A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. The word entered the English language from the Old French charte and it has come to be synonymous with the document that lays out the granting of rights or privileges. The term is used for a case to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules, charter is sometimes used as a synonym for tool or lease, as in the charter of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is a member, that is. Anglo-Saxon Charters are documents from the medieval period in Britain which typically make a grant of land or record a privilege. They are usually written on parchment, in Latin but often with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, the British Empire used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth.
These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, and corporate colonies, a charter colony by definition is a colony…chartered to an individual, trading company, etc. by the British crown. Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant, a congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code, a municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, in project management, a project charter or project definition is a statement of the scope and participants in a project.
It provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the objectives, identifies the main stakeholders. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project, in medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities. The date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was founded, at one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are generally now used instead
The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum
Ferdinand, Count of Flanders
Ferdinand reigned as jure uxoris Count of Flanders and Hainaut from his marriage to Countess Joan, celebrated in Paris in 1212, until his death. He was born in Coimbra, and he was an Infante of Portugal as the son of King Sancho I of Portugal. While on their way to Flanders and Joan were captured by Joans first cousin Louis, eldest son of Philip II of France and Joans aunt Isabella. Louis aim was to acquire his dead mothers dowry, a piece of Flemish territory including Artois. Released after this concession and Ferdinand soon joined the old allies of her father, King John of England and Emperor Otto IV and they were decisively defeated at Bouvines in July 1214, where Ferdinand was taken prisoner. Ferdinand was to remain in French hands for the next 12 years and he was released in 1226, by the French regent, Blanche of Castile, after the accession of her son Louis IX of France. Ferdinand died in Noyon on 27 July 1233 and his and Joans only child, a daughter named Maria, died childless, and their counties eventually passed to Joans younger sister, Margaret II.
Weiler, B, Burton, J, Schofield, P and Stöber, thirteenth century England, Proceedings of the Gregynog Conference,2007. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
Dreux is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France. Dreux was known in ancient times as Durocassium, the capital of the Durocasses Celtic tribe, despite the legend, its name was not related with Druids. The Romans established here a fortified camp known as Castrum Drocas, in the Middle Ages, Dreux was the centre of the County of Dreux. The first count of Dreux was Robert, the son of King Louis the Fat, the first large battle of the French Wars of Religion occurred at Dreux, on 19 December 1562, resulting in a hard-fought victory for the Catholic forces of the duc de Montmorency. In 1775, the lands of the comté de Dreux had been given to the Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, in 1783, the duke sold his domain of Rambouillet to Louis XVI. The duc de Penthièvre died in March 1793 and his body was laid to rest in the crypt beside his parents. On 21 November of that year, in the midst of the French Revolution. In 1830, Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, son of the duchesse dOrléans, embellished the chapel which was renamed Chapelle royale de Dreux and he is now known for his work of criticism Discours de la poésie chrétienne from 1633
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne
Mahaut or Matilda II of Boulogne was Countess of Boulogne in her own right and Queen of Portugal by marriage to King Afonso III from 1248 until their divorce in 1253. She was the daughter of Ida, Countess of Boulogne and her husband and co-ruler Renaud and she succeeded her mother as Countess of Boulogne in 1216. She was the great-granddaughter of King Stephen of England, in 1223, Matilda married her first husband, Philippe Hurepel, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvais, a younger, arguably illegitimate son of King Philip II of France. By marriage to her, Philippe became her co-ruler of Boulogne, Count Philippe revolted against his widowed sister-in-law, Blanche of Castile, when his half-brother King Louis VIII died in 1226. Count Philippe died in 1234, and Matilda reigned independently for three years, to give the county a male head, she married again in 1238 to Infante Afonso, second in line to the Portuguese throne, younger brother of King Sancho II of Portugal. He became King Afonso III of Portugal on 4 January 1248, at that time he renounced Boulogne.
