Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union. It was established on 21 July 1940, during World War II, as a Soviet puppet state in the territory of the independent Republic of Latvia after it had been occupied on June 17, 1940 by the Soviet Army, in conformity with the terms of the 23 August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Following the Welles Declaration of July 23, 1940, the annexation of Latvia into the Soviet Union on 5 August 1940 was not recognized as legitimate by the United States, the European Community, recognition of it as the nominal fifteenth constituent republic of the USSR was withheld for five decades, its territory was subsequently conquered by Nazi Germany in June–July 1941, before being retaken by the Soviets in 1944–1945. Latvia continued to exist as a de jure independent country with a number of countries continued to recognize Latvian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in the name of their former governments.
Soviet rule came to the end during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The first elected parliament of the Latvian SSR passed a declaration "On the Renewal of the Independence of the Republic of Latvia" on May 4, 1990, restoring the official name of the State of Latvia as the Republic of Latvia; the full independence of the Republic of Latvia was restored on 21 August 1991, during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt and recognized by the Soviet Union on 6 September 1991. On September 24, 1939, the USSR entered the airspace of Estonia, flying numerous intelligence gathering operations. On September 25, Moscow demanded that Estonia sign a Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty that would allow the USSR to establish military bases and to station troops on its soil. Latvia was next in line; the authoritarian government of Kārlis Ulmanis accepted the ultimatum, signing the Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty on October 5, 1939. On June 16, 1940, after the USSR had invaded Lithuania, it issued an ultimatum to Latvia, followed by the Soviet occupation of Latvia on June 17.
Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov accused Latvia and the other Baltic states of forming a military conspiracy against the Soviet Union, so Moscow presented ultimatums, demanding new concessions, which included the replacement of governments with new ones, "determined" to "fulfill" the treaties of friendship "sincerely" and allowing an unlimited number of troops to enter the three countries. Hundreds of thousands Soviet troops entered Estonia, Lithuania; these additional Soviet military forces far outnumbered the armies of each country. Ulmanis government decided that, in conditions of international isolation and the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, it was better to avoid bloodshed and an unwinnable war; the Latvian army did not fire a shot and was decimated by purges and included in the Red Army. Ulmanis' government resigned and was replaced by a left-wing government created under instructions from the USSR embassy. Up until the election of the People's Parliament on July 14–15, 1940 there were no public statements about governmental plans to introduce a Soviet political order or to join the Soviet Union.
Soon after the occupation, the Communist Party of Latvia was legalized as the only legal party and presented the "Working People's Bloc" for the elections. It was the only permitted participant in the election, after an attempt by other politicians to include the Democratic Bloc on the ballot was prevented by the government, its office was closed, election leaflets confiscated and its leaders arrested. The election results. All Soviet army personnel present in the country were allowed to vote; the newly elected People's Parliament convened on 21 July to declare the creation of the Latvian SSR and request admission to the Soviet Union on the same day. Such a change in the basic constitutional order of the state was illegal under the Constitution of Latvia, because such a change could only be enacted after a plebiscite with two-thirds of the electorate approving. On August 5, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union completed the process of annexation by accepting the Latvian petition, formally incorporated Latvia into the Soviet Union.
Some of the Latvian diplomats stayed in the West and the Latvian Diplomatic Service continued to advocate the cause of Latvia's freedom for the next 50 years. Following the Soviet pattern, the real power in the republic was in the hands of the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Latvia, while the titular head of the republic and the head of the executive were in subordinate positions. Therefore, the history of Soviet Latvia can broadly be divided in the periods of rule by the First Secretaries: Jānis Kalnbērziņš, Arvīds Pelše, Augusts Voss, Boris Pugo. In the following months of 1940 the Soviet Constitution and criminal code were introduced; the sham elections of July 1940 were followed by elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union in January 1941. The remaining Baltic Germans and anyone who could claim to be one emigrated to the German Reich. On August 7, 1940 all print media and printing houses were nationalized. Most of the existing magazines and newspa
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Latvia the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states, it is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2; the country has a temperate seasonal climate. After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, a rule executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. However, by the 1930s the country became autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis; the country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Communist regime's illegal takeover. It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index, its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities. Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule and Soviet occupation, Latvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
Until World War II, Latvia had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. Latvia is predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, predominantly Roman Catholic; the Russian population are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, WTO. For 2014, the country was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July 2014. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats; the name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes, which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians; the terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance languages from "Letonia" and in several Germanic languages from "Lettland".
Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Balts established trade routes to Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals. By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Curonians, Selonians, Semigallians, as well as the Finnic tribe of Livonians speaking a Finnic language. In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Vanema, Bandava, Duvzare, Megava, Pilsāts, Upmale, Sēlija, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century; the first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. The local people, did not convert to Christianity as as the Church had hoped. German crusaders were sent, or more decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs.
Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. In the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of today's Latvia. Together with Southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. In 1282, the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. Riga became an important point of east-west trading and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. After the Livonian War, Livonia fell under Lithuanian rule; the southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of
Brainstorm (Latvian band)
Brainstorm is a Latvian pop/rock band. The band became popular internationally in 2000, when they finished third in the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 with the song "My Star"; the band was formed in the summer of 1989 in Jelgava, Latvia by four former classmates – Renārs Kaupers, Jānis Jubalts, Gundars Mauševics and Kaspars Roga. Soon after, their classmate Māris Mihelsons joined the band. In September 1992 Brainstorm released their first single "Jo tu nāc" and finished 9th in the Latvian popular music contest, the "Michrophones" questionnaire. After this came their first album, Vairāk nekā skaļi 1993; the main single from that album is "Ziema", which has a video. 1994 was the quietest period in the band's history, although in that year they released the maxi-single Vietu nav with only 500 copies. In 1995 one of the band's earlier songs "Lidmašīnas" became one of the most commercially successful singles in Latvia and song of the year on Radio Super FM; the band performed in Germany and the United Kingdom.
After experimenting with alternative music, Brainstorm returned to mainstream music and released their next album Veronika. The most popular songs from the album were "Dārznieks", "Apelsīns" and "Lidmašīnas", attendance at the band's concerts increased. At the end of the year, Latvian radio stations started to play the song "Tavas mājas manā azotē", which topped Latvian Airplay charts for 9 weeks and became the biggest hit of 1996; the next step was signing a contract with Microphone Records, one of the biggest record companies in Latvia and releasing the next album, Viss ir tieši tā kā tu vēlies in 1997. The album attained gold status; the main tracks from the album were "Viss ir tieši tā kā tu vēlies", "Mans draugs", "Neatgriešanās" and "Tavas mājas manā azotē". Subsequently, the band received offers to manage TV and radio shows and to take part in musical performances at Dailes theatre in Riga as part of The Good Soldier Švejk, which became the most visited theatre show in Latvia. Brainstorm's first international single was recorded in 1998 in Germany with Volker Hinkel, the producer of Fool's Garden.
This single was "Under my wing", the English version of "Tavas mājas manā azotē". The single was aired in the Baltic States and other countries. Soon after this, the band was awarded the Grand Prix prize at the Karlshamn music festival in Sweden. In 1999, Brainstorm released their fourth album Starp divām saulēm and their first international album Among the Suns, the English version of "Starp divām saulēm"; the album was recorded in Denmark. All five singles from the album – "Puse no sirds", "Starp divām saulēm", "Lec", "Prom uz siltajām salām" and "Tu izvēlējies palikt" reached the top of the Latvian radio charts shortly after release. On 13 May 2000 in Sweden, in only 3 minutes, Prāta Vētra or Brainstorm became an internationally noticed band when they participated in the 45th Eurovision Song Contest, their song "My Star" achieved 3rd place among 24 contestants with their country's debut. "My Star" was played internationally thereafter. In August 2000, after more than 10 years of performing, The best of Brainstorm'89-'99 was released and included the band's most popular and unreleased songs.
