Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
A home, or domicile, is a living space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, household or several families in a tribe. It is a house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home, yurt or any other portable shelter. A principle of constitutional law in many countries, related to the right to privacy enshrined in article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the inviolability of the home as an individual's place of shelter and refuge. Homes provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food and hygiene. Larger groups may live in children's home, convent or any similar institution. A homestead includes agricultural land and facilities for domesticated animals. Where more secure dwellings are not available, people may live in the informal and sometimes illegal shacks found in slums and shanty towns. More "home" may be considered to be a geographic area, such as a town, suburb, city, or country; the earliest homes that humans inhabited were naturally occurring features such as caves.
Throughout history, primitive peoples have made use of caves. The earliest human fossils found in caves come from a series of caves near Krugersdorp and Mokopane in South Africa; the cave sites of Sterkfontein, Kromdraai B, Malapa, Cooper's D, Gladysvale and Makapansgat have yielded a range of early human species dating back to between three and one million years ago, including Australopithecus africanus, 7Australopithecus sediba and Paranthropus robustus. However, it is not thought that these early humans were living in the caves, but that they were brought into the caves by carnivores that had killed them; the first early hominid found in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924, was thought for many years to come from a cave, where it had been deposited after being preyed upon by an eagle. However, this is now debated. Caves do form in the dolomite of the Ghaap Plateau, including the Early and Later Stone Age site of Wonderwerk Cave. There is numerous evidence for other early human species inhabiting caves from at least one million years ago in different parts of the world, including Homo erectus in China at Zhoukoudian, Homo rhodesiensis in South Africa at the Cave of Hearths, Homo neandertalensis and Homo heidelbergensis in Europe at Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, Homo floresiensis in Indonesia, the Denisovans in southern Siberia.
In southern Africa, early modern humans used sea caves as shelter starting about 180,000 years ago when they learned to exploit the sea for the first time. The oldest known site is PP13B at Pinnacle Point; this may have allowed rapid expansion of humans out of Africa and colonization of areas of the world such as Australia by 60–50,000 years ago. Throughout southern Africa and Europe, early modern humans used caves and rock shelters as sites for rock art, such as those at Giants Castle. Caves such as the yaodong in China were used for shelter. Among the known sacred caves are China's Cave of a Thousand Buddhas and the sacred caves of Crete; as technology progressed and other hominids began constructing their own dwellings. Buildings such as huts and longhouses have been used for living since the late Neolithic, it is unknown when the first mansion was built because there is no way to know for sure, but it is believed to have origins as a type of palace during the Mesopotamian period. A house is a building that functions as a home for humans ranging from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups or individuals; the design and structure of homes is subject to change as a consequence of globalization and other social, economic and technological reasons. Various other cultural factors influence the building style and patterns of domestic space. A terraced house is a style of medium-density housing where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls, while semi-detached housing consists of pairs of houses built side-by-side or back-to-back, sharing a party wall and with mirrored layouts. An apartment or a flat is a self-contained housing unit; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment house, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent.
In Scotland it is called a block of flats or if it's a traditional sandstone building a tenement, which has a pejorative connotation elsewhere. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier by leasehold rented by tenants. A homestead consists of a dwelling a farm house, together with other buildings and associated land, facilities for domesticated animals. In Southern Africa, the term can
A structure relocation is the process of moving a structure from one location to another. There are two main ways for a structure to be moved: disassembling and reassembling it at the required destination, or transporting it whole. For the latter, the building is first raised and may be pushed on temporary rails or dollies if the distance is short. Otherwise, such as flatbed trucks, are used; these moves can be complicated and require the removal of protruding parts of the building, such as the chimney, as well as obstacles along the journey, such as overhead cables and trees. Reasons for moving a building range from commercial reasons such as scenery, to preserving an important or historic building. Moves may be made at the whim of the owner, or to separate a building from the plot of land on which it stands. Elevating a whole structure is done by attaching a temporary steel framework under the structure to support the structure. A network of hydraulic jacks is placed under the framework and controlled by a unified jacking system, elevates the structure off the foundation.
