Remote surgery is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient though they are not physically in the same location. It is a form of telepresence. A robot surgical system consists of one or more arms, a master controller, a sensory system giving feedback to the user. Remote surgery combines elements of robotics, cutting edge communication technology such as high-speed data connections and elements of management information systems. While the field of robotic surgery is well established, most of these robots are controlled by surgeons at the location of the surgery. Remote surgery is advanced telecommuting for surgeons, where the physical distance between the surgeon and the patient is less relevant, it promises to allow the expertise of specialized surgeons to be available to patients worldwide, without the need for patients to travel beyond their local hospital. Surgical robot systems have been developed from the first functional telesurgery system-ZEUS-to the da Vinci Surgical System, the only commercially available surgical robotic system.
In Israel a company was established by Professor Moshe Schoham, from the faculty of Mechanical Engeenering at the Technion. Used for “on-site” surgery, these robots assist the surgeon visually, with better precision and less invasiveness to patients; the Da Vinci Surgical System has been combined to form a Dual Da Vinci system which allows two surgeons to work together on a patient at the same time. The system gives the surgeons the ability to control different arms, switch command of arms at any point and communicate through headsets during the operation. Marketed for $975,000, the ZEUS Robot Surgical System was less expensive than the da Vinci Surgical System, which cost $1 million; the cost of an operation through telesurgery is not precise but must pay for the surgical system, the surgeon, contribute to paying for a year’s worth of ATM technology which runs between $100,000-$200,000. The first true and complete remote surgery was conducted on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean, with French surgeon in New York City performing a cholecystectomy on a 68-year-old female patient 6,230 km away in Strasbourg, France.
It was named Operation Lindbergh. After Charles Lindbergh’s pioneering transatlantic flight from New York to Paris. France Telecom provided the redundant fiberoptic ATM lines to minimize latency and optimize connectivity, Computer Motion provided a modified Zeus robotic system. After clinical evaluation of the complete solution in July 2001, the human operation was completed on 9/7/2001; the success and exposure of the procedure led the robotic team to use the same technology within Canada, this time using Bell Canada's public internet between Hamilton and North Bay, Ontario. While operation Lindbergh used the most expensive ATM fiber optics communication to ensure reliability and success of the first telesurgery, the follow on procedures in Canada used standard public internet, provisioned with QOS using MPLS QOS-MPLS. A series of complex laparoscopic procedures were performed where in this case, the expert clinician would support the surgeon, less experienced, operating on his patient; this resulted in patient receiving the best care possible while remaining in their hometown, the less experienced surgeon gaining valuable experience, the expert surgeon providing their expertise without travel.
The robotic team's goal was to go from Lindbergh's proof of concept to a real-life solution. This was achieved with over 20 complex laparoscopic operations between North Bay. Since Operation Lindbergh, remote surgery has been conducted many times in numerous locations. To date Dr. Anvari, a laparoscopic surgeon in Hamilton, has conducted numerous remote surgeries on patients in North Bay, a city 400 kilometres from Hamilton. Though he uses a VPN over a non-dedicated fiberoptic connection that shares bandwidth with regular telecommunications data, Dr. Anvari has not had any connection problems during his procedures. Rapid development of technology has allowed remote surgery rooms to become specialized. At the Advanced Surgical Technology Centre at Mt. Sinai Hospital in Toronto, the surgical room responds to the surgeon’s voice commands in order to control a variety of equipment at the surgical site, including the lighting in the operating room, the position of the operating table and the surgical tools themselves.
With continuing advances in communication technologies, the availability of greater bandwidth and more powerful computers, the ease and cost effectiveness of deploying remote surgery units is to increase rapidly. The possibility of being able to project the knowledge and the physical skill of a surgeon over long distances has many attractions. There is considerable research underway in the subject; the armed forces have an obvious interest since the combination of telepresence and telerobotics can save the lives of battle casualties by providing them with prompt attention in mobile operating theatres. Another potential advantage of having robots perform surgeries is accuracy. A study conducted at Guy’s Hospital in London, England compared the success of kidney surgeries in 304 dummy patients conducted traditionally as well as remotely and found that those conducted using robots were more successful in targeting kidney stones. In 2015, another test was conducted on the lag time involved in the robotic surgery.
