Order of Saint Louis
The Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis is a dynastic order of chivalry founded 5 April 1693 by King Louis XIV, named after Saint Louis. It was intended as a reward for exceptional officers, notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles. By the authorities of the French Republic, it is considered a predecessor of the Legion of Honour, with which it shares the red ribbon. Although abolished by the government authorities of the July Revolution in 1830 following the French Revolution, its activities carried on as a dynastic order of the sovereign royal family; as such, it is still recognised by the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry. The King was the Grand Master of the order, the Dauphin was automatically a member as well; the Order had three classes: Grand-Croix Commandeur Chevalier The entire order included 8 Grand Crosses, 28 Commanders and a variable number of Knights. Officers of the Order included, after a Trésorier, a Greffier and a Huissier; the badge of the order consisted of a portrait of Saint Louis surrounded by the motto « LUD M IN 1693 ».
The reverse features a sword interlaced with a laurel crown and a white sash, with the inscription « BELL VIRTUTIS PRAEM ». Knights wore the badge suspended from a ribbon on the breast, Commanders wore a red ribband over the right shoulder, recipients of the Grand Cross wore the ribband as well as a star on the left breast; the general assembly of the Order was held annually on 25 August, the feast day of Saint Louis, in the residence of the King. Conditions for being inducted did not include nobility. Members of the Order received a pension. Hereditary nobility was granted to a knight's son and grandsons. Another decoration, the Institution of Military Merit was created for the Protestant officers in service of the French king; until the death of Louis XIV, the medal was awarded to outstanding officers only, but it came to be an award that most officers would receive during their career. On 1 January 1791, during the French Revolution, a decree changed the name to décoration militaire, it was subsequently withdrawn on 15 October 1792.
One of the first acts of Louis XVIII was to reinstate the Order of Saint Louis, using it to award officers of the Royal and Imperial armies alike. In 1830 the new king Louis-Philippe abolished the order, never reinstated. Louis, by the grace of God King of Navarre, to all present and yet to come, hail; the officers of our troops have distinguished themselves by so many actions of considerable virtue and courage, in the conquest which it pleased God to bless the justice of our arms, ordinary awards becoming insufficient to the affection and the thankfulness which we have for them, we have deemed it necessary to seek new ways to reward their zeal and fidelity. In this view have we decided to establish a purely military Order to which, in addition to the external marks of honour which are associated to it, we shall guarantee revenues and pensions which shall rise in proportion to them growing more and more worthy through their behaviour. We have decided that only officers still serving in our troops shall be introduced and that virtue and distinguished service in our armies shall be the only criteria to enter.
We shall in the future give a particular attention to increase the advantages of this order, so that we shall have the satisfaction to always be able to grant graces to the officers, on the other hand, seeing rewards guaranteed by valour, they would every day bear renewed ardour in deserving them by their actions. In these causes, with the advice of our council, our certain science, full power and royal authority, we have created and built, by the present, our military Order with the name of Saint Louis, with the forms, statutes and rules as follow: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis—includes photographs, explanations and a 20,000 name list of recipients Histoire de l'Ordre royal & militaire de Saint-Louis—History of the Order
A lugger is a class of boat used as traditional fishing boats off the coasts of France and Scotland. It is a small sailing vessel with lug sails set on two or more masts and lug topsails. According to Skeat, the term "lugger" may come from Dutch, logger meaning "slow ship", East Friesian, log meaning "slow". British IslesCoble, used on the English east coast from Yorkshire to Northumberland Cornish lugger Fifie, a herring drifter of the Scottish east coast Hastings lugger Manx nickey Manx nobby Sgoth Niseach, dipping lug Continental EuropeBarca-longa, of the Iberian and Mediterranean coasts Breton chasse-marée French lugger, of the coast of Normandy Mystery, lugger Spirit of Mystery, replica of the lugger Mystery Sophie Theresia Leopold Janikowski sailed in a lugger to Cameroon in 1882 Shearwood, Ken Evening Star: the story of a Cornish lugger. Truro: D. Bradford Barton Cornish Luggers: an online guide Cornish Luggers: an online guide.