The Online album was released in 2001 or, in the Latvian version, – Kaķēns, kurš atteicās no jūrasskolas. The album featured the track "Maybe." The video was shot in Prague. The second single "Waterfall" achieved success, had a video, shot in Finland. Another track "Spogulīt, spogulīt", contains the lines of the fairytale about Snow White by the Brothers Grimm; the next album Dienās, kad lidlauks pārāk tāls or A Day Before Tomorrow was released in 2003. The lead singles of this album – "Colder" and "A day before tomorrow" – were produced by German producer Alex Silva; the majority of the album was produced by UK producer Steve Lyon. The album was recorded in Denmark. In 2003 Brainstorm were the support band for The Rolling Stones at their concert in Prague. Brainstorm presented a saxophone to Mick Jagger for his birthday. In 2004, one of the band founders died on the night between 22nd and 23 May in a car accident on the highway between Riga and Jelgava – bassist Gundars Mauševics or as his friends called him – Mumiņš.
Despite this loss, the other band members continued working. In 2004 Brainstorm and a well-known Russian band Bi-2 recorded the song "Skol'zkie Ulitsy", included on their album "Inomarki", released on 2 March 2004 and which reached number 1 on radio charts in Latvia and Russia. In 2005 Brainstorm released their album Četri krasti. In its recording a fifth person took part: bass guitarist Ingars Viļums, he took part in a tour over Russia which presented the album. The album featured tracks such as "Četri krasti", "Rudens" and "Pilots Tims". On 21 August 2005 Brainstorm played. At the beginning of 2006 Brainstorm released an English version of Četri krasti – Four Shores; the lead single "Thunder Without Rain" became popular in most of Europe and received airplay on MTV Europe and VH1 Europe. They received the MTV Europe Music award for Best Baltic Act in 2006. In 2009, War, an album written singularly in Latvian and Russian was released into Eastern Europe with reasonable success, the English version and Seconds, followed a year with more popular audience feedback, although the meanings of several songs had t
Katrina Elizabeth Leskanich is an American musician and former lead singer of British pop rock band Katrina and the Waves whose song "Walking on Sunshine" was an international hit in 1985 and who in 1997 won the Eurovision Song Contest for the United Kingdom with the song "Love Shine a Light". Leskanich was born in Kansas, she is of Irish and Czech ancestry. Her father was a colonel in the United States Air Force, Katrina and her five siblings moved as children. After she was born, they moved from Kansas to New Mexico, California, Georgia, Massachusetts, Stuttgart, in West Germany, the Netherlands before arriving in the United Kingdom in 1976; the band's earliest incarnation was as The Waves, a group that played in and around Cambridge, from 1975 to 1977 and featured guitarist Kimberley Rew and drummer Alex Cooper. This incarnation of the Waves never issued any recordings, broke up when Rew left to join the Soft Boys. A more direct ancestor of Katrina and the Waves was the band Mama's Cookin', a pop cover band hailing from Feltwell, England.
This band, founded in 1978, featured Leskanich on vocals and keyboards, her then-boyfriend Vince de la Cruz on vocals and lead guitar, Marcos de la Cruz on drums. By late 1980, Alex Cooper had joined the band with Bob Jakins on bass. Mama's Cookin' proceeded to gig in England over the next two years, specialising in covers of songs by American acts such as Heart, Linda Ronstadt, ZZ Top; when The Soft Boys broke up in 1981, Rew contacted his old Wave-mate Cooper to see about renewing their musical partnership. Cooper convinced Rew to join Mama's Cookin', the five-piece group was renamed The Waves after the band Rew and Cooper had been in together in the mid-1970s; the Waves were fronted by singer/songwriter/guitarist Rew, who brought a wealth of original material to the band. Leskanich, meanwhile only sang lead vocals on the cover tunes in the band's repertoire. However, over the first year of the Waves' existence, Rew began to write material for Leskanich to sing, she was soon the primary vocalist.