An older, low-technology method is to use building jacks called screw jacks or jackscrews which are manually turned. With both types of jacking systems described here wood beams called cribs, cribbing or box cribs are stacked into piles to support both the structure and the jacks as the structure is lifted in increments. Once the structure is at a sufficient height, a flat bed truck or hydraulic dollies are placed under the steel framework to support moves to the final destination. After the move the structure is lowered reversing the steps just applied. There are several reasons. For example, a redevelopment, such as urban regeneration, could cause a relocation. Additionally, it has been purchased and the buyer wishes to move it, for reasons such as the scenery from the building; the owner might sell the land that the building is on, but keep the building. Another reason for the relocation of a building is to preserve it for historic interest. An example of such preservation is the Lin An Tai Historical House in Taiwan.
Such a move could be made. On the island of Chiloe, in Chile, there is a tradition of moving houses if the original site is haunted; the house is dragged to the new location by oxen. London's Marble Arch was the entrance to the newly-rebuilt Buckingham Palace. Following the expansion of Buckingham Palace, it was moved to a location near Hyde Park, with work being completed in 1851. In order to save a single tree, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first President of the Republic of Turkey, moved his summer house, the Yalova Atatürk Mansion, four meters to the east in 1936. In 1950 the Compania Telefónica de Mexico building located in the city of Guadalajara was moved 11.8 meters without any interruption of telephone operations. Building weights 1,700 metric tons. Project started on May and ended on November, 1950; the building movement itself took 5 days. Head of the project was Jorge Matute Remus, construction engineer and headmaster of the Universidad De Guadalajara at the time; the Cudecom Building in Bogotá, Colombia.
The 8 story building was moved westward to build an avenue. The move of the Cudecom Building was in the Guinness Book of World Records for 30 years; this structure was the heaviest building moved until the Fu Gang Building in China was moved in 2004. Moving Cudecom Building Part 1 Moving Cudecom Building Part 2 The Gem Theatre and Century Theatre, both housed within the same building in Detroit, were moved five blocks on wheels to its new location at 333 Madison Avenue on 16 October 1997, because of the development of the Comerica Park area when it became home of the Detroit Tigers. At a distance of 563 meters it is the furthest known relocation of a sizable building setting a world record by Expert House Movers, LLC. Structure relocation was common in the 1980s in Romania because of Ceausescu's building projects. Many buildings, including churches and older apartment blocks used to be relocated using hydraulics. One of the most notable feats achieved was on 27 May 1987, when a whole apartment block weighing 7600 Tonnes was split in half and relocated, with people left inside, with no damage whatsoever.
As of this day the building still stands, it was one of the most challenging relocations in the whole world. As part of the Minnesota Shubert Performing Arts and Education Center development the Shubert Theatre was moved between 9 February 1999 and 21 February 1999; the 2,638 tonne building was moved three city blocks and is the heaviest recorded building move done on wheels. The 850 tonne Belle Tout lighthouse was built in 1831 near the edge of the cliff on the next headland west from Beachy Head, East Sussex, England, it was moved more than 17 metres further inland in 1999 due to cliff erosion. It was pushed by four hydraulic jacks along four steel and concrete beams to a new site, designed to allow for possible future relocations. In 1999, the 208-foot tall, 2540-tonne Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was moved 2,900 feet to protect it from being undermined by beach erosion; when the North Carolina lighthouse was built in 1870, it was over 1,500 feet from the sea, but by 1935 the beach had eroded and the waves were only 100 feet away.
Starting in 1930, many efforts to halt the erosion were attempted, including adding over a million cubic yards of loose sand, massive sandbags, steel and concrete walls. After nearly 70 years it became apparent that fighting the erosion was a
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across other geographical boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as by enforced population transfer or the threat of ethnic cleansing. Patterns of emigration have been shaped by numerous economic and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries.