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust, known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu, published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927. He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Proust was born in the Paris Borough of Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July 1871, two months after the Treaty of Frankfurt formally ended the Franco-Prussian War, he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Much of In Search of Lost Time concerns the vast changes, most the decline of the aristocracy and the rise of the middle classes, that occurred in France during the Third Republic and the fin de siècle. Proust's father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and Asia, he wrote numerous books on medicine and hygiene.
Proust's mother, Jeanne Clémence, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace. Literate and well-read, she demonstrated a well-developed sense of humour in her letters, her command of English was sufficient to help with her son's translations of John Ruskin. Proust was raised in his father's Catholic faith, he was baptized and confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith. He became an atheist and was something of a mystic. By the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, thereafter he was considered a sickly child. Proust spent long holidays in the village of Illiers; this village, combined with recollections of his great-uncle's house in Auteuil, became the model for the fictional town of Combray, where some of the most important scenes of In Search of Lost Time take place. In 1882, at the age of eleven, Proust became a pupil at the Lycée Condorcet, but his education was disrupted by his illness. Despite this he excelled in literature. Thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time.
Despite his poor health, Proust served a year in the French army, stationed at Coligny Barracks in Orléans, an experience that provided a lengthy episode in The Guermantes' Way, part three of his novel. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline, his reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swann's Way, the first part of his large-scale novel, published in 1913. At this time, he attended the salons of Mme Straus, widow of Georges Bizet and mother of Proust's childhood friend Jacques Bizet, of Madeleine Lemaire and of Mme Arman de Caillavet, one of the models for Madame Verdurin, mother of his friend Gaston Arman de Caillavet, with whose fiancée he was in love, it is through Mme Arman de Caillavet, he made the acquaintance of her lover. Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, Proust obtained a volunteer position at Bibliothèque Mazarine in the summer of 1896.
After exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned. He never worked at his job, he did not move from his parents' apartment until after both were dead, his life and family circle changed markedly between 1900 and 1905. In February 1903, Proust's brother, Robert Proust and left the family home, his father died in November of the same year. And most crushingly, Proust's beloved mother died in September 1905, she left him a considerable inheritance. His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate. Proust spent the last three years of his life confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel, he died of pneumonia and a pulmonary abscess in 1922. He was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Proust was involved in publishing from an early age. In addition to the literary magazines with which he was associated, in which he published while at school, from 1890 to 1891 he published a regular society column in the journal Le Mensuel.
In 1892, he was involved in founding a literary review called Le Banquet, throughout the next several years Proust published small pieces in this journal and in the prestigious La Revue Blanche. In 1896 Les plaisirs et les jours, a compendium of many of these early pieces, was published; the book included a foreword by Anatole France, drawings by Mme Lemaire in whose salon Proust was a frequent guest, who inspired Proust's Mme Verdurin. She invited him and Reynaldo Hahn to her château de Réveillon in summer 1894, for three weeks in 1895; this book was so sumptuously produced that it cost twice the normal price of a book its size. That year Proust began working on a novel, published in 1952 and titled Jean Santeuil by his posthumous editors. Many of the themes developed in In Search of Lost Time find their first articulation in this unfinished work, including the enigma of me
France Antarctique was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, which existed between 1555 and 1567, had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio. The colony became a haven for the Huguenots, was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1567. Europeans first arrived in Brazil in April 1500, when a fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral on behalf of the Portuguese crown arrived in present-day Porto Seguro, Bahia. Except for Salvador and São Vicente, the territory still remained unexplored half a century later. Early expeditions of French Norman sailors to the New World have been suggested: Jean Cousin has been said to have discovered the New World in 1488, four years before Christopher Columbus, when he landed in Brazil around the mouth of the Amazon, but this remains unproven, his travels were succeeded by that of Binot Paulmier de Gonneville in 1504 onboard L'Espoir, properly recorded and brought back a Native American person named Essomericq. Gonneville affirmed that when he visited Brazil, French traders from Saint-Malo and Dieppe had been trading there for several years.
