can lead to health problems and family conflicts. All these factors together lead to an increase in suicidal completion. Gangwon has a 37.84% higher suicide rate than the rate for all of South Korea. Following Gangwon, Chungnam rates second and Jeonbuk rates third. Ulsan and Incheon have the highest suicide rate for people above age 65. Daegu has the highest suicide rate for those ages 40 to 59. Gangwon and Chungnam have the highest suicide rates for those ages 20 to 39; because South Korean law restricts firearms possession, only one third of South Korean women use violent methods to commit suicide. Poisoning is the most used method for South Korean women, with pesticides accounting for half of suicide deaths among that population.
58.3% of suicides from 1996 to 2005 used pesticide poisoning. Another prevalent method by which South Koreans die by suicide is hanging. A study by Jeon et al. has shown a difference between the methods used by suicide attempters who did plan and did not plan their attempt. Unplanned suicide attempters tend to use chemical agents or falling three times more than planned suicide attempters. A study by Subin Park et al. states that a major reason for the general upward trend in the South Korean suicide rate from 2000 to 2011 was the increase in suicides by hanging. Throughout that time period, hanging grew to be perceived as more painless acceptable, accessible, thus became a much more common method throughout the first decade of the 21st century. In recent years amid South Korea's suicide epidemic, yeontan burning has been used as a method of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning. Bridge jumping has been used as a method of suicide by suicidal South Koreans; the Mapo Bridge in Seoul, South Korea has been used for suicides leading to its nicknames of "Suicide Bridge" and "The Bridge of Death".
South Korean authorities have tried to counter this by nicknaming the bridge "The Bridge of Life" and posting reassuring messages on the ledges. In 2005 actress Lee Eun-ju, the star of hit films including Taegukgi and The Scarlet Letter, committed suicide at age 24. Former President Roh Moo-hyun committed suicide on 23 May 2009 by jumping from a mountain cliff. Supermodel Daul Kim committed suicide on November 2009 in Paris. Construction tycoon Sung Wan-jong committed suicide in April 2015 amid al
Seppuku, sometimes referred to as harakiri, is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. It was reserved for samurai, but was practiced by other Japanese people on to restore honor for themselves or for their families. A samurai practice, seppuku was used either voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies, as a form of capital punishment for samurai who had committed serious offenses, or performed because they had brought shame to themselves; the ceremonial disembowelment, part of a more elaborate ritual and performed in front of spectators, consists of plunging a short blade, traditionally a tantō, into the belly and drawing the blade from left to right, slicing the belly open. If the cut is performed enough it can sever the descending aorta, causing a rapid death by blood loss; the term "seppuku" is derived from the two Sino-Japanese roots setsu 切 and puku 腹. It is known as harakiri. Harakiri is in reverse order with an okurigana. In Japanese, the more formal seppuku, a Chinese on'yomi reading, is used in writing, while harakiri, a native kun'yomi reading, is used in speech.
Ross notes, It is pointed out that hara-kiri is a vulgarism, but this is a misunderstanding. Hara-kiri is Kun-yomi of the characters. So hara-kiri is a spoken term, but only to commoners and seppuku a written term, but spoken amongst higher classes for the same act; the practice of performing seppuku at the death of one's master, known as oibara or tsuifuku, follows a similar ritual. The word jigai means "suicide" in Japanese; the modern word for suicide is jisatsu. In some popular western texts, such as martial arts magazines, the term is associated with suicide of samurai wives; the term was introduced into English by Lafcadio Hearn in his Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation, an understanding which has since been translated into Japanese. Joshua S. Mostow notes that Hearn misunderstood the term jigai to be the female equivalent of seppuku; the first recorded act of seppuku was performed by Minamoto no Yorimasa during the Battle of Uji in the year 1180. Seppuku was used by warriors to avoid falling into enemy hands, to attenuate shame and avoid possible torture.
Samurai could be ordered by their daimyō to carry out seppuku. Disgraced warriors were sometimes allowed to carry out seppuku rather than be executed in the normal manner; the most common form of seppuku for men was composed of the cutting of the abdomen, when the samurai was finished, he stretched out his neck for an assistant to sever his spinal cord. It was the assistant's job to decapitate the samurai in one swing, otherwise it would bring great shame to the assistant and his family; those who did not belong to the samurai caste were never expected to carry out seppuku. Samurai could carry out the act only with permission. Sometimes a daimyō was called upon to perform seppuku as the basis of a peace agreement; this weakened the defeated clan so that resistance ceased. Toyotomi Hideyoshi used an enemy's suicide in this way on several occasions, the most dramatic of which ended a dynasty of daimyōs; when the Hōjō were defeated at Odawara in 1590, Hideyoshi insisted on the suicide of the retired daimyō Hōjō Ujimasa, the exile of his son Ujinao.
