A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd, is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor. Because ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, they cannot move an aircraft from a standstill. A ramjet-powered vehicle, requires an assisted take-off like a rocket assist to accelerate it to a speed where it begins to produce thrust. Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3; this type of engine can operate up to speeds of Mach 6. Ramjets can be useful in applications requiring a small and simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles. Weapon designers are looking to use ramjet technology in artillery shells to give added range, they have been used though not efficiently, as tip jets on the end of helicopter rotors. Ramjets differ from pulsejets; as speed increases, the efficiency of a ramjet starts to drop as the air temperature in the inlet increases due to compression.
As the inlet temperature gets closer to the exhaust temperature, less energy can be extracted in the form of thrust. To produce a usable amount of thrust at yet higher speeds, the ramjet must be modified so that the incoming air is not compressed nearly as much; this means that the air flowing through the combustion chamber is still moving fast, in fact it will be supersonic—hence the name supersonic-combustion ramjet, or scramjet. L'Autre Monde: ou les États et Empires de la Lune was the first of three satirical novels written by Cyrano de Bergerac, that are considered among the first science fiction stories. Arthur C Clarke credited this book with inventing the ramjet, being the first example of a rocket-powered space flight; the ramjet was conceived in 1913 by French inventor René Lorin, granted a patent for his device. Attempts to build a prototype failed due to inadequate materials. In 1915, Hungarian inventor Albert Fonó devised a solution for increasing the range of artillery, comprising a gun-launched projectile, to be united with a ramjet propulsion unit, thus giving a long range from low muzzle velocities, allowing heavy shells to be fired from lightweight guns.
Fonó submitted his invention to the Austro-Hungarian Army. After World War I, Fonó returned to the subject of jet propulsion, in May 1928 describing an "air-jet engine" which he described as being suitable for high-altitude supersonic aircraft, in a German patent application. In an additional patent application, he adapted the engine for subsonic speed; the patent was granted in 1932 after four years of examination. In the Soviet Union, a theory of supersonic ramjet engines was presented in 1928 by Boris Stechkin. Yuri Pobedonostsev, chief of GIRD's 3rd Brigade, carried out a great deal of research into ramjet engines; the first engine, the GIRD-04, was designed by I. A. Merkulov and tested in April 1933. To simulate supersonic flight, it was fed by air compressed to 20,000 kilopascals, was fueled with hydrogen; the GIRD-08 phosphorus-fueled ramjet was tested by firing it from an artillery cannon. These shells may have been the first jet-powered projectiles to break the speed of sound. In 1939, Merkulov did further ramjet tests using a two-stage rocket, the R-3.
That August, he developed the first ramjet engine for use as an auxiliary motor of an aircraft, the DM-1. The world's first ramjet-powered airplane flight took place in December 1940, using two DM-2 engines on a modified Polikarpov I-15. Merkulov designed a ramjet fighter "Samolet D" in 1941, never completed. Two of his DM-4 engines were installed on the Yak-7 PVRD fighter, during World War II. In 1940, the Kostikov-302 experimental plane was designed, powered by a liquid fuel rocket for take-off and ramjet engines for flight; that project was cancelled in 1944. In 1947, Mstislav Keldysh proposed a long-range antipodal bomber, similar to the Sänger-Bredt bomber, but powered by ramjet instead of rocket. In 1954, NPO Lavochkin and the Keldysh Institute began development of a Mach 3 ramjet-powered cruise missile, Burya; this project competed with the R-7 ICBM being developed by Sergei Korolev, was cancelled in 1957. On March 1, 2018 President Vladimir Putin announced Russia had developed a nuclear powered ramjet cruise missile capable of extended long range flight.
In 1936, Hellmuth Walter constructed a test engine powered by natural gas. Theoretical work was carried out at BMW and Junkers, as well as DFL. In 1941, Eugen Sänger of DFL proposed a ramjet engine with a high combustion chamber temperature, he constructed large ramjet pipes with 500 millimetres and 1,000 millimetres diameter and carried out combustion tests on lorries and on a special test rig on a Dornier Do 17Z at flight speeds of up to 200 metres per second. With petrol becoming scarce in Germany due to wartime conditions, tests were carried out with blocks of pressed coal dust as a fuel, which were not successful due to slow combustion; the US Navy developed a series of air-to-air missiles under the name of "Gorgon" using different propulsion mechanisms, including ramjet propulsion. The ramjet Gorgon IVs, made by Glenn Martin, were tested in 1948 and 1949 at Naval Air Station Point Mugu; the ramjet engine itself was designed at the University of Southe
École Centrale Paris
École Centrale Paris was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Founded in 1829, it was among the most selective grandes écoles. Rooted in rich entrepreneurial tradition since the industrial revolution era, it served as the cradle for top-level engineers and executives who continue to constitute a major part of the industry leadership in France. Since the 19th century, its model of education for training generalist engineers inspired the establishment of several engineering institutes around the world, such as the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, Faculté polytechnique de Mons in Belgium, as well as other member schools of the Ecole Centrales Group alliance in France, Morocco and India. In 2015, École Centrale Paris merged with Supélec to form CentraleSupélec, a constituent institute of the University of Paris-Saclay. "Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries."