France continued to trade with Portugal loading Brazilwood, for its use as a red dyes for textiles. In 1550, in the royal entry for Henry II of France, at Rouen, about fifty men depicted naked Indians and a battle between the Tupinamba allies of the French, the Tabajaras Indians. On November 1, 1555, French vice-admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, a Catholic knight of the Order of Malta, who would help the Huguenots to find a refuge against persecution, led a small fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and colonists, took possession of the small island of Serigipe in the Guanabara Bay, in front of present-day Rio de Janeiro, where they built a fort named Fort Coligny; the fort was named in honor of Gaspard de Coligny, an admiral who supported the expedition and would use the colony in order to protect his Reformed co-religionists. To the still undeveloped mainland village, Villegaignon gave the name of Henriville, in honour of Henry II, the King of France, who knew of and approved the expedition, had provided the fleet for the trip.
Villegaignon secured his position by making an alliance with the Tamoio and Tupinambá Indians of the region, who were fighting the Portuguese. Unchallenged by the Portuguese, who took little notice of his landing, Villegaignon endeavoured to expand the colony by calling for more colonists in 1556, he sent one of his ships, the Grande Roberge, to Honfleur, entrusted with letters to King Henry II, Gaspard de Coligny and according to some accounts, the Protestant leader John Calvin. After one ship was sent to France to ask for additional support, three ships were financed and prepared by the king of France and put under the command of Sieur De Bois le Comte, a nephew of Villegaignon, they were joined by 14 Calvinists from Geneva, led by Philippe de Corguilleray, including theologians Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartrier. The new colonists, numbering around 300, included 5 young women to be wed, 10 boys to be trained as translators, as well as 14 Calvinists sent by Calvin, Jean de Léry, who would write an account of the colony.
They arrived in March 1557. The relief fleet was composed of: The Petite Roberge, with 80 soldiers and sailors was led by Vice Admiral Sieur De Bois le Comte; the Grande Roberge, with about 120 on board, captained by Sieur de Sainte-Marie dit l'Espine. The Rosée, with about 90 people, led by Captain Rosée. Doctrinal disputes arose between Villegaignon and the Calvinists in relation to the Eucharist, in October 1557 the Calvinists were banished from Coligny island as a result, they settled among the Tupinamba until January 1558, when some of them managed to return to France by ship together with Jean de Léry, five others chose to return to Coligny island where three of them were drowned by Villegaignon for refusing to recant. In 1560 Mem de Sá, the new Governor-General of Brazil, received from the Portuguese government the command to expel the French. With a fleet of 26 warships and 2,000 soldiers, on 15 March 1560, he attacked and destroyed Fort Coligny within three days, but was unable to drive off their inhabitants and defenders, because they escaped to the mainland with the help of the Native Brazilians, where they continued to live and to work.
Admiral Villegaignon had returned to France in 1558, disgusted with the religious tension that existed between French Protestants and Catholics, who had come with the second group. Urged by two influential Jesuit priests who had come to Brazil with Mem de Sá, named José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega, who had played a big role in pacifying the Tamoios, Mem de Sá ordered his nephew, Estácio de Sá to assemble a new attack force. Estácio de Sá founded the city of Rio de Janeiro on March 1, 1565, fought the Frenchmen for two more years. Helped by a military reinforcement sent by his uncle, on January 20, 1567, he imposed final defeat on the French forces and decisively expelled them from Brazil, but died a month from wounds inflicted in the battle. Coligny's and Villegaignon's dream had lasted a mere 12 years. In response to the two attempts of France to conquer territory in Brazil, between 1612 and 1615, the Portuguese crown decided to expand its colonization efforts in Brazil. Other projects were made for the occupation of parts of Brazil in 1579, following the death of Sebastia
Baltic Slavic piracy
In the Baltic Sea region, groups of pirates of Slavic descent lived dating as far back as the 8th to 14th centuries. Baltic Slavs, whose agriculture was not developed in early 800, were in dire need of resources since the dry islets were the only ones capable of cultivation and cattle were scarce. Flax could be grown, was turned into linen or canvas for cloth and used as a form of currency. At this time the Baltic Slavs were known for bee-keeping, trading their honey and wax to the Germans for use in church candles and in sealing documents. Once trade began, the German form of currency circulated amongst the group. After this point information on specifics of the trade between Germans and Slavs is unknown through the ninth century. During this time period it is known that the Slavs crossed paths with the Danes, leading to a series of fateful events; the Slavs of the Baltic had engaged in piratical activity before, while the Danes felt that trade and piracy went hand in hand, making for an interesting attempt at commercial relations.