A Florida hospital tested lag time created by the Internet for a simulated robotic surgery in Ft. Worth, more than 1,200 miles away from the surgeon, a
María Romero Cordero was a Chilean journalist and film critic. She is considered to be one of the pioneers of film and entertainment journalism in her country and Latin America, she was a recipient of the Lenka Franulic Award. María Romero Cordero was the sister of writer Alberto Romero and the aunt of journalist Graciela Romero, she studied for some time in English at the Faculty of Philosophy and Education at the University of Chile, did postgraduate work in preschool education at Mills College in the San Francisco Bay Area, thanks to a scholarship arranged by educator Amanda Labarca. She had the opportunity to visit Hollywood, the cradle of the American film industry, an experience that would influence her career, she had sentimental relationships with writer Manuel Rojas and the literary critic Raúl Silva Castro, but never married or had children. On her return to Chile in the late 1930s, she was hired as secretary to the writer Luis Enrique Délano as director of the magazine Ecran, where she began to participate in interviews and columns on film.
In 1939 she replaced Délano as director of Ecran, giving it her seal as a magazine dedicated to film on feminine and literary subjects. Romero remained in charge until 1960. Between 1961 and 1963 she lived in the United States, on her return she worked for a long time as a film commentator for the newspaper El Mercurio, she appeared on Televisión Nacional de Chile, where she became known for her cinematic critiques on the news program 60 Minutos. In 1972 she won the Lenka Franulic Award for journalism
The politics of Tuvalu takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the head of state, represented by the Governor-General, while the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government; the Constitution of Tuvalu states that it is "the supreme law of Tuvalu" and that "all other laws shall be interpreted and applied subject to this Constitution". In 1986 the Constitution adopted upon independence was amended in order to give attention to Tuvaluan custom and tradition as well as the aspirations and values of the Tuvaluan people; the changes placed greater emphasis on Tuvaluan community values rather than Western concepts of individual freedom. Tuvalu follows the Westminster system of representative democracy although Tuvalu is a non-partisan democracy and elections in Tuvalu take place without reference to formal political parties; the Electoral Act was amended in December 1999 to increase the membership of parliament from 12 to 15 MPs.
In August 2007 the Constitution was changed to increase the number of ministers from 5 to 7. Tuvaluans participated in the political institutions of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony during the transition to self-determination. A referendum was held in December 1974 to determine whether the Gilbert Islands and Ellice Islands should each have their own administration; as a consequence of the referendum the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony ceased to exist on 1 January 1976 and the separate British colonies of Kiribati and Tuvalu came into existence. In 2008 Tuvaluans rejected a constitutional referendum that proposed replacing the Queen of Tuvalu, with an elected president as the head of state. Queen Elizabeth II—as the Queen of Tuvalu—is the head of state, represented by the governor-general, appointed by the Queen on advice of the Prime Minister of Tuvalu; the prime minister is elected by the members of the parliament. The members elect the Speaker of the Parliament of Tuvalu, the presiding officer of the parliament.
The ministers that form the cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The Attorney-General sits in parliament, but does not vote: the parliamentary role of the Attorney-General is purely advisory; the current Attorney-General is Eselealofa Apinelu. The Office of the Prime Minister supports the prime minister and the deputy prime minister and has responsibility for the public service, the police, immigration and media; the Cabinet of Tuvalu consists of the Prime Minister and eight ministers, who are allocated the portfolios made up of the government departments that each minister supervises. Tuvalu maintains an independent judiciary consisting of a High Court, Magistrates Court on Funafuti and Island Courts and Lands Courts on each island. Appeals in relation to land disputes are made to the Lands Courts Appeal Panel. Appeals from the Island Courts and the Lands Courts Appeal Panel are made to the Magistrates Court, which has jurisdiction to hear civil cases involving up to $10,000.
The superior court is the High Court of Tuvalu as it has unlimited original jurisdiction and hears appeals from the lower courts. Hon Charles Sweeney QC is the current Chief Justice of Tuvalu. Rulings of the High Court can be appealed to the Court of Appeal of Tuvalu. From the Court of Appeal there is a right of appeal to Her Majesty in Council, i.e. the Privy Council in London. The law of Tuvalu comprises the Acts voted into law by the Parliament of Tuvalu and statutory instruments that become law; the legislative branch is the unicameral Parliament of Tuvalu or Palamene o Tuvalu has 15 members, elected for a four-year term in 7 double- and 1 single-seat constituencies. During the time that Tuvalu was a British Dependency the parliament was called the House of Assembly or Fale I Fono. In 2014 the office of the Chief Ombudsman was established, with the appointment of Sa'aga Talu Teafa; the primary role of the Chief Ombudsman is to work to achieve good governance through the enforcement of the Leadership Code Act.
