The twelve Earthly Branches or Terrestrial Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, zodiac. This system was built from observations of the orbit of Jupiter. Chinese astronomers divided the celestial circle into 12 sections to follow the orbit of 歲星 Suìxīng. Astronomers rounded the orbit of Suixing to 12 years. Suixing sometimes called Sheti. In correlative thinking, the 12 years of the Jupiter cycle identify the 12 months of the year, 12 animals, directions and Chinese hour in the form of double hours; when a Branch is used for a double hour, the listed periods are meant. When used for an exact time of a day, it is the center of the period. For instance, 马 means a period from 11 am to 1 pm. Chinese seasons stars. Many Chinese calendrical systems have started the new year on the second new moon after the winter solstice; the Earthly Branches are today used with the Heavenly Stems in the current version of the "traditional Chinese calendar" and in Taoism.
The Ganzhi combination is a new way to mark time. The Branches are as old as the Stems, but the Stems were tied to the ritual calendars of Chinese kings, they were not part of the calendrical systems for the majority of Chinese people. Some cultures assign different animals: Vietnam replaces the Ox and Rabbit with the water buffalo and cat, respectively. In the traditional Kazakh version of the 12 year animal cycle, the Dragon is substituted by a snail, the Tiger appears as a leopard. Though Chinese has words for the four cardinal directions, Chinese mariners and astronomers/astrologers preferred using the 12 directions of the Earthly Branches, somewhat similar to the modern-day practice of English-speaking pilots using o'clock for directions. Since 12 points were not enough for sailing, 12 midpoints were added. Instead of combining two adjacent direction names, they assigned new names: For the four diagonal directions, appropriate trigram names of I Ching were used. For the rest, the Heavenly Stems were used.
According to the Five Elements theory, east is assigned to wood, the Stems of wood are 甲 and 乙. Thus, they were assigned clockwise to the two adjacent points of the east; the 24 directions are: Advanced mariners such as Zheng. An additional midpoint was called by a combination of its two closest basic directions, such as 丙午 for the direction of 172.5°, the midpoint between 丙, 165°, 午, 180°. Sexagesimal cycle Sheng Xiao Celestial stem Chinese calendar "Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-04
Oghuz Khagan or Oghuz Khan was a legendary and semi-mythological khan of the Turks. Some Turkic cultures use this legend to describe their ethnic origins and the origin of the system of political clans used by Turkmen and other Oghuz Turks; the various versions of the narrative preserved in many different manuscripts has been published in numerous languages as listed below in the references. The narrative is entitled Oghuznama, or narrative of the Oghuz; the legend of Oghuz Khan is one of a number of different origin narratives that circulated among the Turkic peoples of Central Asia. It was first recorded in the 13th century; the anonymous Uyghur vertical script narrative of the 14th century, preserved in Paris, is a manuscript, already being modified to fit with stories of the Mongol Conquest, as Paul Pelliot has shown. But it does not have any suggestions of Oghuz Khan's significance as Islamizer of the Turks, it does not include the figure of Moghul as an ancestor of Oghuz Khan. Abū’l-Ghāzī’s 17th century version follows Rashīd ad-Dīn’s Islamized and Mongolized version of the early 14th century.
But in his account, Oghuz Khan is more integrated into Islamic and Mongol traditional history. The account begins with descent from Adam to Noah, who after the flood sends his three sons to repopulate the earth: Ham was sent to Hindustan, Sam to Iran, Yafes went to the banks of the Itil and Yaik rivers and had eight sons named Turk, Saqlab, Ming, Chin and Tarikh; as he was dying he established Turk as his successor. Turk was succeeded by Tutek, the eldest of his four sons. Four generations after him came two sons and Moghul, who divided his kingdom between them. Moghul Khan begat Qara Khan. For three days he would not nurse and every night he appeared in his mother's dream and told his mother to become a Muslim or he would not suckle her breast, his mother converted, Abū’l-Ghāzī writes that the Turkic peoples of Yafes from the time of Qara Khan had been Muslim but had lost the faith. Oghuz Khan restored Islamic belief. According to a Turkish legend, Oghuz was born in Central Asia as the son of Qara Khan, leader of a Turkic people.
He started talking as soon. He asked for kymyz and meat. After that, he grew up supernaturally fast and in only forty days he became a young adult. At the time of his birth, the lands of the Turkic people were preyed upon by a dragon named Kiyant. Oghuz went to kill the dragon, he set a trap for the dragon by hanging a freshly killed deer in a tree killed the great dragon with a bronze lance and cut off its head with a steel sword. After Oghuz killed Kiyant, he became a people's hero, he formed a special warrior band from the forty sons of forty Turkic begs, thus gathering the clans together. But his Chinese stepmother and half-brother, the heir to the throne, became intimidated by his power and convinced Qara Khan that Oghuz was planning to dethrone him. Qara Khan decided to assassinate Oghuz at a hunting party. Oghuz instead killed his father and became the khan, his stepmother and half-brother fled to Chinese lands. After Oghuz became the khan, he went to the steppes by himself to pray to Tengri.
