Remembrance (2011 film)
Remembrance is a 2011 German drama film directed by Anna Justice. A German-Jewish young woman and Polish young man escape a Nazi concentration camp; as the film prologue notes, it is based on the true story of Cyla Cybulska. The film's story intercuts between a Nazi concentration camp in Poland, in 1944 and New York City in 1976. In 1944, Tomasz Limanowski, a captured member of the Polish resistance, manages to aid the resistance from inside a concentration camp, where his slave labor includes supervising distribution of loaves of bread, his resistance task in the camp has been to capture photos of the horrifying war crimes taking place and smuggle out the negatives that will reveal the crimes to the outside world. This is unknown to Hannah Silberstein, a young German Jew in the work camp with whom Tomasz is in love and who has discovered she is pregnant; every night, Tomasz buys off his officemate with a bottle of vodka so that he and Hannah can be alone together in the office in which Tomasz works with the SS, they share bread that Tomasz has stolen for them.
In 1976, interwoven scenes open the story on the day that Hannah Levine, living in Brooklyn, New York with a successful husband and their grown daughter, discovers that Tomasz, who for 30 years she had believed was dead, is alive. While preparing for a celebratory dinner party for her husband and running an errand at a local dry cleaners, Hannah sees Tomasz in an interview on TV and recognizes him as he shares his story about their love with the interviewer. In a daze, Hannah rushes home, experiencing reactivated trauma that she had shelved, unable to keep her mind on the evening's party and raising the concerns of her family and guests at her distractedness, she calls the Red Cross that day, for the first time since 1946, when her initial search for Tomasz had led to a dead end. Cutting back to 1944, we see Tomasz implementing a plan for their salvation with the help of fellow inmates, gaining access to an SS uniform and paperwork. On the day of the escape, terrified that it is happening too to be prepared, Tomasz dresses up as an SS officer and demands that Hannah follow him, all the while terrified that he will be exposed as a Polish prisoner.
Tomasz walks her to the exit of the camp where another SS officer comments that he'd like to rape her. The guard, not picking up on Tomasz's limited German and Tomasz and Hannah march down the road until out of sight and run off into the woods, they run for weeks, at his mother's house. Tomasz's mother, does not approve of Hannah, as the latter is both German and a Jew, furiously insists that Hannah will cause trouble for their family. Hannah and distressed by the outburst, miscarries the same night that a car is ready to take Tomasz to Warsaw, where he must deliver the photos to his brother, in the homeland army. With no other option, Tomasz leaves Hannah in his mother's care and tells his neighbor and family friend, Janusz, to take Hannah to the home of Tomasz's sister-in-law, where Hannah can hide more safely. Tomasz assures Hannah. Tomasz winds up being gone for a long while. During her recovery at Stefania's, Hannah comes to experience the woman's full animosity when Stefania attempts to have a German officer discover Hannah, but Hannah suspects her motives and hides.
Disgusted at this betrayal, Hannah leaves afterward, taking a photo of Tomasz that his mother had kept framed in a place of honor. Hannah is still forced to hide from the world; when Czeslav, Tomasz's brother, returns home from Warsaw, hopes for Tomasz's return are high. However, after a month of the three living together, Czeslav comes to believe that Tomasz must be dead, a belief that Hannah refuses to accept. Things are tense but harmonious until Stefania shows up at their home, claiming that the Russians took over her home, she soon turns against Magdalena, accusing her of having brought misfortune to the family and criticizing her for letting Hannah live in the house. Shortly afterward, the Russians show up at their home and take Czeslav and Magdalena to a Soviet work camp. Hannah cannot stay with Tomasz's mother, knowing she cannot trust her, believes it will be for the best if she returns home to Berlin, she trudges off in winter snow and nearly dies but for a passing Red Cross van that happens upon her.