Democratic values in Tuvalu are strong with free elections every 4 years by universal adult suffrage. There are no formal political parties so all candidates are non-partisan, election campaigns are on the basis of personal/family ties and reputation. Tuvalu has "about 6,000 eligible voters" – a little over half the country's population. Members of parliament have close ties to the island they represent; the northern islands in the country compete against the southern islands with the center holding the balance of power. Traditional chiefs still play a significant role in influencing island affairs on the outer islands. A long-held distinction between chiefs and commoners is disappearing, chiefs are now more selected on merit rather than by birth. Te Kakeega II is the statement of the national strategy for the sustainable development of Tuvalu, with goals intended to be achieved in the period 2005 to 2015. After consultations on each islands the National Summit on Sustainable Development, was held at the Tausoalima Falekaupule in Funafuti from 28 June to 9 July 2004.
The meeting resulted in the Malefatuga Declaration, the foundation of Te Kakeega II. Throughout the history of the Parliament of Tuvalu three women have been elected: Naama Maheu Latasi, from 1989 to 1997.
"Cowgirls Don't Cry" is a song written by Ronnie Dunn and Terry McBride of McBride & the Ride and recorded by American country music duo Brooks & Dunn. It was released in October 2008 as the final single on their studio album Cowboy Town. One month after its chart entry, it was re-released as a duet with Reba McEntire; the song is Brooks & Dunn's forty-first and final Top 10 hit on the Billboard country charts and McEntire's fifty-sixth. "Cowgirls Don't Cry" is a mid-tempo with a fiddle intro. Its lyric focuses on a female character. In the first verse, she is a little girl who has just been given a pony to ride, although she falls off, she does not cry. By the second verse, she is an adult, her husband is having an affair, although again she does not cry, she discovers in the third verse that her father is dying, places a phone call to him. He tells her, "Cowgirl, don't cry". An alternate version of this song that features Reba McEntire's vocals on the final chorus was released to radio after she and the duo performed the song on the Country Music Association Awards on Wednesday, November 12, 2008.
In addition, a video was released that featured both McEntire. Starting with the chart week of November 29, 2008, the song was credited on the U. S. country charts as "Brooks & Dunn featuring Reba McEntire". The Reba McEntire collaboration was released as a digital single on February 10, 2009; the duet version features a key change in the final chorus, not present in the original recording. This re-release is the version. On the chart week of January 31, 2009, the song entered Top Ten on the Billboard country singles charts, giving Brooks & Dunn their forty-first Top Ten hit and breaking a record held by Alabama for the most Top Ten country hits by a duo or group. In addition, it became McEntire's fifty-sixth Top Ten country hit, breaking Dolly Parton's record for the most Top Ten country hits for a solo female. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Plastics extrusion is a high-volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing, fencing, deck railings, window frames, plastic films and sheeting, thermoplastic coatings, wire insulation; this process starts by feeding plastic material from a hopper into the barrel of the extruder. The material is melted by the mechanical energy generated by turning screws and by heaters arranged along the barrel; the molten polymer is forced into a die, which shapes the polymer into a shape that hardens during cooling. The first precursors to the modern extruder were developed in the early 19th century. In 1820, Thomas Hancock invented a rubber "masticator" designed to reclaim processed rubber scraps, in 1836 Edwin Chaffee developed a two-roller machine to mix additives into rubber; the first thermoplastic extrusion was in 1935 by Paul Troester and his wife Ashley Gershoff in Hamburg, Germany. Shortly after, Roberto Colombo of LMP developed the first twin screw extruders in Italy.
In the extrusion of plastics, the raw compound material is in the form of nurdles that are gravity fed from a top mounted hopper into the barrel of the extruder. Additives such as colorants and UV inhibitors are used and can be mixed into the resin prior to arriving at the hopper; the process has much in common with plastic injection molding from the point of the extruder technology, although it differs in that it is a continuous process. While pultrusion can offer many similar profiles in continuous lengths with added reinforcing, this is achieved by pulling the finished product out of a die instead of extruding the polymer melt through a die; the material comes into contact with the screw. The rotating screw forces the plastic beads forward into the heated barrel; the desired extrusion temperature is equal to the set temperature of the barrel due to viscous heating and other effects. In most processes, a heating profile is set for the barrel in which three or more independent PID-controlled heater zones increase the temperature of the barrel from the rear to the front.