While praying, he saw a circle of light coming from the sky with a supernaturally beautiful girl standing in the light. Oghuz married her, he had three sons whom he named Güneş, Ay, Yıldız. Oghuz went hunting and saw another mesmerizing girl inside a tree, he married her as well and had three more sons whom he named Gök, Dağ, Deniz. After his sons were born, Oghuz Khan invited all of his begs. At the feast, he gave this order to his lords: "I am became your Khan, he sent letters to the Kings of the Four Directions, saying: "I am the Khan of the Turks. And I will be Khan of the Four Corners of the Earth. I want your obedience." Altun Khan, on the right corner of the earth, submitted his obedience, but Urum, Khan of the left corner, did not. Oghuz marched his army to the west. One night, a large male wolf with grey fur came to his tent in an aura of light, he said, "Oghuz, you want to march against Urum, I want to march before your army." So, the grey sky-wolf guided them. The two armies fought near the river İtil.
Oghuz Khan won the battle. Oghuz and his six sons carried out campaigns in Turkistan, Iran and Syria, with the grey wolf as their guide, he became the Khan of the Four Corners of the Earth. In his old age, Oghuz saw a dream, he sent them to the east and the west. His elder sons found a golden bow in the east, his younger sons found three silver arrows in the west. Oghuz Khan broke the golden bow into three pieces and gave each to his three older sons Gün, Ay, Yıldız, he said, "My older sons, take this bow and shoot your arrows to the sky like this bow." He gave the three silver arrows to his three younger sons Gök, Dağ and Deniz and said, "My younger sons, take these silver arrows. A bow shoots arrows and you are to be like the arrow." He passed his lands on to his
President for life
President for life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy. The title sometimes confers on the holder the right to appoint a successor; the usage of the title of "president for life" rather than a traditionally autocratic title, such as that of a monarch, implies the subversion of liberal democracy by the titleholder. Indeed, sometimes a president for life can proceed to establish a self-proclaimed monarchy, such as Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe in Haiti. A president for life may be regarded as a de facto monarch. In fact, other than the title, political scientists face difficulties in differentiating a state ruled by a president for life and a monarchy. In his proposed plan for government at the United States Constitutional Convention Alexander Hamilton proposed that the chief executive be a governor elected to serve for good behavior, acknowledging that such an arrangement might be seen as an elective monarchy.
It was for that reason that the proposal was rejected. Most leaders who have proclaimed themselves president for life have not in fact gone on to serve a life term. Most have been deposed long before their death while others fulfill their title by being assassinated while in office. However, some have managed to rule until their deaths, including as José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia of Paraguay, Alexandre Pétion of Haiti, Rafael Carrera of Guatemala, François Duvalier of Haiti, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Saparmurat Niyazov of Turkmenistan. Others made unsuccessful attempts to have themselves named president for life, such as Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972; some long-serving authoritarian presidents, such as Mobutu, North Korea's Kim Il-sung, Bulgaria's Todor Zhivkov, Romania's Nicolae Ceaușescu, Syria's Hafez al-Assad, Indonesia's Suharto, the Republic of China's Chiang Kai-shek and Iraq's Saddam Hussein, are thought of as examples of Presidents for Life. However, they underwent periodic renewals of mandate that were show elections.
Official results showed the president receiving implausibly high support. One of the most well-known incidents of a republican leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar, who made himself "Perpetual Dictator" in 45 BC. Traditionally, the office of dictator could only be held for six months, although he was not the first Roman dictator to be given the office with no term limit, it was Caesar's dictatorship that inspired the string of Roman emperors who ruled after his assassination. Caesar's actions would be copied by the French Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, appointed "First Consul for life" in 1802 before elevating himself to the rank of Emperor two years later. Since many dictators have adopted similar titles, either on their own authority or having it granted to them by rubber stamp legislatures. Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg in January. On Hindenburg's death the German Reichstag voted to merge the offices of President and Chancellor, giving Hitler the title of Führer.
The Reichstag voted to allow Hitler to hold the positions of Chancellor and Führer for life. After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, the North Korean government wrote the presidential office out of the constitution, declaring him "Eternal President" in 1998 in order to honor his memory forever. Since there can be no succession in a system where the President reigns over a nation beyond death, the powers of the president are nominally and split between the president of the Supreme People's Assembly, the prime minister, the chairman of the State Affairs Commission. However, his son and grandson have been in control of the country since his death. Note: the first date listed in each entry is the date of proclamation of his status as President for Life; the President for Life Pandemic: Kenya, Nigeria and Malawi. Bhekithemba Richard Mngomezulu, Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd, 2013 ISBN 9781909112315 The List: Presidents for Life // Foreign Policy, November 5, 2007
Vikram Samvat. It uses solar sidereal years; the Vikram Samvat is notable because many medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava. In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain; however epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era, in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.
Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated; the defeated king retired to the forest. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana. On, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era"; the Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE; the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE.
This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE; the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé believed that he conquered Kashmir, is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes.
However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, dated in two eras. The theory seems to be now discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE; the traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Burma, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand. In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is recognized in North and East India, in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on a Luni-Solar calendar, not Solar calendar, based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Buddha's Birthday, it commemorates the birth and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June.
Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays fall in the same month of the Bengali and Theravada Buddhist calendars, are related through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. In Gujarat, the day after Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the first day of the month Kartik; the Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been used by Hindus and Sikhs. It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days; the lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra. This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India; the Vikrami Samvat has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus in north, w
Ahmet Çalık is a Turkish businessman. He is chairman of Çalık Holding, he was made a government minister in Turkmenistan by Saparmurat Niyazov. He is married with four lives in Istanbul. According to Forbes, his fortune amounts to $1.34 billion in 2018. List of Turks by net worth
The traditional China calendar, or Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is defined by GB/T 33661-2017, "Calculation and promulgation of the Chinese calendar", issued by the Standardisation Administration of China on 12 May 2017. Although modern day China uses the Gregorian calendar, the traditional Chinese calendar governs holidays in China and in overseas Chinese communities, it lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays and guides people in selecting auspicious days for weddings, moving, or starting a business. Like Chinese characters, variants of this calendar are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere. Korea and the Ryukyu Islands adopted the calendar, it evolved into Korean and Ryukyuan calendars; the main difference from the traditional Chinese calendar is the use of different meridians, which leads to some astronomical events—and calendar events based on them—falling on different dates.
The traditional Japanese calendar derived from the Chinese calendar, but its official use in Japan was abolished in 1873 as part of reforms after the Meiji Restoration. Calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements of the traditional Chinese calendar, but are not direct descendants of it. Days begin and end at midnight, months begin on the day of the new moon. Years begin on the second new moon after the winter solstice. Solar terms govern the end of each month. Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed. Characters indicated whether a month was short; the traditional Chinese calendar was developed between 771 and 476 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Before the Zhou dynasty, solar calendars were used. One version of the solar calendar is the five-elements calendar. A 365-day year was divided into five phases of 73 days, with each phase corresponding to a Day 1 Wu Xing element.
A phase began followed by six 12-day weeks. Each phase consisted of two three-week months. Years began followed by a bǐngzǐ day and a 72-day fire phase. Other days were tracked using the Yellow River Map. Another version is a four-quarters calendar. Weeks were ten days long, with one month consisting of three weeks. A year had 12 months, with a ten-day week intercalated in summer as needed to keep up with the tropical year; the 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches were used to mark days. A third version is the balanced calendar. A year was 365.25 days, a month was 29.5 days. After every 16th month, a half-month was intercalated. According to oracle bone records, the Shang dynasty calendar was a balanced calendar with 12 to 14 months in a year; the first lunisolar calendar was the Zhou calendar, introduced under the Zhou dynasty. This calendar set the beginning of the year at the day of the new moon before the winter solstice, it set the shàngyuán as the winter solstice of a dīngsì year, making the year it was introduced around 2,758,130.
Several competing lunisolar calendars were introduced by states fighting Zhou control during the Warring States period. The state of Lu issued its own Lu calendar. Jin issued the Xia calendar in AD 102, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the March equinox. Qin issued the Zhuanxu calendar, with a year beginning on the day of the new moon nearest the winter solstice. Song's Yin calendar began its year on the day of the new moon after the winter solstice; these calendars are known as the six ancient calendars, or quarter-remainder calendars, since all calculate a year as 365 1⁄4 days long. Months begin on the day of the new moon, a year has 12 or 13 months. Intercalary months are added to the end of the year; the Qiang and Dai calendars are modern versions of the Zhuanxu calendar, used by mountain peoples. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the Qin calendar was introduced, it followed most of the rules governing the Zhuanxu calendar, but the month order was that of the Xia calendar.