Baltic Slavs soon became interested in expanding, attempting to get a hold of the rivers in Denmark in order to control the Wendish trade. The Danes would not stand for this. With the decline of Danish power after the death of their leader in 1035 fueling the Saxon Germans to fight for the possession of the rivers the Baltic Slavs were fighting for, the bloodshed raged on and it was not until the Wendish Crusade of 1147 that the Slavs were sent beyond the point of recovery, ending their 100-year campaign and therefore fixing German domination over the Baltic rivers and Wendish trade. Between the years of 1375 through 1398, Queen Margaret of Denmark and the various dukes of Mecklenburg attempted to bring their countries together; this attempt instigated piratical activity since the countries would not always agree with one another. Both countries used the piracy, present to their advantage, enabling the pirates to attack the opposing country. Pirates took this use to their advantage encouraging them to pillage the targeted country without the worry of possible consequence.
Little did the queen and dukes know that once piracy was provoked, there was no easy way of stopping it. During this time the merchants of the Hanseatic League objected to the practice of using piracy, where fleets of pirate ships would attack and cause their trade to suffer irreparable losses from that point on. On March 14, 1377 it was reported that 200 pirates were in the area, while a month this number rose to 400. After this time measures were taken as an attempt to reduce the amount of piracy, resorting to equipping peace ships and making them patrol the seas from the beginning of sailing season until November 11 of that year. Trading vessels were warned to not sail unless it was done in groups. To prevent people from harboring a pirate it was made known that those who did harbor a pirate or any stolen good would be treated the same as the pirates themselves. Duke Albert of Mecklenburg felt that he would not be accused of doing such a thing, seeing that he believed the pirates were supporters of his and would refrain from releasing his name.
The Duke was never caught while Queen Margaret was not so lucky, accused of protecting and enabling the pirates. In response to the accusations against Margaret, a truce was drawn to last from September 1381 through November 11, 1383, listing the names of pirate chiefs which included Danish nobles, squires, bailiffs and vassals of the queen; these efforts proved to be useless and piracy continued, leaving the merchant Hansa to patrol the seas at a great risk. In 1384 Queen Margaret demanded; the Hansa wrote a list of demands in return for the providence, asking for compensation due to their great suffering at the hands of the pirates, but Queen Margaret made no commitments to these demands. Upon meeting with the Hansa in 1385 she was informed of their refusal to surrender the providence, so she took formal possession of the providence against the Hansa will; the Hansa were soon informed of this, unable to object to her actions. If they were to revolt the Hansa would be facing a war against Queen Margaret, they were in no shape for such extreme actions.
Through their cooperation the queen had no need to use her piratical partners, leading to the eventual end of piracy for that time. The inevitable reappearance of pirates occurred in 1389 once Mecklenburg declared war upon Denmark, where the pirates were now under Mecklenburg’s control, it was made known that Mecklenburg would equip war ships and issue letters of marque to freebooters, placing the pirates under full legal protection. The pirates began to carry their stolen goods to Stockholm where they became known as Vitalienbrüder, which translates to “victual brothers”. After Stockholm they captured the islands Bornholm and Gotland as their headquarters due to the location. Here the pirates recognized that all members of a crew should be treated dividing shares calling themselves Likendeeler or “equal dividers”, their motto was “Godes vrende unde al der werlt vyande” which translates to “God’s friends and the foe of all the world”. Despite being friend or foe of the Likendeeler, ships traveling through the Baltic were attacked where the crew was thrown overboard or murdered.