This allows the plastic beads to melt as they are pushed through the barrel and lowers the risk of overheating which may cause degradation in the polymer. Extra heat is contributed by the intense friction taking place inside the barrel. In fact, if an extrusion line is running certain materials fast enough, the heaters can be shut off and the melt temperature maintained by pressure and friction alone inside the barrel. In most extruders, cooling fans are present to keep the temperature below a set value if too much heat is generated. If forced air cooling proves insufficient cast-in cooling jackets are employed. At the front of the barrel, the molten plastic leaves the screw and travels through a screen pack to remove any contaminants in the melt; the screens are reinforced by a breaker plate. The screen pack/breaker plate assembly serves to create back pressure in the barrel. Back pressure is required for uniform melting and proper mixing of the polymer, how much pressure is generated can be "tweaked" by varying screen pack composition.
This breaker plate and screen pack combination eliminates the "rotational memory" of the molten plastic and creates instead, "longitudinal memory". After passing through the breaker plate molten plastic enters the die; the die is what gives the final product its profile and must be designed so that the molten plastic evenly flows from a cylindrical profile, to the product's profile shape. Uneven flow at this stage can produce a product with unwanted residual stresses at certain points in the profile which can cause warping upon cooling. A wide variety of shapes can be restricted to continuous profiles; the product must now be cooled and this is achieved by pulling the extrudate through a water bath. Plastics are good thermal insulators and are therefore difficult to cool quickly. Compared to steel, plastic conducts its heat away 2,000 times more slowly. In a tube or pipe extrusion line, a sealed water bath is acted upon by a controlled vacuum to keep the newly formed and still molten tube or pipe from collapsing.
For products such as plastic sheeting, the cooling is achieved by pulling through a set of cooling rolls. For films and thin sheeting, air cooling can be effective as an initial cooling stage, as in blown film extrusion. Plastic extruders are extensively used to reprocess recycled plastic waste or other raw materials after cleaning, sorting and/or blending; this material is extruded into filaments suitable for chopping into the bead or pellet stock to use as a precursor for further processing. There are five possible zones in a thermoplastic screw. Since terminology is not standardized in the industry, different names may refer to these zones. Different types of polymer will have differing screw designs, some not incorporating all of the possible zones. Most screws have these three zones: Feed zone: this zone feeds the resin into the extruder, the channel depth is the same throughout the zone. Melting zone: most of the polymer is melted in this section, the channel depth gets progressively smaller.
Metering zone (also
TV4 Sport is a Swedish sports television channel owned by television company TV4 AB, with the tabloid newspaper Expressen owning a minor share. In April 2014, a sports channel similar to TV4 Sport is launched as TV12 by the same company, replacing sv:TV4 Sport Xtra; this channel was called TV4 Sport Xtra, with the name changed to TV4 Sport as TV12 was launched). The channel was owned by Expressen who launched the channel on 17 March 2005, it was available in the analogue basic package from UPC cable, the digital "Medium" package from Com Hem and the "Family" package from Canal Digital on satellite. Sports rights used by the channel included matches from the football series Superettan and the Wimbledon. In May 2006, it was announced; the channel relaunched as "TV4 Sport-Expressen" with a new logo on 1 June. The deal meant that Sport-Expressen could use several sports rights held by TV4, including reruns of games from the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Another change was announced in May 2007. TV4 AB had increased their ownership 66.2 percent.
This will see the channel relaunch in September as "TV4 Sport". With the relaunch, it will take the space in the Com Hem basic package occupied by Eurosport, thereby increasing the penetration for the channel while decreasing it for a major competitor, it will get a broader content by introducing series and documentaries related to sports. The change was successful in increasing the ratings for TV4 Sport. In April 2008, TV4 Sport passed Eurosport as the most watched sports channel in Sweden. In January 2008, the channel was launched on the Viasat satellite platform. By the end of March 2008, TV4 received a licence to broadcast the channel in the Swedish digital terrestrial television network; the licence was valid from 1 April, but it didn't launch partly due to a disagreement between TV4 and Boxer over the pricing of the channel. TV4 Sport was launched on 11 May 2008, after TV4 and Boxer had reached an agreement that would make the channel available until 30 September. UEFA Europa League Superettan Swedish Cup Damallsvenskan Football League Championship Football League One Serie A TIM Copa del Rey Eredivisie Ligue 1 UFC SHL of ice hockey Elitserien of bandy Swedish Super League of floorball Table Tennis League Bundesliga of handball