The practice was not standardised until the 17th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries, such as with the seppuku of Minamoto no Yorimasa, the practice of a kaishakunin had not yet emerged, thus the rite was considered far more painful. Seppuku's defining characteristic was plunging either the tachi, wakizashi or tantō into the gut and slicing the abdomen horizontally. In the absence of a kaishakunin, the samurai would remove the blade, stab himself in the throat, or fall with the blade positioned against his heart. During the Edo Period, carrying out seppuku came to involve a detailed ritual; this was performed in front of spectators if it was a planned seppuku, not one performed on a battlefield. A samurai was bathed, dressed in white robes, served his favorite foods for a last meal; when he had finished, the knife and cloth were given to the warrior. Dressed ceremonially, with his sword placed in front of him and sometimes seated on special clothes, the warrior would prepare for death by writing a death poem.
He would be dressed in the shini-shōzoku, a white kimono worn for death. With his selected kaishakunin standing by, he would open his kimono, take up his tantō or wakizashi —which the samurai held by the blade with a portion of cloth wrapped around so that it would not cut his hand and cause him to lose his grip—and plunge it into his abdomen, making a left-to-right cut. Prior to this, he would consume an important ceremonial drink of sake, he would give his attendant a cup meant for sake. The kaishakunin would perform kaishaku, a cut in which the warrio
Suicide in antiquity
Suicide was a widespread occurrence in antiquity. There were many different reasons for committing suicide; because taking one’s own life is morally confrontational, there are many different viewpoints on suicide. These viewpoints, although some may consider them modern, took root in ancient times; the Oxford English Dictionary places the first occurrence of the word in 1651. However suicide was seen with much disgust, therefore many did not put the word in their dictionaries, let alone vocabulary, they used phrases like “self-murder”, “self-killing”, “self-slaughter” in place of suicide. They felt these phrases more appropriately portrayed how it related to murder; because suicide was believed to be related to murder, many worry about the welfare of the soul for one who has committed suicide. This became a major religious question, there are many different religious views of suicide. Many scientists and doctors considered suicide as a possible illness; the doctors began assuming people committed suicide only.
There were advantages to claiming it as a medical problem. Instead of condemning the person and looking down on their families, sympathy became the response. “The act was decriminalized: the successful suicide could now be buried and his family was no longer disinherited. However, with these advantages came some disadvantages as well. Al Alvarez in his book The Savage God said, “Despite all the talk of prevention, it may be that the suicide is as rejected by the social scientist as utterly as he was by the most dogmatic Christian”; this referred to the fact that the more people began to recognize suicide as a mental illness, the more they turned away from the idea of it being a morally wrong action or a religious question. Today the reasons for suicide are many, the ways to achieve it are broad. In earlier eras, some found it to be the only way to redeem them from failure. Elise Garrison said that many ancient suicidal victims, “ determined to regain lost honor and restore equilibrium to society”.
Garrison refers to the works of Émile Durkheim. She says that Durkheim talks about people being in different categories. Determining what category they are in, could decide the reason they would commit suicide. “Durkheim’s categories —egoistic, anomic, fatalistic”. Durkheim explains that egoistic people over reflect on everything, they tend to have high knowledge, don’t integrate into society well. Protestants, for example, may default to an egoistic personality; the altruistic person devalues themselves and treats the opinion of the group highly. Those who lead a strict life-style or are a religion, strict on obedience. Self-sacrifice is considered part of altruistic suicide. Anomic suicide can result from someone who does not limit their desires, they satisfy every desire, have no regulation. On the other hand, Fatalistic suicide will occur in someone who has high regulation and does not satisfy many of their desires. While these categories apply to suicide today, it is these types of personalities that made people more susceptible to suicide anciently.
In ancient India, two forms of altruistic suicide were practiced. One was Jauhar, a mass suicide by women of a community when their menfolk suffered defeat in battle, the women fearing retribution, rape and worse by the enemy soldiers; because suicide was a controversial issue, it was discussed in all of the philosophical schools of the Greco-Roman world. J. M. Rist says, “From the earliest days of the Stoic school the problem of suicide is…a problem of free will”; each school formed their own opinion on moral meanings of suicide. Many Greeks came to consider suicide a heroic act. A. D. Nock said, “there was a certain fascination about self-chosen death”. One of the many philosophers who developed an opinion on suicide was Socrates, he says of suicide, “a man, one of the god’s possessions, should not kill himself ‘until the god sends some compulsion upon him, as he sends compulsion on us at present’”. Socrates did not agree with suicide, unless as he says, god tells her to do it, he felt that it condemned the person who committed suicide though he did so himself.
The defense of his eventual suicide is detailed in Plato's written account in the Apology. Though he was sentenced to death by the state, Socrates had the chance to refuse and escape, instead of choosing to drink hemlock. Another famous philosopher of the Greco-Roman world with strong views on the subject was Plato. We learn from J. M. Rist that, “in the Phaedo Plato allows a small loophole in his condemnation of the frequent Greek practice of suicide… What ought a man to suffer, asks Plato, if he kills that, most his own… that is, if he takes his own life?” Plato believed that the state and the gods were associated, “Hence crimes against the state are crimes against the gods, vice versa. When a man kills himself without good reason… he is committing a crime”; this allowed for the state the right to punish. However, this did not imply that suicide was unacceptable. If anything, Plato believed. Aristotle believed that suicide was agreeable in some