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures was founded in 1829 as a private institute by Alphonse Lavallée, a lawyer and a prominent businessman from Nantes, who put forward most of his personal capital into founding the school, together with three top scientists who became its founding associates: Eugène Peclet, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Théodore Olivier. Notably, Lavallée was a shareholder of Le Globe, which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian movement; the founding vision of École Centrale was to train multidisciplinary engineers who will become the first "doctors of factories and mills" of the then-emerging industrial sector in France, at a time when most of the other engineering schools trained students for public service. As the scientific discoveries in this era were beginning to have a major impact on industrial development in Europe, a new breed of engineers with a broad and rigorous knowledge of sciences and mathematics were needed in order for France to develop its industry and compete amongst the world's superpowers.
The school was located in various premises in Paris, including Hotel Salé and buildings which now belong to Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Lavallée served as the first president of École Centrale. In 1857, Lavallée transferred the ownership of the school to the French state in order to ensure its sustainability. Under Napoleon's initiative for an imperial university, the school was temporarily renamed as École Impériale des Arts et Manufactures. In 1862, graduates of the school were awarded accredited graduate diplomas in engineering, with the official academic title of'ingénieur des arts et manufactures', the first of its kind in France; the school was transferred in 1969 to a new campus located in Châtenay-Malabry. The Châtenay-Malabry campus was designed by architect Jean Fayeton, was inaugurated by President Georges Pompidou, accompanied on this occasion by Robert Galley; the school was renamed as École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. In 2015, the school formed a strategic alliance with Supélec to create CentraleSupélec, part of the University of Paris-Saclay.
The new campus is located in Gif-sur-Yvette 20 km from the center of Paris. École Centrale Paris was one of the Centrale Graduate Schools associated as the Groupe Centrale network with its sister institutes. Since 1837, the school had established several international partnerships with the world's leading universities, such as California Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, ETH Zurich, Georgia Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Indian Institutes of Technology, KAIST, Princeton University, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Politecnico di Milano, National University of Singapore, Stanford University, University of Toronto, Tsinghua University, TU Delft and Technische Universität München, it was a founding member of the TIME network among top engineering schools in Europe, a member of the UniverSud Paris and the CESAER association of European engineering schools. Located in the Hôtel de Juigné, the main campus of the school was transferred to rue Montgolfier in 1884, where it stayed until 1969.
Its current location neighbours the Parc de Sceaux. Former location of the École Centrale, rue Montgolfier in Paris: The school is now located at Châtenay-Malabry, Hauts-de-Seine, a southern suburb of Paris, next to the Parc de Sceaux and its Château de Sceaux. Within the main campus at Châtenay Malabry, ECP hosts eight laboratories: Molecular and Macroscopic Energy, Combustion System Analysis and Macroeconomics Modeling Industrial Engineering Chemical Engineering and Materials Processing Laboratory Applied Mathematics Soil and Structure Mechanics Technology and Strategy Solids Structure and PropertiesMost of the 2000 students at École Centrale Paris stay in dedicated on-campus student residences, located near the research labs and accessible via public transport. Following the merger of the school with Supelec, now forming CentraleSupelec, the progressive move of the campus has started from Chatenay-Malabry to Gif-sur-Yvette. Most French students who were admitted to École Centrale Paris had completed 2 to 3 years of post high school education in sciences through the classes préparatoires or
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
L’Aérophile was a French aviation magazine published from 1893 to 1947. It has been described as "the leading aeronautical journal of the world" around 1910. L'Aérophile was run for many years by Georges Besançon. In 1898 it became the official journal of the Aéro Club of France. Important developments in early aviation were documented in its pages: Octave Chanute's April 1903 speech to the Aéro-Club describing the excitement of the gliding experiments done by his group in 1896/7 and of the Wright brothers was printed in April, 1903. Ferdinand Ferber's 1902 glider, the first in Europe modeled on those of the Wright brothers, was illustrated in the February 1903 issue; the journal published illustrations of ailerons on Robert Esnault-Pelterie’s glider in June 1905, the ailerons were copied afterward. In December 1905 and January 1906 journal articles confirmed that the Wright brothers had flown a controlled, powered airplane, at a time when many readers did not believe this; the journal covered at length Alberto Santos-Dumont’s flights of 1906, which were the first airplane flights in Europe.
Editor Georges Besançon wrote that Wilbur Wright’s 1908 flights in France had erased doubts about the Wright brothers' previous experiments. L'Aérophile published René Lorin’s article of 1 September 1908 in which he first proposed the ramjet. Historian Charles Gibbs-Smith criticised L’Aérophile for not publishing the official report on the tests of Clément Ader’s 1897 Avion III when this report was made public in 1910, thus failing to oppose the claim that Ader's machine had made a controlled flight in 1897. L'Aérophile was a monthly publication in its first years started to come out twice a month in 1910. From 1893-4, L'Aérophile was associated with the Union aérophile de France. Starting at the end of 1898 it was the official journal of the Aero Club of France. In years it was an official publication of the alumni association of the French national aeronautical college; some early issues have been scanned and are available at archive.org thanks to the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Other issues are online at google books.
Some portion of the L'Aérophile archives are kept by the US Library of Congress. "Gallica archives of L'Aérophile issues"