In 1258, Matilda charged Afonso with bigamy, following his marriage to Beatrice of Castile, pope Alexander in response, imposed interdict upon any place the couple stayed. At the time of Matildas death and Beatriz were still together and she had a son and a daughter with Count Philippe, but no surviving issue with Afonso. Matildas apparent barrenness was the reason for their divorce. According to reports, Queen Matilda remained in Boulogne and was not allowed to follow her husband to Portugal and her son reportedly renounced his rights and went to England, for unknown reasons. Apparently he survived his mother the Countess, but presumably did not leave issue, Matildas daughter, having married a lord de Châtillon-Montjay, predeceased her, and presumably left no surviving issue. After Matilda II, the county of Boulogne passed to Adelaide of Brabant, Matildas cousin, the then-widow Adelaides husband had been William X, Count of Auvergne. Their son Robert of Auvergne succeeded his mother in Boulogne and their heirs continued to rule Auvergne and Boulogne together
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais, Boulogne lies on the Côte dOpale, a tourist coast on the English Channel, and is the most-visited location in its region after the Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its departments second-largest city after Calais, and the 60th largest in France and it is the countrys largest fishing port, specialising in herring. Boulogne was the major Roman port for trade and communication with Britain, the citys 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre Nausicaa. The French name Boulogne derives from the Latin Bononia, which was the Roman name for Bologna in Italy, both places—and Vindobona —are thought to have derived from native Celtic placenames, with bona possibly meaning foundation, citadel, or granary. The French epithet sur-Mer distinguishes the city from Boulogne-Billancourt on the edge of Paris, in turn, the Boulogne in Boulogne-Billancourt originates from a church there dedicated to Notre-Dame de Boulogne, Our Lady of Boulogne.
Boulogne-sur-Mer is in Northern France, at the edge of the Channel, Boulogne is a relatively important city of the North, exercising an influence on the Boulonnais territory. The coast consists of important tourist natural sites, like the capes Gris Nez and Blanc Nez, the hinterland is mainly rural and agricultural. Boulogne is close to the A16 motorway, metropolitan bus services are operated by Marinéo. The company Flixbus propose a bus line connecting Paris to Boulogne, there are coach services to Calais and Dunkerque. The city has railway stations, which the most important is Boulogne-Ville station, boulogne-Tintelleries station is used for regional transit. It is located near the university and the city centre, the former Boulogne-Maritime and Boulogne-Aéroglisseurs stations served as a boat connection for the railway. Boulogne currently has no cross channel ferry services since the closure of the route to Dover by LD Lines in 2010. The city is divided into parts, City centre, groups historic and administrative buildings.
Fortified town, old-town where are a lot of monuments and the city hall. It is surrounded by 13th-century ramparts very appreciated today by walkers, gambetta-Sainte-Beuve, tourist area situated in the northwest of the city, on the edge of the beach and the recreational harbour. Capécure and industrial area, situated in the west of the city, saint-Pierre, former neighborhood of the fishermen, destroyed during the World War II and reconstructed after. Chemin Vert, zone borned in the 1950s, knowing today poverty and it is the neighborhood of Franck Ribéry
Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais and Senlis is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese encompasses the department of Oise in the Region of Picardie, the diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reims. The current bishop is Jacques Benoit-Gonnin, appointed in 2010, the Diocese of Beauvais was traditionally founded by St. Lucian in the 3rd century. After 1013 the Bishops were simultaneously Counts of Beauvais, and one of the Peers of France, the diocese was abolished during the French Revolution, and was recreated as part of the Diocese of Amiens in 1802. The Diocese of Beauvais was re-established in 1822, and the Diocese of Beauvais, Beauvais Cathedral serves as the seat of the new diocese. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 510–512. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI.
Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series, VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi, IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi, X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. Histoire du Diocèse de Beauvais, depuis son établissement au 3me siècle jusquau 2 septembre 1792, les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusquà1801. Gallia Christiana, In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, de provincia Remensi, ejusque metropoli ac suffraganeis, Laudunensi, Catalaunensi ac Noviomensi ecclesiis. Lépiscopat français depuis le Concordat jusquà la Séparation, centre national des Archives de lÉglise de France, L’Épiscopat francais depuis 1919, retrieved, 2016-12-24. New York, Robert Appleton Company,1907, david M. Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy, Diocese of Beauvais-Noyon-Senlis
Counts and dukes of Aumale
The County of Aumale, elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy. It was disputed between England and France during parts of the Hundred Years War, the title was re-created in 1547 for Francis, styled Count of Aumale by courtesy. On his accession as Duke of Guise, he ceded it to his brother Claude and it was used as a title by Henri dOrléans, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe, King of the French and Duke of Orléans. The present titleholder is a grandson of the late Henri, Count of Paris, Orléans heir, Prince Foulques, Duke of Aumale, son of Prince Jacques, Duke of Orléans and the duchess, née Gersende de Sabran-Pontèves, added it to his title of Comte dEu. Norman Counts, lord before 996–, the title of Count or Duke of Aumale was granted several times during this period. In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale, despite Philips conquest of Aumale, the kings of England continued to claim the Duchy of Normandy, and to recognize the old line of Counts or Earls of Aumale.
These were, see above for Counts before 1196 Hawise of Aumale, 2nd Countess of Aumale, married, a claim upon the inheritance by John de Eston was settled in 1278 with the surrender of the earldom to the Crown. It was almost certainly forfeit upon his murder while awaiting trial for treason, This creation is not listed in several sources such as The Complete Peerage but indicate the next creation shown in line as the 1st. Also, Earl of Warwick Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, in further creations in the English peerage after the Hundred Years War, Aumale was spelled in the Latinised form Albemarle. For these, see Duke of Albemarle and Earl of Albemarle
Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto IV was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215. The only German king of the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1210, Otto was the third son of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and Matilda of England. His exact birthplace is not given by any original source and he grew up in England in the care of his grandfather King Henry II. Otto was fluent in French as well as German and he became the foster son of his maternal uncle, Richard I of England. In 1190, after he left England to join the Third Crusade, the authenticity of this grant was doubted by the vassals of Yorkshire, who prevented Otto taking possession of his earldom. Still, he probably visited Yorkshire in 1191, and he continued to claim the revenues of the earldom after becoming king of Germany, neither did he succeed in getting the 25,000 silver marks willed to him by his uncle in 1199.
In 1195, Richard began negotiations to marry Otto to Margaret, lothian, as Margarets dowry, would be handed over to Richard for safekeeping and the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland would be granted to Otto and turned over to the king of Scotland. The negotiations dragged on until August 1198, when the birth of a son to William rendered them unnecessary. Having failed in his efforts to secure Otto an English earldom or else a Scottish kingdom, in September 1196 Richard, as duke of Aquitaine, there is some disagreement over whether Otto received Poitou in exchange for or in addition to the earldom of York. Otto was in Poitou from September 1196 until mid-1197, when he joined Richard in Normandy to confer over the appointment of bishops to the vacant sees of Poitiers, Limoges and he participated in the war against Philip II of France on the side of Richard. In October he returned to Poitou, the German historian Jens Ahlers, taking into account Ottos life prior to 1198, considers that he might have been the first foreign king of Germany.
Those princes opposed to the Staufen dynasty decided, on the initiative of Richard of England, Ottos elder brother, was on a crusade at the time, and so the choice fell to Otto. Otto, soon recognized throughout the northwest and the lower Rhine region, was elected king by his partisans in Cologne on June 9,1198. Otto took control of Aachen, the place of coronation, and was crowned by Adolf, Archbishop of Cologne and this was of great symbolic importance, since the Archbishop of Cologne alone could crown the King of the Romans. Nevertheless, the coronation was done with fake regalia, because the materials were in the hands of the Staufen. Ottos election pulled the empire into the conflict between England and France, Philip had allied himself with the French king, Philip II, while Otto was supported at first by Richard I, and after his death in 1199 by his brother John. The papacy meanwhile, under Innocent III, determined to prevent the unification of Sicily. Therefore, Innocent III favoured Otto, whose family had always opposed to the house of Hohenstaufen