Back to 1976, Hannah has success - the Red Cross has tracked Tomasz down in Poland. She works up the courage to call him. Tomasz thinks it is a hoax, but Hannah persists, they speak and Hannah tells him for the first time that she had been pregnant, a revelation too much for her to bear herself, she hangs up, promising to call again. A brief flashback reveals that long after Hannah returned to Berlin, Tomasz returned home to find only his mother, who told him that Czeslav and Magdalena had been sent to a work camp, that Hannah had died. Back in 1976, after a wrenching outing of her secret search that anguishes her husband and daughter, Hannah's husband encourages her to go see this man who saved her. Hannah travels to Poland to visit Tomasz, who has a grown daughter of his own and is separated from his wife; the movie ends with Hannah and Tomasz seeing each other after Hannah has just gotten off the bus and Tomasz has come by car to pick her up. Alice Dwyer - Hannah Silberstein 1944 Dagmar Manzel - Hannah Levine 1976 Mateusz Damięcki - Tomasz Limanowski 1944 S
Danielle Fernandes Dominique Schuelein-Steel is an American writer, best known for her romance novels. She is the best selling author alive and the fourth bestselling fiction author of all time, with over 800 million copies sold, she has written 174 books, including over 141 novels. Based in California for most of her career, Steel has produced several books a year juggling up to five projects at once. Despite "a resounding lack of critical acclaim", all her novels have been bestsellers, including those issued in hardback, her formula is consistent involving rich families facing a crisis, threatened by dark elements such as prison, fraud and suicide. Steel has published children's fiction and poetry, as well as raising funds for the treatment of mental disorders, her books have been translated into 43 languages, with 22 adapted for television, including two that have received Golden Globe nominations. Steel was born Danielle Fernandes Dominique Schuelein-Steel in New York City to a German father and a Portuguese mother.
Her father, John Schulein-Steel, was a German-Jewish immigrant and a descendant of owners of Löwenbräu beer. Her mother, Norma da Camera Stone dos Reis, was the daughter of a Portuguese diplomat, she spent much of her childhood in France, where from an early age she was included in her parents' dinner parties, giving her an opportunity to observe the habits and lives of the wealthy and famous. Her parents divorced when she was eight, she was raised by her father seeing her mother. Steel started writing stories as a child, by her late teens had begun writing poetry. Raised Catholic, she thought of becoming a nun during her early years. A 1963 graduate of the Lycée Français de New York, she studied literature design and fashion design, first at Parsons School of Design and at New York University. Steel married French-American banker Claude-Eric Lazard in 1965 at age 18. While a young wife, still attending New York University, Steel began writing, completing her first manuscript at the age of 19.
After the birth of their daughter Beatrix, Steel worked for a public-relations agency in New York called Supergirls. A client, Ladies' Home Journal editor John Mack Carter, encouraged her to focus on writing, having been impressed with her freelance articles, he suggested. She moved to San Francisco, worked as a copywriter for Grey Advertising, her first novel, Going Home, was published in 1972. The novel contained many of the themes that her writing would become well known for, including a focus on family issues and human relationships; the heroine of Going Home was a divorced single mother. Steel and Lazard divorced in 1974. While still married to Lazard, Steel met Danny Zugelder while interviewing an inmate in a prison near Lompoc, where Zugelder was incarcerated, he moved in with Steel when he was paroled in June 1973, but returned to prison in early 1974 on robbery and rape charges. After receiving her divorce from Lazard in 1975, she married Zugelder in the prison canteen, she divorced him in 1978, but the relationship spawned Passion's Promise and Now and Forever, the two novels that launched her career.
Steel married her third husband, William George Toth, the day after her divorce from Zugelder was finalized. She was eight months pregnant with his child. With the success of her fourth book, The Promise, she became a participant in San Francisco high society while Toth, a former drug addict, was left out, they divorced in March 1981. Steel married for the fourth time in 1981. Traina subsequently gave him his family name. Together they had an additional five children, Victoria, Vanessa, a fashion stylist and Zara. Coincidentally, beginning with her marriage to Traina in 1981, Steel has been a near-permanent fixture on the New York Times hardcover and paperback bestsellers lists. In 1989, she was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for having a book on the New York Times Bestseller List for the most consecutive weeks of any author—381 consecutive weeks at that time. Since her first book was published, every one of her novels has hit bestseller lists in paperback, each one released in hardback has been a hardback bestseller.
During this time Steel contributed to her first non-fiction work. Having a Baby was published in 1984 and featured a chapter by Steel about suffering through miscarriage; the same year she published a book of poetry, Love: Poems. Steel ventured into children's fiction, penning a series of 10 illustrated books for young readers; these books, known as the "Max and Martha" series, aim to help children face real life problems: new baby, new school, loss of loved one, etc. In addition, Steel has authored the "Freddie" series; these four books address other real life situations: first night away from home, trip to the doctor, etc. Determined to spend as much time as possible with her own children, Steel wrote at night, making do with only four hours of sleep. Steel is a prolific author releasing several books per year; each book takes 2½ years to complete, so Steel has developed an ability to juggle up to five projects at once, researching one book while outlining another writing and editing additional books.
