Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, debts and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance have changed over time. In law, an heir is a person, entitled to receive a share of the deceased's property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased died or owned property at the time of death; the inheritance may be either under the terms of a will or by intestate laws if the deceased had no will. However, the will must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction at the time it was created or it will be declared invalid and the intestate laws apply. A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. Members of ruling noble or royal houses who are expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim. There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, called coparceny.
In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed beneficiaries, devisees for real property, bequestees for personal property, or legatees for money. Except in some jurisdictions where a person cannot be disinherited, a person who would be an heir under intestate laws may be disinherited under the terms of a will. Detailed anthropological and sociological studies have been made about customs of patrilineal inheritance, where only male children can inherit; some cultures employ matrilineal succession, where property can only pass along the female line, most going to the sister's sons of the decedent. Some ancient societies and most modern states employ egalitarian inheritance, without discrimination based on gender and/or birth order; the inheritance is patrilineal. The father —that is, the owner of the land— bequeaths only to his male descendants, so the Promised Land passes from one Jewish father to his sons.
If there were no living sons and no descendants of any living sons, daughters inherit. In Numbers 27:1-4, the daughters of Zelophehad of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and ask for their father's inheritance, as they have no brothers; the order of inheritance is set out in Numbers 27:7-11: a man's sons inherit first, daughters if no sons, brothers if he has no children, so on. In Numbers 36, some of the heads of the families of the tribe of Manasseh come to Moses and point out that, if a daughter inherits and marries a man not from her paternal tribe, her land will pass from her birth-tribe's inheritance into her marriage-tribe's. So a further rule is laid down: if a daughter inherits land, she must marry someone within her father's tribe; the tractate Baba Bathra, written during late Antiquity in Babylon, deals extensively with issues of property ownership and inheritance according to Jewish Law. Other works of Rabbinical Law, such as the Hilkhot naḥalot: mi-sefer Mishneh Torah leha-Rambam, the Sefer ha-yerushot: ʻim yeter ha-mikhtavim be-divre ha-halakhah be-ʻAravit uve-ʻIvrit uve-Aramit deal with inheritance issues.
The first abbreviated to Mishneh Torah, was written by Maimonides and was important in Jewish tradition. All these sources agree that the firstborn son is entitled to a double portion of his father's estate: Deuteronomy 21:17; this means that, for example, if a father left five sons, the firstborn receives a third of the estate and each of the other four receives a sixth. If he left nine sons, the firstborn receives each of the other eight receive a tenth. If the eldest surviving son is not the firstborn son, he is not entitled to the double portion. Philo of Alexandria and Josephus comment on the Jewish laws of inheritance, praising them above other law codes of their time, they agreed that the firstborn son must receive a double portion of his father's estate. The New Testament does not mention anything about inheritance rights: the only story mentioning inheritance is that of the Prodigal Son, but that involved the father voluntarily passing his estate to his two sons prior to his death; the topic is not discussed among doctrinal statements of various denominations or sects, leaving that to be a matter of secular concern.
The Quran introduced a number of different rights and restrictions on matters of inheritance, including general improvements to the treatment of women and family life compared to the pre-Islamic societies that existed in the Arabian Peninsula at the time. Furthermore, the Quran introduced additional heirs that were not entitled to inheritance in pre-Islamic times, mentioning nine relatives of which six were female and three wer
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another lexeme in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and upon"glass" and"cup"Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Lat Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings. For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations.
For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonomy in Japanese Tools which graph words relations: Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus - Crowdsourced Synonym Dictionary Power Thesaurus - Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples