Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine after France had ceded it to in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans". In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.
That year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor, at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde. In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich, he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg, Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87". Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they believed him." In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, others. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group.
However, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures, he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986; the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his sculptures. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.
She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959, he died in Basel, Switzerland. - "I hereby declare that on February 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children...and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." - "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother... Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things....through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." - "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, man himself.
Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." -"Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unpre
Bill Brandt was a British photographer and photojournalist. Although born in Germany, Brandt moved to England, where he became known for his images of British society for such magazine as Lilliput and Picture Post he made distorted nudes, portraits of famous artists and landscapes, he is considered to be one of the most important British photographers of the 20th century. Born in Hamburg, son of a British father and German mother, Brandt grew up during World War I, during which his father, who had lived in Germany since the age of five, was interned for six months by the Germans as a British citizen. Brandt disowned his German heritage and would claim he was born in South London. Shortly after the war, he contracted tuberculosis and spent much of his youth in a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland, he traveled to Vienna to undertake a course of treatment by psychoanalysis. He was, in any case, was taken under the wing of socialite Eugenie Schwarzwald; when Ezra Pound visited the Schwarzwald residence, Brandt made his portrait.
In appreciation, Pound offered Brandt an introduction to Man Ray, whose Paris studio and darkroom Brandt would access in 1930. In 1933 Brandt began documenting all levels of British society; this kind of documentary was uncommon at that time. Brandt published two books showcasing The English at Home and A Night in London, he was a regular contributor to magazines such as Lilliput, Picture Post, Harper's Bazaar. He documented the Underground bomb shelters of London during The Blitz in 1940, commissioned by the Ministry of Information. During World War II, Brandt concentrated on many subjects – as can be seen in his "Camera in London" but excelled in portraiture and landscape. To mark the arrival of peace in 1945 he began a celebrated series of nudes, his major books from the post-war period are Literary Britain, Perspective of Nudes, followed by a compilation of his best work, Shadow of Light. Brandt became Britain's most influential and internationally admired photographer of the 20th century. Many of his works have important social commentary but poetic resonance.
His landscapes and nudes are dynamic and powerful using wide-angle lenses and distortion. Brandt died in London in 1983. 2004: Bill Brandt: A Centenary Retrospective, 24 March – 25 July 2004, Victoria & Albert Museum, London. "A selection of rare and famous prints from the Brandt archive". 2013: Shadow and Light, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Curated by Sarah Hermanson Meister. 2013: Bill Brandt, Early Prints from the Collection of the Family @Edwynn Houk, Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. "A selection of rare and famous prints from the Brandt archive". In 2010, an English Heritage blue plaque for Bill Brandt was erected in London at 4 Airlie Gardens, Kensington, W8. Delany, Paul: Bill Brandt: A Life, Stanford University Press 2004 Brandt, Bill. Camera in London. London: Focal Press, 1948. Brandt, Bill; the English at Home. New York: C. Scribner's. Introduction by Raymond Mortimer. Brandt, Bill. Literary Britain. London: Cassell and Company Ltd. 1951. Introduction by John Hayward. Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt: Perspective of Nudes.
London: The Bodley Head, 1961. Brandt, Bill. Perspectives sur le Nu. Paris: Editions Prisma, 1961. Brandt, Bill. Ombres d'une Ile. Paris: Editions Le Belier Prisma, 1966. Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt: Early Photographs, 1930-1942. London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1975. Brandt, Bill. Shadow of Light. London: Bodley Head, 1966. Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt: Nudes 1945-1980 The Gordon Fraser and Bedford 1980 Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1980. Brandt, Bill. London in the Thirties. London: G. Fraser, 1983. Brandt, Bill. Portraits: Photographs by Bill Brandt. London: G. Fraser, 1982. Brandt, Bill. Nudes: Bill Brandt. Bulfinch Press, January 1980 Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt. London: Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. 1976 Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt: Photographs 1928-1983. Thames and Hudson, 1993 Brandt, Bill. Bill Brandt. Milan: Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri, 1982. Brandt, Bill. Brandt: The Photographs of Bill Brandt. Thames and Hudson, 1999 Brandt, Bill. Brandt: Nudes Thames and Hudson, 2012 Brandt, Bill. Shadow and Light, Sarah Hermanson Meister, The Museum of Modern Art, New York Burgin, Victor.