The Waves made their initial recorded appearances on a 1982 single. The Waves issued their debut EP Shock Horror in 1982. Around this time, bassist Jakins left the band, he was not replaced, as de la Cruz took over on bass and the band was rechristened Katrina and the Waves. In early 1983, the fledgling band recorded—at their own expense—an LP of their original material designed to be sold at gigs. Rew wrote all the songs on this LP; the LP was shopped around to various labels, but only Attic Records in Canada responded with an offer. Although they were based in England and The Waves' first album Walking on Sunshine was released only in Canada; the album garnered enough critical radio play to merit a Canadian tour. In 1984, the group released a follow-up album in Canada, with Leskanich now handling all the lead vocals. Rew was still the primary songwriter, but de la Cruz was responsible for a few songs, including the Canadian airplay hit "Mexico". In 1984, their song "Going Down to Liverpool" was covered by The Bangles, which added to their profile.
With the group building a fan base with their recordings and extensive touring, major label interest began to build, Katrina and the Waves signed an international deal with Capitol Records in 1985. For the first Capitol album, the band re-recorded, remixed, or overdubbed 10 songs from their earlier Canadian releases to create their self-titled international debut album in 1985; the Katrina and the Waves album was a substantial critical and commercial success, the group had a worldwide hit with the song "Walking on Sunshine,". A Grammy award nomination for "Best New Artist" followed, as did constant touring, both of which helped to spur sales of new releases. A follow-up single to "Walking on Sunshine" called "Do You Want Crying" became a top 40 US hit, reaching No. 37 in the late summer of 1985. However, the band's follow-up album to Katrina and the Waves didn't meet with the same measure of success; the album did spin off a minor UK and US hit in the form of the Rew-penned "Is That It?", "Sun Street" was a UK Top 30 hit in 1986.
However, Capitol dropped the band. The band subsequently recorded a 1989 album for Capitol-distributed SBK Records called Break of Hearts, a harder, more rock-oriented effort than their previous releases; the album included "That's the Way" which reached No. 16 in the US. Throughout the nineties and the Waves recorded steadily, though most releases were available only in continental Europe and/or Canada, they recorded the song "We Gotta Get Out of This Place" with Eric Burdon for the TV series "China Beach" in 1990. In 1997, after having somewhat faded into obscurity, the band won the Eurovision Song Contest 1997 for the United Kingdom with "Love Shine a Light". Reacting to the win, Leskanich said it was the second l
Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Order of the White Star
The Order of the White Star was instituted on 1936. The Order of the White Star is bestowed on Estonian citizens and foreigners to give recognition for services rendered to the Estonian state; the Order of the White Star comprises one special collar class, five basic classes, one medal: Special class: Collar of the Order. It is a golden necklet; the five main classes: First Class – It has two different types, the male version and the female version. The male version of the Order of the White Star has wider ribbons than the female class. Second Class – It has two different types, the male version and the female version; the male version of the Order of the White Star is worn around the neck, female recipients wear the insignia mounted on a bow on the left chest. Third Class – It has two different types, the male version and the female version; the male version of the Order of the White Star has a full neck ribbon, while a "bow and tails" ribbon is worn in the female version. The Third Class doesn't come with the Star of the Order, just the ribbon and the attached Order Badge.
Fourth Class – It has just one type but the single ribbon has a rosette on it. Fifth Class – It has just one type but the single ribbon does not have a rosette on it; the Order has a single Medal Class. The medal class has the same design as the fifth main class, but the badge itself is backed in a circular section of silver; the ribbon is red coloured, is attached to all classes, the medal of the Order of the White Star. The First and Third classes have a double ribbon design, the First has a crossed design, the Second and Third classes have the ribbons meeting at the ends to attach to the Order's Star; the Fourth and the Medal classes have a single red ribbon design. Category:Recipients of the Order of the White Star The Order of the White Star, president.ee Teenetemärkide seadus, Elektrooniline Riigiteataja An example of a donation diploma List of bearers of the Order of the White Star