Millions left South China in the Chinese diaspora during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Demographers distinguish factors at the origin that push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in. Motives to migrate can be either incentives attracting people away, known as pull factors, or circumstances encouraging a person to leave. Lack of employment or entrepreneurial opportunities. Lack of freedom to choose religion, or to choose no religion. Favourable letters relatives or informants who have moved. Regarding lists of positive or negative factors about a place, Jose C. Moya writes "one could compile similar lists for periods and places where no migration took place." Unlike immigration, few if any records are maintained in regard to persons leaving a country either on a temporary or permanent basis. Therefore, estimates on emigration must be derived from secondary sources such as immigration records of the receiving country or records from other administrative agencies; some countries restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate to other countries.
After 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, a barrier beyond which the Chinese were prohibited from encroaching on Manchu and Mongol lands; the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union began such restrictions in 1918, with laws and borders tightening until illegal emigration was nearly impossible by 1928. To strengthen this, they set up internal passport controls and individual city Propiska permits, along with internal freedom of movement restrictions called the 101st kilometre, rules which restricted mobility within small areas. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union occupied several Central European countries, together called the Eastern Bloc, with the majority of those living in the newly acquired areas aspiring to independence and wanted the Soviets to leave. Before 1950, over 15 million people emigrated from the Soviet-occupied eastern European countries and immigrated into the west in the five years following World War II.
By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling national movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Restrictions implemented in the Eastern Bloc stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990. However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually immigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement; the emigration resulted in massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. In 1961, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall closing the loophole. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, followed by German reunification and within two years the dissolution of the Soviet Union. By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling international movement was emulated by China and North Korea.
North Korea still restricts emigration, maintains one of the strictest emigration bans in the world, although some North Koreans still manage to illegally emigrate to China. Other countries with tight emigration restrictions at one time or another included Angola, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burma, Democratic
A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training and ability in their work. A skilled worker may have attended a university or technical school. Or, a skilled worker may have learned their skills on the job. Examples of skilled labor include engineers, software development, police officers, physicians, crane operators, truck drivers, drafters, craftsmen and accountants; these workers can be either blue-collar or white-collar workers, with varied levels of training or education. In the northern region of the United States, craft unions may have served as the catalyst to develop a strong solidarity in favor of skilled labor in the period of the Gilded Age. In the early 1880s, the craft unions of skilled workers walked hand in hand with the Knights of Labor but the harmony did not last long and by 1885, the Knights' leadership became hostile to trade unions; the Knights argued that the specialization of industrialization had undermined the bargaining power of skilled labor. This was true in the 1880s but it had not yet made obsolete the existence of craft unionism....
The impact of scientific management upon skilled workers should not be overstressed in the period before World War I. The period between 1901 and 1925 signals the rise and fall of the Socialist Party of America which depended on skilled workers. In 1906, with the publication of The Jungle, the most popular voice of socialism in the early 20th century, Upton Sinclair gave them ignorant "... Negroes and the lowest foreigners —Greeks, Roumanians and Slovaks" hell. There was a divergence in status within the working class between skilled and unskilled labor due to the fall in prices of some products and the skilled workers' rising standard of living after the depression of 1929. Skilled workers were the heart of the labor movement before World War I but during the 1920s, they lost much of their enthusiasm and the movement suffered thereby. In the 20th century, in Nazi Germany, the lower class was subdivided into: agricultural workers and semi-skilled workers, skilled craft workers, other skilled workers and domestic workers.