Thinking Photography. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1982 Goldberg, Vicki. Photography in Print. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1981 Haworth-Booth, Mark. Contemporary British Photography: Into the 1990s. Aperture Foundation, Inc. January 1989 Iverson, Margaret. Psychoanalysis. Art History 17, September 1994 Jay, Bill. Occam's Razor: Outside-in Viewing Contemporary Photography. Germany: Nazraeli Press, 1994 Jeffrey, Ian. Photography: Concise History. Thames and Hudson, World of Art Series, 1981, reprinted Robert; the Picture Post Album. London, 1993 Kelly, Jain. Nude:Theory. Lustrum Press, Inc. 1979. Mellor, David. Bill Brandt: Behind the Camera Photographs 1923-1983. New York:Aperture, 1985 Read, John. Portrait of an Artist: Henry Moore. London, 1979. Time Life Books Editors; the Print Time Life International, 1972. Wells, Liz. Photography, A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 1997. Warburton, Nigel. Bill Brandt. Oxford: Clio Press, 1993. Hopkinson, Tom. Poetry: Bill Brandt - Photographer. Lilliput 11:130-41 V&A Working methods, accessed, 30 March 2010 The Bill Brandt Archive – biography and images.
18th-century French literature
18th-century French literature is French literature written between 1715, the year of the death of King Louis XIV of France, 1798, the year of the coup d'État of Bonaparte which brought the Consulate to power, concluded the French Revolution, began the modern era of French history. This century of enormous economic, social and political transformation produced two important literary and philosophical movements: during what became known as the Age of Enlightenment, the Philosophes questioned all existing institutions, including the church and state, applied rationalism and scientific analysis to society. In common with a similar movement in England at the same time, the writers of 18th century France were critical and innovative, their lasting contributions were the ideas of liberty, humanitarianism and progress, which became the ideals of modern western democracy. The 18th century saw the gradual weakening of the absolute monarchy constructed by Louis XIV, its power slipped away during the Regency of Philippe d'Orléans, the long regime of King Louis XV, when France lost the Seven Years' War with England, lost much of its empire in Canada and India.
France was forced to recognize the growing power of Prussia. The Monarchy ended with King Louis XVI, unable to understand or control the forces of the French Revolution; the end of the century saw the birth of the United States, with the help of French ideas and military forces. French society was hierarchal with the Clergy and Nobility at the top and The Third Estate who included everyone else. Members of the Third Estate the more wealthy and influential, began to challenge the cultural and social monopoly of the aristocracy; the Rise of the Third Estate was influential in the overthrow of the monarchy in the French Revolution in 1789. French thinking evolved thanks to major discoveries in science by Newton, Volta, Buffon and Monge, among others, their rapid diffusion throughout Europe through newspapers, scientific societies, theaters. Faith in science and progress was the driving force behind the first French Encyclopedia of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert; the authority of the Catholic Church was weakened by the conflicts between high and low clergy by the conflict between the State and Jesuits, who were expelled from the Kingdom in 1764.
The Protestants achieved legal status in France in 1787. The church hierarchy was in continual battle with the Lumieres, having many of their works banned, causing French courts to sentence a Protestant, Jean Calas, to death in 1762 for blasphemy, an act, condemned by Voltaire; the explorations of the New World and the first encounters with American Indians brought a new theme into French and European Literature. The exchange of ideas with other countries increased. British ideas were important such ideas as constitutional monarchy and romanticism, which influenced French writers in the following century; the visual arts of the 18th century were decorative and oriented toward giving pleasure, as exemplified by the Regency Style and Louis XV Style, the paintings of François Boucher, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Chardin, portrait painters Quentin de La Tour and Van Loo. Toward the end of the century, a more sober style appeared, aimed at illustrating scenery and moral values exemplified by Greuze, Hubert Robert and Claude Joseph Vernet.
