The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A typographical error called misprint, is a mistake made in the typing of printed material. This referred to mistakes in manual type-setting; the term includes errors due to mechanical failure or slips of the hand or finger, but excludes errors of ignorance, such as spelling errors, or the flip-flopping of words such as "than" and "then". Before the arrival of printing, the "copyist's mistake" or "scribal error" was the equivalent for manuscripts. Most typos involve simple duplication, transposition, or substitution of a small number of characters. Fat finger, or "fat-finger syndrome", a slang term, refers to an unwanted secondary action when typing; when one's finger is bigger than the touch zone, there can be inaccuracy in the fine motor movements and accidents occur. This is common with touchscreens. One may hit two adjacent keys on the keyboard in a single keystroke. An example is "buckled" instead of "bucked", due to the "L" key being next to the "K" key on the QWERTY keyboard, the most common keyboard for Latin-script alphabets.
Certain typos, or kinds of typos, have achieved widespread notoriety and are used deliberately for humorous purposes. For instance, the British newspaper The Guardian is sometimes referred to as The Grauniad due to its reputation for frequent typesetting errors in the era before computer typesetting; this usage began as a running joke in the satirical magazine Private Eye. The magazine continues to refer to The Guardian by this name to this day. Typos are common on the internet in chatrooms and the World Wide Web, some—such as "teh", "pwned", "zomg"—have become in-jokes among Internet groups and subcultures. Pr0n is not a typo but an example of obfuscation. Typosquatting is a form of cybersquatting which relies on typographical errors made by users of the Internet; the cybersquatter will register a typo of a frequently-accessed website address in the hope of receiving traffic when internet users mistype that address into a web browser. Deliberately introducing typos into a web page, or into its metadata, can draw unwitting visitors when they enter these typos in Internet search engines.
An example of this is exampie.com instead of example.com which could be harmful for the user. Since the emergence and popularization of online auction sites such as eBay, misspelled auction searches have become lucrative for people searching for deals; the concept on which these searches are based is that, if an individual posts an auction and misspells its description and/or title, regular searches will not find this auction. However, a search which includes misspelled alterations of the original search term in such a way as to create misspellings, omissions, double strikes, wrong key errors would find most misspelled auctions; the resulting effect is that there are far fewer bids than there would be under normal circumstances, allowing the searcher to obtain the item for less. A series of third-party websites have sprung up allowing people to find these items; when using a typewriter without correction tape, typos were overstruck with another character such as a slash. This saved the typist the trouble of retyping the entire page to eliminate the error, but as evidence of the typo remained, it was not aesthetically pleasing.
In computer forums, sometimes ^H was used to "erase" intentional typos: Be nice to this fool^H^H^H^Hgentleman, he's visiting from corporate HQ. In instant messaging, users send messages in haste and only afterwards notice the typo, it is common practice to correct the typo by sending a subsequent message in which an asterisk precedes the correct word. In formal prose, it is sometimes necessary to quote text containing other doubtful words. In such cases, the author will write "" to indicate that an error was in the original quoted source rather than in the transcription. Another kind of typo—informally called an "atomic typo"—is a typo that happens to result in a spelled word, different from the intended one, since it is spelled the spellchecker cannot find the mistake. Examples include "unclear" instead of "nuclear", "you" instead of "your", "Sudan" instead of "sedan", "Untied States" instead of "United States", "the" instead of "they"; the term was used at least as early as 1995 by Robert Terry.
Clerical error Comparison of web browsers – Native spell checkers are indicated in the table "Browser features". Fat-finger trade Orthography Transcription error Typosquatting "Spell checkers developing'atomic typo' capabilities" - OpEd in the China Post, September 30, 2012. BookErrata.com
A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials. Bookcases are used in private homes and university libraries and bookstores. Bookcases range from small, low models the height of a table to high models reaching up to ceiling height. Shelves may be adjustable to different positions in the case. In rooms devoted to the storage of books, such as libraries, they may be permanently fixed to the walls and/or floor. A bookcase may be fitted with glass doors that can be closed to protect the books from dust or moisture. Bookcase doors are always glazed with glass, so as to allow the spines of the books to be read. Valuable rare books may be kept in locked cases with wooden or glazed doors. A small bookshelf may stand on some other piece of furniture such as a desk or chest. Larger books are more to be kept in horizontal piles and large books flat on wide shelves or on coffee tables. In Latin and Greek the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of which mean library in many modern languages.