After the end of World War II, West Germany surpassed France in the employment of skilled labor needed at a time when industrialization was sweeping Europe at a fast pace. West Germany's preponderance in the training of skilled workers in technical schools, was the main factor to outweigh the balance between the two countries. In the period between 1950 and 1970, the number of technicians and engineers in West Germany rose from 160,000 to 570,000 by promoting skilled workers through the ranks so that those who were performing skilled labor in 1950 had become technicians and engineers by 1970. In the first decade of the 21st century, the average wage of a skilled machinist in the United States of America is $3,000 to $4,000 per month. In China, the average wage for a factory worker is $150 a month. In addition to the general use of the term, various agencies or governments, both federal and local, may require skilled workers to meet additional specifications; such definitions can affect matters such as immigration and eligibility for travel or residency.
For example, according to US Citizenship and Immigration Services, skilled worker positions are not seasonal or temporary and require at least two years of experience or training. Skilled work varies in education requirements and availability. Euch differences are reflected in titling, opportunity and salary. Both skilled and non-skilled workers are vital and indispensable for the smooth-running of a free-market and/or capitalist society. According to Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, "Enhancing elementary and secondary school sensitivity to market forces should help restore the balance between the demand for and the supply of skilled workers in the United States."Generally, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts. According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today's greatest problems.
Education can be received in a variety of manners, is acknowledged through various means. Below is a sampling of educational conventions. On-the-job training - Apprenticeship - Vocational certification - Associate Degree - Higher Apprenticeship - Undergraduate Degree - Professional Degree - Graduate Degree - In American industry, there has been a change in the concentration of skilled workers from the areas of past economic might e. g. steel, automobile and chemicals to the more recent industry developments e. g. computers, telecommunications and information technology, stated to represent a plus rather than a minus for the American standard o
An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, governments, or non-governmental organisations. Migrant workers, they earn more than they would at home, less than local employees. However, the term'expatriate' is used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country, it has referred to exiles. The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms patria. Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include: Expatriate:'A person who lives outside their native country', or'living in a foreign land'; these contrast with definitions of other words with a similar meaning, such as: Migrant:'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions', or'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves in order to find work in harvesting crops'.
The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving and race. This has caused controversy, with many asserting that the traditional use of the word has had racist connotations. For example, a British national working in Spain or Portugal is referred to as an'expatriate', whereas a Spanish or Portuguese national working in Britain is referred to as an'immigrant', thus indicating Anglocentrism. An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile. Alternatively, when used as a verb, expatriation can mean the act of someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the preamble to the United States Expatriation Act of 1868 which says,'the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life and the pursuit of happiness.'Some neologisms have been coined, including: flexpatriate, an employee who travels internationally for business.
Since antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period. In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of train. People could more choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers; the table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time: During the 1930s, Nazi Germany revoked the citizenship of many opponents, such as Albert Einstein, Oskar Maria Graf, Willy Brandt and Thomas Mann expatriating entire families. After World War II, decolonisation accelerated. However, lifestyles which had developed among European colonials continued to some degree in expatriate communities. Remnants of the old British Empire, for example, can still be seen in the form of gated communities staffed by domestic workers. Social clubs which have survived include the Royal Selangor.
Homesick palates are catered for by specialist food shops, drinkers can still order a gin and tonic, a pink gin, or a Singapore Sling. Although pith helmets are confined to military ceremonies, civilians still wear white dinner jackets or Red Sea rig on occasion; the use of curry powder has long since spread to the metropole. From the 1950s, scheduled flights on jet airliners further increased the speed of international travel; this enabled a hypermobility which led to the jet set, to global nomads and the concept of a perpetual traveler. In recent years, terrorist attacks against Westerners have at times curtailed the party lifestyle of some expatriate communities in the Middle East; the number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine, since there is no governmental census. The international market research and consulting company Finaccord estimated the number to be 56.8 million in 2017. That would resemble the population of Italy. In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2 per cent of the world population, lived outside their home country.
Many multinational corporations send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more control its foreign subsidiaries, they can improve global coordination. A 2007 study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international careers were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment, high levels of autonomy of international posts and cultural differences. However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher cost of living or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an international school. There is th