The leading figures in French music were François Couperin et Jean-Philippe Rameau, but they were overshadowed by other European composers of the century, notably Vivaldi, Mozart Haendel and Haydn. For art and architecture in the 18th century, see French Rococo and Neoclassicism Continuing the work of the so-called "Libertines" of the 17th century, the critical spirit of such writers as Bayle and Fontenelle, the writers who were called the lumières denounced, in the name of reason and moral values, the social and political oppressions of their time, they challenged the idea of absolute monarchy and demanded a social contract as the new basis of political authority, demanded a more democratic organization of central power in a constitutional monarchy, with a separation of powers among the executive and judicial branches of government Voltaire fought against the abuses of power by the government, such as censorship and letters of cachet, which allowed imprisonment without trial, against the collusion of the church and monarchy, for an "enlightened despotism" where kings would be advised by philosophers.
These writers, others such as the Abbé Sieyès, one of the main authors of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, became known as the philosophes. They came from the wealthy upper class or Thir
19th-century French literature
19th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire. The period covered spans the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate and Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X, the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans, the Second Republic, the Second Empire under Napoleon III, the first decades of the Third Republic. French literature enjoyed enormous international success in the 19th century; the first part of the century was dominated by Romanticism, until around the mid-century Realism emerged, at least as a reaction. In the last half of the century, "naturalism", "parnassian" poetry, "symbolism", among other styles, were competing tendencies at the same time; some writers did form into literary groups defined by a program or manifesto. In other cases, these expressions were pejorative terms given by critics to certain writers or have been used by modern literary historians to group writers of divergent projects or methods.
These labels can be useful in describing broad historical developments in the arts. French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred de Vigny, their influence was felt in theatre, prose fiction. The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement. French romanticism used forms such as the historical novel, the romance, the "roman noir" or Gothic novel. Foreign influences played a big part in this those of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Byron and Friedrich Schiller. French Romanticism had ideals diametrically opposed to French classicism and the classical unities, but it could express a profound loss for aspects of the pre-revolutionary world in a society now dominated by money and fame, rather than honor.
Key ideas from early French Romanticism: "Le vague des passions": Chateaubriand maintained that while the imagination was rich, the world was cold and empty, civilization had only robbed men of their illusions. "Le mal du siècle": a sense of loss and aporia, typified by melancholy and lassitude. Romanticism in England and Germany predate French romanticism, although there was a kind of "pre-romanticism" in the works of Senancour and Jean-Jacques Rousseau at the end of the 18th century. French Romanticism took definite form in the works of François-René de Chateaubriand and Benjamin Constant and in Madame de Staël's interpretation of Germany as the land of romantic ideals, it found early expression in the sentimental poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine. The major battles of romanticism in France were in the theater; the early years of the century were marked by a revival of classicism and classical-inspired tragedies with themes of national sacrifice or patriotic heroism in keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, but the production of Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1830 marked the triumph of the romantic movement on the stage.
The dramatic unities of time and place were abolished and comic elements appeared together and metrical freedom was won. Marked by the plays of Friedrich Schiller, the romantics chose subjects from historic periods and doomed noble characters or misunderstood artists. Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of its recognized leader, he was prolific alike in poetry and fiction. Other writers associated with the movement were the austere and pessimistic Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier a devotee of beauty and creator of the "Art for art's sake" movement, Alfred de Musset, who best exemplifies romantic melancholy. All three wrote novels and short stories, Musset won a belated success with his plays. Alexandre Dumas, père wrote other romantic novels in an historical setting. Prosper Mérimée and Charles Nodier were masters of shorter fiction. Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, a literary critic, showed romantic expansiveness in his hospitality to all ideas and in his unfailing endeavour to understand and interpret authors rather than to judge them.