A bookcase is known as a bookshelf, a bookstand, a cupboard and a bookrack. In a library, large bookshelves are called "stacks." Private libraries appeared during the late Roman republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: "by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house. Revolving bookcases, known as zhuanluntang, have been documented in imperial China, its invention is credited to Fu Xi in 544. Descriptions of revolving bookcases have been found in 8th- and 9th-century Chinese texts. Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Taizu, who ordered the mass printing of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka scriptures. An illustration of a revolving bookcase is depicted in Li Jie's architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi.
When books were written by hand and were not produced in great quantities, they were kept in small boxes or chests which owners carried with them. As manuscript volumes accumulated in religious houses or in homes of the wealthy, they were stored on shelves or in cupboards; these cupboards are the predecessors of today's bookcases. The doors were removed, the evolution of the bookcase proceeded. However, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion, they were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was used for the inscription of the title, thus on the fore-edge instead of on the spine. Titles were commonly written onto the fore-edge, it was not until the invention of printing had reduced the cost of books, thus allowing many more people access to owning books, that it became the practice to write the title on the spine and shelve books with the spine outwards.
Early bookcases were of oak, still deemed by some to be the most appropriate wood for an elegant library. The oldest bookcases in England are those in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, which were placed in position in the last year or two of the sixteenth century. Long ranges of book-shelves are somewhat severe in appearance, many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and pilasters to give them a less austere appearance; these attempts were most successful as in the hands of the English cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century. Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed many bookcases glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames of great charm and elegance. In the eyes of some, the grace of some of Sheraton's satinwood bookcases has been equalled; the French cabinetmakers of the same period were highly successful with small ornamental cases. Mahogany, rosewood satinwood and choicer exotic timbers were used. Dwarf bookcases were finished with a slab of choice marble at the top.
In 1876, John Danner of Canton, invented a revolving bookcase with a patented "pivot and post" design. The ingenuity of his work resided in the economy of space it provided. Thirty-two volumes of the American Cyclopedia could be stored in a compact space, available for perusal at the touch of a finger. Danner's bookcase appeared in the 1894 Montgomery Ward catalog. In 1878 he won a gold medal; the John Danner Manufacturing Company was known for honorable affordability. The woods were oak, black walnut, western ash, Philippine mahogany. Viewed as a progressive businessman, Danner was credited with drawing a large trade and business to the city of Canton. In the great public libraries of the twentieth century, multilevel stacks served as both structure and shelving, of iron, as in the British Museum where the shelves are covered with cowhide. C.. There are three common ways of arranging stationary bookcases: flat against the wall.
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor.
Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features. In U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is the managing editor. In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor. Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste. In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion.
At U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form. In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style that specifies a particular dictionary and style manual—for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U. K. Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, index and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, correcting errors in citations.
Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues, it helps. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology, but essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, excellent communication skills. Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by self-employed editors. Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both; such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, or SFWA is a nonprofit 5013 organization of professional science fiction and fantasy writers. While SFWA is based in the United States, its membership is open to writers worldwide; the organization was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight under the name Science Fiction Writers of America, Inc. The president of SFWA as of 2015 is Cat Rambo. SFWA has about 1,900 professionally published writer members worldwide. SFWA Active members vote for the Nebula Awards, one of the principal English-language science fiction awards. SFWA informs, promotes and advocates for its members. SFWA activities include informing science fiction and fantasy writers on professional matters, protecting their interests, helping them deal with agents, editors and producers in print and non-print media. Science Fiction Writers of America, Inc. was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight in association with a group of writers connected to the Milford Conference, which he headed. According to Todd McCaffrey, the organization "acquired great status in its efforts to help J.
R. R. Tolkien get fair recompense in America for pirated sales of The Lord of the Rings." In 1991, the name of the organization was changed to Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, to reflect the fact that the organization had always included writers working in multiple genres. After the name change, both SFWA and SFFWA were used as acronyms; the acronym SFWA was re-established in 1996. In 1982, Lisa Tuttle withdrew her short story "The Bone Flute" from the final Nebula ballot, to protest what she saw as excessive campaigning for awards and that voters did not receive copies of nominated works, her withdrawal was sent. When informed she had won, she told them she refused to accept it, she was told. Her publisher accepted the award in her place with no knowledge of her withdrawal, there was no mention of her objection. In September 2009, SFWA joined the Open Book Alliance to oppose the Google Book Settlement; as a party to the class action suit, SFWA had explained its reservations about the settlement and declared its intention to file an objection.
In 2013, the SFWA Bulletin was the subject of a controversy about sexism. This led followed by a reboot of the magazine in a modern, updated format. In 2014, the original Massachusetts corporation was dissolved and SFWA reincorporated as a California nonprofit 5013 organization with new bylaws. SFWA participates in various trade shows and publishing industry events in the United States and abroad, including BookExpo America, the American Library Association Midwinter Conference, the USA Science & Engineering Festival, several major science fiction and media conventions. SFWA holds a semi-annual business meeting at the World Science Fiction Convention when it's held in North America, at the North American Science Fiction Convention otherwise. SFWA hosts its own events, which include: SFWA Nebula Conference: SFWA Nebula Conference is an annual conference during which a banquet is held and Nebula Award winners are announced and presented. Other Nebula Awards Weekend events include a semi-annual SFWA business meeting and a mass autographing session for member authors, open to the public.
In recent years, an extensive program of panels and workshops for professional writers has been offered. SFWA Nebula Conference, the earlier Nabula Awards Weekend have been held at different cities throughout the United States, it is held in a different location every two years. It will be held in the second year at that location; the SFWA Reception in New York: SFWA has hosted an annual reception in New York to provide SFWA members the opportunity to meet and socialize with editors, publicists, art directors and other publishing industry professionals. Over the years, the reception has gone by several names, including Authors and Editors and Swill, the NY Reception; the event was put on hold in 2015 because of rising costs. The SFWA Reading Series: A series of free quarterly events during which SFWA authors read or discuss their fiction with members of local communities. Held in Seattle, WA, Portland, OR, Philadelphia, PA, but the program may soon expand to other areas; as an organization, SFWA acts as an advocate to effect important changes within the publishing industry among publishers of science fiction and fantasy, by promoting author-friendly copyright legislation, equitable treatment of authors, fair contract terms.
SFWA sponsors Writer Beware, whose mission is to track and raise awareness of the prevalence of fraud and other questionable activities in and around the publishing industry. Writer Beware consists of the Writer Beware website, which provides the latest information on literary schemes and pitfalls. Writer Beware receives the support of the Mystery Writers of America and th
Bookworm is a popular generalization for any insect, said to bore through books. True book-borers are uncommon. Two types of moths, the common clothes moth and the brown house moth, will attack cloth bindings. Leather-bound books attract various beetles, such as the larder beetle, drugstore beetle and the larva of the black carpet beetle. Larval deathwatch beetles and common furniture beetles will tunnel through paper. A major book-feeding insect is the paper louse; these are tiny, soft-bodied wingless psocopterans, which feed on microscopic molds and other organic matter found in ill-maintained works, although they will attack bindings and other book parts, making the booklouse not a true louse. By the 20th century, modern bookbinding materials thwarted much of the damage done to books by various types of book-boring insects. Booklouse Woodworm "John Francis Xavier O'Conor, Facts about bookworms: their history in literature and work in libraries "Bookworms: The Most Common Insect Pests of Paper in Archives and Museums".
Dr. John V. Richardson Jr. PhD. "Timber Borers – Anobium & Lyctus Borers" "Study on integrated pest management for libraries and archives" – prepared by Thomas A Parker for the General Information Programme and UNISIST