The intercalary month, known as the second Jiǔyuè, was placed at the end of the year. The Qin calendar was used into the Han dynasty. Emperor Wu of Han r. 141 – 87 BC introduced reforms halfway through his reign. His Taichu Calendar defined a solar year as 365 385⁄1539 days, the lunar month was 29 43⁄81 days; this calendar introduced the 24 solar terms. Solar terms were paired, with the 12 combined periods known as climate terms; the first solar term of the period was known as a pre-climate, the second was a mid-climate. Months were named for the mid-climat
Ahmad Sanjar was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118 when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157. Sanjar was born in ca. 1086 in Sinjar, a town situated in the borderland between Syria and the al-Jazira. Although primary sources state that he was named after his birthplace Bosworth notes Sanjar is a Turkic name, denoting "he who pierces", "he who thrusts", he was a son of Malik Shah I and participated in wars of succession against his three brothers and a nephew, namely Mahmud I, Malik Shah II and Muhammad I. In 1096, he was given the province of Khorasan to govern under his brother Muhammad I. Over the next several years Ahmed Sanjar became the ruler of most of Iran with his capital at Nishapur. A number of rulers revolted against him and continued the split of the Great Seljuq Empire that had started upon dynastic wars. In 1102, he repulsed an invasion from Kashgaria. In 1107, he invaded the domains of the Ghurid ruler Izz al-Din Husayn and captured him, but released him in return for tribute.
Sanjar undertook a campaign to eliminate the Assassins of Alamut, drove them from a number of their strongholds. However, an anecdote indicates that en route to their stronghold at Alamut, Sanjar woke up one day to find a dagger beside him, pinning a note from Hassan Sabbah stating that he would like peace. Sanjar, shocked by this event, sent envoys to Hassan and they both agreed to stay out of each other's way. In 1117 he marched against the Ghaznavid Sultan Arslan-Shah of Ghazna defeating him at Battle of Ghazni and installing Arslan's brother Bahram in the throne as a Seljuk vassal. Garshasp II, imprisoned by Mahmud II, fled to the court of Ahmad, where he requested protection from him. Garshasp urged Ahmad to invade the domains of Mahmud in Central Iran, gave him information on how to march to Central Iran, the ways to combat Mahmud. Ahmad accepted and advanced with an army to the west in 1119, where he together with five kings defeated Mahmud at Saveh; the kings who aided Ahmad during the battle was Garshasp himself, the Emir of Sistan and the Khwarazm-Shah, including two other unnamed kings.
After being victorious, Ahmad restored the domains of Garshasp II. Ahmad marched as far as Baghdad, where he agreed with Mahmud that he should marry one of his daughters, that he should give up strategic territories in northern Persia. In 1141, along with Garshasp II, marched to confront the Kara Khitan threat and engaged them near Samarkand at the Battle of Qatwan, he suffered an astounding defeat, Garshasp was killed. Ahmad escaped with only fifteen of his elite horsemen, losing all Seljuq territory east of the Syr Darya. Oghuz Turks from Khuttal and Tukharistan captured Ahmed Sanjar in 1153 and held him prisoner until 1156. While he was incarcerated, these same Oghuz Turks sacked Nishapur, killing the famous Shafi'i jurist, Muhammad ibn Yahya. Sanjar was buried at Merv, his tomb was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of the Khwarezmian Empire. Ahmed Sanjar married Turkan Khatun and he had two daughters with her - wives of his nephew Mahmud II. After her death Sanjar married Rusudan, daughter of Demetrius I of Georgia, widow of sultan Masud Temirek.
He had no children with her. The death of Sanjar meant the end of the Seljuq dynasty as an empire, since they only controlled Iraq and Azerbaijan afterwards. Sanjar is considered the most prominent Sejluq sultan and was the longest reigning Muslim ruler until the Mongols arrived. Although of Turkic origin, Sanjar was Iranized, due to his feats became a legendary figure like some of the mythological characters in the Shahnameh. Indeed, medieval sources described Sanjar as having "the majesty of the Khosrows and the glory of the Kayanids". Persian poetry flourished under Sanjar, his court included some of the greatest Persian poets, such as Mu'izzi, Nizami Aruzi, Anvari. Bosworth, C. E.. "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–202. ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 3. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth.
Pp. 328–329. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "GOWHAR ḴĀTUN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XI, Fasc. 2. London et al.: C. Edmund Bosworth. P. 179. Bosworth, C. E; the Later Ghaznavids: Splendour and Decay: The Dynasty in Afghanistan and Northern India 1040-1186. Retrieved 17 May 2014. Grousset, René; the Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. Pp. 1–687. ISBN 9780813513041. SANJAR, Aḥmad b. Malekšāh