Romanticism is associated with a number of literary salons and groups: the Arsenal, the Cénacle, the salon of Louis Charles Delescluze, the salon of Antoine Deschamps, the salon of Madame de Staël. Romanticism in France defied political affiliation: one finds both "liberal", "conservative" and socialist strains; the expression "Realism", when being applied to literature of the 19th century, implies the attempt to depict cont
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i
Leonora Carrington OBE was a British-born Mexican artist, surrealist painter, novelist. She lived most of her adult life in Mexico City and was one of the last surviving participants in the Surrealist movement of the 1930s. Carrington was a founding member of the Women's Liberation Movement in Mexico during the 1970s. Carrington was born in Clayton Green, Lancashire, England, her father was a wealthy textile manufacturer, her mother, was Irish. She had three brothers: Patrick and Arthur. Educated by governesses and nuns, she was expelled from two schools, including New Hall School, for her rebellious behaviour, until her family sent her to Florence, where she attended Mrs Penrose's Academy of Art, she briefly, attended St Mary's convent school in Ascot. In 1927, at the age of ten, she saw her first Surrealist painting in a Left Bank gallery in Paris and met many Surrealists, including Paul Éluard, her father opposed her career as an artist. She returned to England and was presented at Court, but according to her, she brought a copy of Aldous Huxley's Eyeless in Gaza to read instead.
In 1935, she attended the Chelsea School of Art in London for one year, with the help of her father's friend Serge Chermayeff, she was able to transfer to the Ozenfant Academy of Fine Arts established by the French modernist Amédée Ozenfant in London. She became familiar with Surrealism from a copy of Herbert Read's book, given to her by her mother, but she received little encouragement from her family to forge an artistic career; the Surrealist poet and patron Edward James was the champion of her work in Britain. Some works are still hanging at James' former family home West Dean College in West Dean, West Sussex. In 1936, Leonora saw the work of the German surrealist Max Ernst at the International Surrealist Exhibition in London and was attracted to the Surrealist artist before she met him. In 1937, Carrington met Ernst at a party held in London; the artists returned together to Paris, where Ernst promptly separated from his wife. In 1938, leaving Paris, they settled in Saint Martin d'Ardèche in southern France.
The new couple supported each other's artistic development. The two artists created sculptures of guardian animals to decorate their home in Saint Martin d'Ardèche. In 1939, Carrington painted a Portrait of Max Ernst as a capture of some ambivalences in their relationship; this portrait was not her first Surrealist work though. Before that, between 1937–38, Leonora painted Self-portrait called The Inn of the Dawn Horse, it is now exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sporting white jodhpurs and a wild mane of hair, Carrington is perched on the edge of a chair in this curious, dreamlike scene, with her hand outstretched toward the prancing hyena and her back to the tailless rocking horse flying behind her. With the outbreak of World War II Ernst, German, was arrested by the French authorities for being a "hostile alien". With the intercession of Paul Éluard, other friends, including the American journalist Varian Fry, he was discharged a few weeks later. Soon after the Nazis invaded France, Ernst was arrested again, this time by the Gestapo, because his art was considered by the Nazis to be "degenerate".
He managed to escape and, leaving Carrington behind, fled to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, a sponsor of the arts. After Ernst's arrest, Carrington was fled to Spain. Paralyzing anxiety and growing delusions culminated in a final breakdown at the British Embassy in Madrid, her parents had her hospitalised. She was given "convulsive therapy" and was treated with the drugs cardiazol, a powerful anxiolytic drug, Luminal, a barbiturate. After being released into the care of a nurse who took her to Lisbon, Carrington ran away and sought refuge in the Mexican Embassy. Meanwhile, Ernst had married Peggy Guggenheim in New York in 1941; that marriage ended a few years later. Ernst and Carrington never resumed their relationship. Three years after being released from the asylum and with the encouragement of André Breton, Carrington wrote about her psychotic experience in her novel Down Below. In this, she explained how she had a nervous breakdown, didn't want to eat, left Spain; this is. She illustrates all, done to her: ruthless institutional therapies, sexual assault, hallucinatory drugs, unsanitary conditions.
It has been suggested that the events of the book should not be taken given Carrington's state at the time of her institutionalization. She created art to depict her experience, such as her Portrait of Dr. Morales and Map of Down Below. Following the escape to Lisbon, Carrington arranged passage out of Europe with Renato Leduc, a Mexican Ambassador. Leduc was a friend of Pablo Picasso, agreed to a marriage of convenience with Carrington so that she would be accorded the immunity given to a diplomat's wife. Leduc spirited Carrington away to Mexico, which she grew to love and where she lived, on and off, for the rest of her life; the pair divorced in 1943. Events from this period continued to inform her work. After spending part of the 1960s in New York City, Carrington worked in Mexico once again. While in Mexico, she was a
Paul Klee was a Swiss-born artist. His individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism and Surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively, he and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, his musicality. First of all, the art of living. Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of German music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee and Swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, née Frick, his sister Mathilde was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen. Their father came from Tann and studied singing, piano and violin at the Stuttgart Conservatory, meeting there his future wife Ida Frick. Hans Wilhelm Klee was active as a music teacher at the Bern State Seminary in Hofwil near Bern until 1931. Klee was able to develop his music skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him throughout his life.
In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they in 1897, after a number of changes of residence, moved into their own house in the Kirchenfeld district. From 1886 to 1890, Klee visited primary school and received, at the age of 7, violin classes at the Municipal Music School, he was so talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary member of the Bern Music Association. In his early years, following his parents’ wishes, Klee focused on becoming a musician, he stated, "I didn't find the idea of going in for music creatively attractive in view of the decline in the history of musical achievement." As a musician, he played and felt bound to traditional works of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, but as an artist he craved the freedom to explore radical ideas and styles. At sixteen, Klee’s landscape drawings show considerable skill. Around 1897, Klee started his diary, which he kept until 1918, which has provided scholars with valuable insight into his life and thinking.
During his school years, he avidly drew in his school books, in particular drawing caricatures, demonstrating skill with line and volume. He passed his final exams at the "Gymnasium" of Bern, where he qualified in the Humanities. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, "After all, it’s rather difficult to achieve the exact minimum, it involves risks." On his own time, in addition to his deep interests in music and art, Klee was a great reader of literature, a writer on art theory and aesthetics. With his parents' reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and Franz von Stuck, he seemed to lack any natural color sense. He recalled, "During the third winter I realized that I would never learn to paint." During these times of youthful adventure, Klee spent much time in pubs and had affairs with lower class women and artists' models. He had an illegitimate son in 1900. After receiving his Fine Arts degree, Klee went to Italy from October 1901 to May 1902 with friend Hermann Haller.
They stayed in Rome and Naples, studied the master painters of past centuries. He exclaimed, "the Vatican have spoken to me. Humanism wants to suffocate me." He responded to the colors of Italy, but sadly noted, "that a long struggle lies in store for me in this field of color." For Klee, color represented the optimism and nobility in art, a hope for relief from the pessimistic nature he expressed in his black-and-white grotesques and satires. Returning to Bern, he lived with his parents for several years, took occasional art classes. By 1905, he was developing some experimental techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blackened pane of glass, resulting in fifty-seven works including his Portrait of My Father. In the years 1903–05 he completed a cycle of eleven zinc-plate etchings called Inventions, his first exhibited works, in which he illustrated several grotesque characters, he commented, "though I'm satisfied with my etchings I can't go on like this. I’m not a specialist." Klee was still dividing his time with music, playing the violin in an orchestra and writing concert and theater reviews.
Klee married Bavarian pianist Lily Stumpf in 1906 and they had one son named Felix Paul in the following year. They lived in a suburb of Munich, while she gave piano lessons and occasional performances, he kept house and tended to his art work, his attempt to be a magazine illustrator failed. Klee's art work progressed for the next five years from having to divide his time with domestic matters, as he tried to find a new approach to his art. In 1910, he had his first solo exhibition in Bern, which travelled to three Swiss cities. In January 1911 Alfred Kubin encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire's Candide, his resultant drawings were published in a 1920 version of the book edited by Kurt Wolff. Around this time, Kl