Her fear of flying created so many challenges in the early 1980s that she went through an eight-week course based out of the San Francisco airport to overcome her fear. In 1993 Steel sued a writer who intended to disclose in her book that her son Nick was adopted by her then-current husband John Traina, despite the fact that adoption records are sealed in California. A Sa
Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice
The Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice is a public holiday in Argentina, commemorating the victims of the Dirty War. It is held on 24 March, the anniversary of the coup d'état of 1976 that brought the National Reorganization Process to power; the commemoration was sanctioned as Law 25633 by the Argentine National Congress on 1 August 2002, promulgated by the Executive Branch on 22 August of the same year. However, it was not implemented as a public national holiday until 2006; the 30th anniversary of the coup was marked by massive demonstrations. Dirty War Operation Condor National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons National Archive for Memory Education Ministry commemorative webpage
Sir Derek Alton Walcott, KCSL, OBE, OCC was a Saint Lucian poet and playwright. He received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Literature, he was the University of Alberta's first distinguished scholar in residence, where he taught undergraduate and graduate writing courses. He served as Professor of Poetry at the University of Essex from 2010 to 2013, his works include the Homeric epic poem Omeros, which many critics view "as Walcott's major achievement." In addition to winning the Nobel Prize, Walcott received many literary awards over the course of his career, including an Obie Award in 1971 for his play Dream on Monkey Mountain, a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award, a Royal Society of Literature Award, the Queen's Medal for Poetry, the inaugural OCM Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature, the 2011 T. S. Eliot Prize for his book of poetry White Egrets and the Griffin Trust For Excellence in Poetry Lifetime Recognition Award in 2015. Walcott was born and raised in Castries, Saint Lucia, in the West Indies, the son of Alix and Warwick Walcott.
He had a twin brother, the playwright Roderick Walcott, a sister, Pamela Walcott. His family is of English and African descent, reflecting the complex colonial history of the island that he explores in his poetry, his mother, a teacher, loved the arts and recited poetry around the house. His father, who painted and wrote poetry, died at the age of 31 from mastoiditis while his wife was pregnant with the twins Derek and Roderick. Walcott's family was part of a minority Methodist community, who felt overshadowed by the dominant Catholic culture of the island established during French colonial rule; as a young man Walcott trained as a painter, mentored by Harold Simmons, whose life as a professional artist provided an inspiring example for him. Walcott admired Cézanne and Giorgione and sought to learn from them. Walcott's painting was exhibited at the Anita Shapolsky Gallery in New York City, along with the art of other writers, in a 2007 exhibition named "The Writer's Brush: Paintings and Drawing by Writers".
He studied as a writer, becoming "an elated, exuberant poet madly in love with English" and influenced by modernist poets such as T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound. Walcott had an early sense of a vocation as a writer. In the poem "Midsummer", he wrote: At 14, Walcott published his first poem, a Miltonic, religious poem, in the newspaper The Voice of St Lucia. An English Catholic priest condemned the Methodist-inspired poem as blasphemous in a response printed in the newspaper. By 19, Walcott had self-published his first two collections with the aid of his mother, who paid for the printing: 25 Poems and Epitaph for the Young: XII Cantos, he covered the costs. He commented, I went to my mother and said, "I’d like to publish a book of poems, I think it's going to cost me two hundred dollars." She was just a seamstress and a schoolteacher, I remember her being upset because she wanted to do it. Somehow she got it—a lot of money for a woman to have found on her salary, she gave it to me, I sent off to Trinidad and had the book printed.
When the books came back I would sell them to friends. I made the money back; the influential Bajan poet Frank Collymore critically supported Walcott's early work. With a scholarship, he studied at the University College of the West Indies in Jamaica. After graduation, Walcott moved to Trinidad in 1953, where he became a critic and journalist, he remained active with its board of directors. Exploring the Caribbean and its history in a colonialist and post-colonialist context, his collection In a Green Night: Poems 1948–1960 attracted international attention, his play Dream on Monkey Mountain was produced on NBC-TV in the United States the year it was published. In 1971 it was produced by the Negro Ensemble Company off-Broadway in New York City; the following year, Walcott won an OBE from the British government for his work. He was hired as a teacher by Boston University in the United States, where he founded the Boston Playwrights' Theatre in 1981; that year he received a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in the United States.
Walcott taught literature and writing at Boston University for more than two decades, publishing new books of poetry and plays on a regular basis. Walcott retired from his position at Boston University in 2007, he became friends with other poets, including the Russian expatriate Joseph Brodsky, who lived and worked in the U. S. after being exiled in the 1970s, the Irishman Seamus Heaney, who taught in Boston. His epic poem Omeros, which loosely echoes and refers to characters from the Iliad, has been critically praised "as Walcott's major achievement." The book received praise from publications such as The Washington Post and The New York Times Book Review, which chose Omeros as one of its "Best Books of 1990". Walcott was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1992, the second Caribbean writer to receive the honour after Saint-John Perse, born in Guadeloupe, received the award in 1960; the Nobel committee described Walcott's work as "a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment".