Merchants in Strausland who claimed to have captured the pirates treated them in like manner, forcing the pirates into barrels with their heads sticking out at one end, storing them on deck as human cargo to be brought to the gallows. Piratical activity continued until the Hansa became an intermediate for Denmark and Mecklenburg where, this time
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. The commission known as a letter of marque, empowers the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners and crew. A percentage share went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was once common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors. In practice the legality and status of privateers has been vague. Depending on the specific government and the time period, letters of marque might be issued hastily and/or the privateers might take actions beyond what was authorized by the letters.
The privateers themselves were simply pirates who would take advantage of wars between nations to gain semi-legal status for their enterprises. By the end of the 19th century the practice of issuing letters of marque had fallen out of favor because of the chaos it caused and its role in inadvertently encouraging piracy. A privateer is similar to a mercenary except that, whereas a mercenary group receives a set fee for services and has a formal reporting structure within the entity that hires them, a privateer acts independently with no compensation unless the enemy's property is captured; the letter of marque of a privateer would limit activity to one particular ship, specified officers. The owners or captain would be required to post a performance bond. In the United Kingdom, letters of marque were revoked for various offences; some crews were treated as harshly as naval crews of the time, while others followed the comparatively relaxed rules of merchant ships. Some crews were made up of professional merchant seamen, others of pirates and convicts.
Some privateers ended up becoming pirates, not just in the eyes of their enemies but of their own nations. William Kidd, for instance, began as a legitimate British privateer but was hanged for piracy. While privateers such as Kidd were commissioned to hunt pirates, privateering itself was blamed for piracy. Privateering commissions were easy to obtain during wartime but when the war ended and privateers were recalled, many refused to give up the lucrative business and turned to piracy. Colonial officials exacerbated the problem by issuing commissions to known pirates, giving them legitimacy in exchange for a share of the profits or open bribes; the French Governor of Petit-Goave gave buccaneer Francois Grogniet blank privateering commissions, which Grogniet traded to Edward Davis for a spare ship so the two could continue raiding Spanish cities under a guise of legitimacy. New York Governors Jacob Leisler and Benjamin Fletcher were removed from office in part for their dealings with pirates such as Thomas Tew, to whom Fletcher had granted commissions to sail against the French, but who ignored his commission to raid Mughal shipping in the Red Sea instead.
Kidd himself committed piracy during his privateering voyage and was tried and executed upon his return. Boston minister Cotton Mather lamented after the execution of pirate John Quelch: "Yea, Since the Privateering Stroke, so degenerates into the Piratical. Privateers who were considered legitimate by their governments include: Francis Drake Pieter van der Does Amaro Pargo Hayreddin Barbarossa Robert Surcouf Lars Gathenhielm Entrepreneurs converted many different types of vessels into privateers, including obsolete warships and refitted merchant ships; the investors would arm the vessels and recruit large crews, much larger than a merchantman or a naval vessel would carry, in order to crew the prizes they captured. Privateers cruised independently, but it was not unknown for them to form squadrons, or to co-operate with the regular navy. A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588. Privateers avoided encounters with warships, as such encounters would be at best unprofitable.
Still, such encounters did occur. For instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late; the United States used mixed squadrons of privateers in the American Revolutionary War. Following the French Revolution, French privateers became a menace to British and American shipping in the western Atlantic and the Caribbean, resulting in the Quasi-War, a brief conflict between France and the United States, fought at sea, to the Royal Navy's procuring Bermuda sloops to combat the French privateers; the practice dated to at least the 13th century but the word itself was coined sometime in the mid-17th century. England, the United Kingdom, used privateers to great effect and suffered much from other nations' privateering. During the 15th century, "piracy became an increasing problem and merchant communities such as Bristol began to resort to self-hel