He won an Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2004. His poetry collections include Tiepolo's Hound, illustrated with copies of his watercolors. S. Eliot Prize and the 2011 OCM Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature. In 2009, Walcott began a three-year distinguished scholar-in-residence position at the University of Alberta. In 2010, he became Pro
Mourning of Muharram
The Mourning of Muharram is a set of rituals associated with Shia Muslims. The commemoration falls in the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia; the event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala, when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, a grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph. Family members and companions accompanying him were subjected to humiliation; the commemoration of this event during the yearly mourning season, with the Day of Ashura as the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population; the words Azadari or Sogvari which mean mourning and lamentation. Majalis-e Aza known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for. Expression of grief with thumping of the chest by Shia Muslims is known as Latmya, Latmaya or latmia in Arabic-Persian countries.
In India and Pakistan it is called Matam-Dari/Sina Zannee. Muharram rituals was called by European observers "the Feast of Hasan and Hosayn," as the participants shout "Hasan! Hosayn!."The term majalis has both a grammatical meaning and a meaning which relates to Aza-e-Husayn. In its technical sense, a majalis is a session or a gathering. According to Shia sources, the mourning of Muharram was started by the family women, of Muhammad after the death of his grandson and before entering Damascus. Following the battle of Karbala, Muhammad's granddaughter Zaynab bint Ali and sister of Imam Husayn, began mourning for the fallen and making speeches against Imam Husayn ibn Ali's opponents: Ibn Ziyad and Yazid I. News of Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom was spread by Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, who succeeded Imam Husayn as the Shia Imam, via sermons and speeches throughout Iraq and Hejaz. According to the History of the Prophets and Kings, when Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin gave the sermon in presence of Yazid, he let them hold the mourning of Husain ibn Ali for three days in a formal manner.
During the Umayyad Caliphate, the mourning of Husain ibn Ali’s Killing was performed furtively in the homes of Shia Imam and their followers, but during the Abbasid Caliphate this mourning was observed in public mosques by the Abbasid rulers to draw a people’s attention. As Chelkowski said, in fourth century in Baghdad, contemporaneous with the reigns of Sulton Muizz ad-Dawla of the Shia Buyid dynasty, the first public mourning ritual happened, the market was closed by order of him on day of Ashura; the mourning rituals evolved differently in different places, until the Safavid dynasty established a centralized Shia state in the 16th century: The annual mourning ceremonies and ritual cursing of Husayn's enemies acquired the status of a national institution. According to popular belief, Shia rituals spread to South Asia starting at the end of the 14th Century with the conquests of Tamerlane. Observance has since spread to countries such as India, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Bahrain and Lebanon.
The type of mourning of Muharram varies between branches of Shia and different ethnic groups. Shia Muslims around the world every year commemorate the mourning custom of death of Husayn ibn Ali, his family and his follower in months of Muharram and Safar, they know him as a spiritual and political savior. He still has an important role in the national consciousness of the people. According to the Shia belief, taking part in the mourning ritual will be a help to salvation on the Day of Judgment, as Elias Canetti said “ became the core of the Shiite faith... of all the traditional religions of lament which could be adduced for closer consideration -- that of the Islamic is the most illuminating... The lament itself, as an impassioned pack opening out, to a true crowd, manifests itself with unforgettable power at the Muharram Festival Shiites”. At first the mourning ceremonies and custom have been done in the open air at the main thoroughfare of city of village, a major intersection in the bazaar, the yard of the mosque and private homes.
After a while, in order to protect mourners from weather, the Hussainiya and the Tekyeh were built. The event is observed by many Sunnis, but to a lesser extent, as a time of remembrance, rather than mourning. After 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around the battle of Karbala; these rituals include the memorial services, the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle, the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play, the flagellation. Imam Husayn Shrine is located at the mosque and burial site of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Shia Imam in the city of Karbala, Iraq. Many Shia go on a pilgrimage to the shrine in Karbala, one of the holiest places for Shias apart from Mecca and Jerusalem. Up to one million pilgrims visit the city annually to observe the anniversary of
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory of something a deceased person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains and parks; the most common type of memorial is the memorial plaque. Common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars. Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses. Online memorials are created on websites and social media to allow digital access as an alternative to physical memorials which may not be feasible or accessible; when somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift be given to a designated charity, or that a tree be planted in memory of the person. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are called grassroots memorials. Sometimes, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship, to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years. Bell Memorial Culture of Remembrance Ghost bike Historical marker List of memorials Memorial bench Monument National memorial National monument Public history Roadside memorial Viewlogy War memorial Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina