Supermini is a British car classification or vehicle size class for a small car in a hatchback body style. It an equivalent of the European B-segment or American subcompact categories; the term is used by Euro NCAP for a size class including B-segment and the smaller A-segment cars. In the UK the supermini is the top-selling vehicle type. For years the Ford Fiesta has been the leader of the class, most-sold car in the UK overall, competiting against the Vauxhall Corsa, Volkswagen Polo, Renault Clio, Peugeot 208, many others; the term developed in the 1970s as an informal categorisation, by 1977 was used by the British newspaper The Times. By the mid-1980s, it had widespread use in Britain; the term was adopted by Euro NCAP as the smallest size class for passenger vehicles for the launch of Euro NCAP in 1997. The first round of NCAP tests was of seven supermini cars; the term is used by the Euro NCAP system as a size class for A-segment and B-segment. In 1977, the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette were among Britain's top 10 best-selling cars.
Other superminis of the mid-1980s included the Austin Metro, Vauxhall Nova, Nissan Micra, Peugeot 205, Volkswagen Polo and Renault 5. The 1983 Fiat Uno was won the European Car of the Year award; the 1990 Renault Clio and 1994 Fiat Punto were significant models in the supermini category during the 1990s.. Both the Clio and Punto were recipients of the European Car of the Year Award; the Clio replaced the long-running Renault 5, although the Renault 5 remained in production until 1996. In 1993, the Nissan Micra, became the first Japanese car company to be receive the European Car of the Year award. In 1999, the Toyota Yaris received the European Car of the Year award, was noted for its high roof which allowed for improved interior space. Retro styling became popular across Europe from the late-1990s, the first successful retro-themed supermini was the 2000 launch of the BMW-owned Mini Hatch; the Fiat 500— launched in 2007 on the fiftieth anniversary of the release of the original model— was another popular retro-themed supermini, popular in Europe
The Renault Caravelle is a sports car manufactured and marketed by Renault for model years 1958-1968 in a single generation — as a rear-engine, rear drive open two/four-seater designed by Pietro Frua of Carrozzeria Ghia, using the floorpan and engine of the Renault Dauphine. Outside of North America and Britain it was, until 1962, marketed under the nameplate Renault Floride. Renault was envious of the growing success in North America of the Volkswagen Bug/Beetle and were looking for ways they might match the Volkswagen's success with their own Renault Dauphine. At a convention of North American distributors that took place in Florida, Renault's US dealers called for the creation of a Dauphine coupé/cabriolet which would improve Renault's image in the critical US market. Renault's chairman, Pierre Dreyfus and since the concept had been born at a convention in Florida the car became known within the company as the "Renault Floride"; the "Floride" name was considered unsuitable for 49 of the 50 states of the USA, since it could have implied disrespect to states other than Florida.
For this reason an alternative name, "Caravelle", was from the start used for North America and for other major markets where the principal language was a form of English. The Floride was unveiled at the 1958 Paris Motor Show. A small rear-engined design by Pietro Frua at Carrozzeria Ghia, it used the floorpan and engine of the Renault Dauphine sedan; the Floride was launched in the United States and Canada as the Renault Caravelle a year after its introduction in Europe. The car was offered as a 2+2 coupe, a 2+2 cabriolet and as a convertible, the latter being a cabriolet with a removable hardtop; the 2,265 mm wheelbase was shared with the Renault Dauphine but longer overhangs meant that overall the Floride was longer by a significant 320 mm, as well as being lower and slightly wider. At launch the Floride, like the Dauphine on which it was based, came with an 845 cc four-cylinder water-cooled engine mounted at the back of the car. However, the power unit on the Floride was fed using a Solex 32 mm carburetor as against the 28 mm diameter of the Solex carburetor on the Dauphine.
The Florides making their French show debut on the stand at the 1958 Paris Motor Show came with a claimed power output of 37 hp SAE. By the time deliveries commenced, in early summer 1959, it was possible for customers to specify a performance version, engineered by Amedee Gordini, which produced 40 hp SAE by means of various modifications to the inlet manifold and camshaft, a compression ratio raised from 7.6:1 to 8.0:1. Power was delivered to the rear wheels via a three speed manual transmission with synchromesh on the upper two ratios. For a supplement of 200 New Francs customers could instead specify a four speed transmission on the heavier coupé version of the car. Having regard to the car's power-to-weight ratio most customers chose to pay extra for the four speed gear box. Although designed by Frua of Italy, the car's body was constructed locally, by the automobile body maker Société des usines Chausson, based in Asnières-sur-Seine at the northern edge of Paris, known in France as the producer of many of the school bus bodies used for transporting children in country areas.
Following the rapid economic growth experienced by France during the 1950s, despite the fall-off in demand for the 4CV and the lacklustre market performance of the Frégate, thanks to the success of the launched Dauphine Renault still found themselves, in the second half of the decade short of production capacity. The main Billancourt plant, built on an island in the middle of a river, was ill-suited to further expansion. A new plant had been opened at Flins in 1952 and a second would follow near Le Havre in 1964, but neither of these addressed the challenge of finding somewhere to assemble the Floride in 1958; the heavy engineering company of Brissonneau and Lotz, better known as a manufacturer of rolling stock for the railways, had launched a small cabriolet sports car in 1956, based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Renault 4CV, but the Brissonneau coupé had been a tentative project and few cars were sold. Renault now persuaded Brissonneau to abandon their own automobile project and adapt their facilities for assembly of the Floride.
Brissonneau's long standing experience with railway locomotives provided abundant relevant experience at operational and workforce level, Renault contributed much of the investment which during 1958 and 1959 saw the main Creil plant of Brissonneau, comprising 190,000 m2 of which 41,280 m2 were covered, transformed into a production facility for the Floride: the Floride rebadged as the Renault Caravelle, would continue to be assembled by Brissonneau and Lotz until it was withdrawn in 1968. In October 1959, ready for the 1960 model year, the Floride, along with the Renault Dauphine, appeared with significant suspension improvements; the new suspension was conceived by the by now legendary automotive engineer Jean-Albert Grégoire and baptised by Renault "Suspension Aérostable", being intended to improve the car's ride and road holding. The addition of extra rubber springs at the front reduced roll and auxiliary air spring units at the rear gave the rear wheels a small degree of negative camber and increased cornering grip.
In March 1962, the Caravelle received a new 956 cc engine that would be used by the new Renault 8 from June. Although the new "Sierra" series five-bearing engine shared no components with the existing 845 cc Dauphine engine, it was conceptually similar: the engine size was chosen in order to come in below the top of the 5CV car tax band in France, it had a sealed coolin
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Renault 9 and 11
The Renault 9 and Renault 11 are small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault for model years 1981–1988 in saloon and hatchback configurations — both were styled by the French automobile designer, Robert Opron. Variants were manufactured by American Motors Corporation, as the Renault Alliance and Renault Encore for the North American market; the car was produced in Turkey until 2004. The models use a transverse front-wheel drive engine configuration, feature four wheel independent suspension, they were chosen the European Car of the Year for 1982, as well as the Motor Trend Car of the Year from Motor Trend and Car and Driver 10Best from Car and Driver for 1983. There were three facelifts given to the Renault 9/11 during its career. However, the Renault 11, released in 1983 was only available in phases 2, 3, 4. There was never a phase 1 Renault 11; the Phase 1 is the original model released in 1981 as the Renault 9, Phase 2 was released in 1983 when the Renault 11 was introduced, while the more aerodynamic Phase 3 appeared in 1987.
The Phase 4, not sold in most of Europe, was released in Turkey in 1997. This final revision had more rounded head and tail lights, as well as ovoid body cladding around the bumpers and boot lid, which aimed to give the car a more modern look, it carried an "Broadway" badge as well as the Renault 9 designation, but note that "Broadway" had been used on special editions of the earlier phase models. The Renault 9 was launched in October 1981 as a four-door saloon, while the 11 was launched at the beginning of 1983 as a three or five door hatchback. Both had been developed under the Renault code name L42, were designed by Robert Opron. Renault had begun the conception of the Renault 9 in 1977, as a "four metre" model to fit between the Renault 5 and the Renault 14. Opron conceived a traditional three box design to appeal to the traditional customer and avoid the poor reception that had met the Renault 14's styling. Exhaustive consumer studies suggested that buyers rejected innovation, resulting in a rather nondescript design, albeit of modest elegance.
By the time the models entered production, Renault had assigned more than 500 people to the project, logging 14,500,000 hours of study and testing, constructing 44 prototypes, testing 130 engines, test driving prototypes more than 2.2 million km. Both cars were more conservatively engineered, although they retained front wheel drive, Renault abandoned the Douvrin transmission in sump engine which it had shared with Peugeot-Citroen in the Renault 14, in favour of its in house power unit – the venerable C-type "Cléon" engine with an end on mounted transmission; this mechanical layout, along with the 9/11's suspension design, was to become the basis of all small Renaults for the next 15 years or so. The Renault 9 was awarded the 1982 European Car of the Year, while the Alliance appeared on Car and Driver's Ten Best list for 1983, was the 1983 Motor Trend Car of the Year; the well-equipped Renault 11 TSE Electronic of 1983 was the first car in its class to have a synthetically voiced trip computer, but only because Renault moved up its launch date by a few days in order to get ahead of Austin's Maestro Vanden Plas.
Although the 9 and 11 cars had different names and body styles, they were identical under the skin, were intended to jointly replace the older Renault 14. The 11 was distinguishable from the 9 by its front end, which featured square twin headlights, introduced on the North American Alliance; the 9 received this new front end in 1985, both models were face lifted for a final time with matching nose and interior upgrades for the model year of 1987. A version of the 9 was manufactured and marketed by American Motors Corporation in the United States as the Renault Alliance and bearing a small AMC badge. With 623,573 examples manufactured for model years 1982–1987, AMC offered the Alliance as a four-door sedan, two door sedan and as a convertible, beginning in 1984; the Renault 9 and 11 continued in production in France until 1989, a year after the launch of the Renault 19. However, production continued in other countries, with the end coming after nearly twenty years when production in Turkey was discontinued in 2000.
The Renault 11 Turbo was used extensively by Renault Sport for their Group A car in the 1987 World Rally Championship. Frenchman Alain Oreille managed a Group N victory in the 1985 Rallye Monte Carlo, followed by the Group A victory in 1986. A Renault 11 Turbo was, piloted to a second and third-place finishes in the 1987 Portuguese Rally and San Remo Rally with Jean Ragnotti in the driver's seat; the 11 Turbo won the national Polish Rally Championship in 1985 and 1988, both the Swiss and Portuguese rally championships in 1987. Its last result of importance was Oreille's fourth place overall in the 1988 Rallye Monte Carlo. At launch, both cars used Renault's ageing Cléon-Fonte engine overhead valve engines in either 1.1 or 1.4 litre format, a basic suspension design which won few plaudits for the driving experience. The exceptions were the 9 Turbo and the 11 Turbo hot hatch, which used the turbocharged engine from the Renault 5; the 11 Turbo was introduced first, only with three door bodywork.
Unlike the 5 Turbo or the 205 GTi, the 11 Turbo had a more comfort oriented focus. Although the cars were heavier than the Renault 5, the increased power in models was enough to ensure higher performance, thanks to its 115 PS. T
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
The IKA Torino Renault Torino, is a mid-sized automobile made by Industrias Kaiser Argentina under an agreement with American Motors Corporation in 1966. The 1966 Torino was IKA’s first integral national product and IKA was bought out by Renault in 1975 to form Renault Argentina S. A; the Torino was built on the same hybrid AMC platform all the way through 1981 in both two-door hardtop and four-door sedan variants. It has been called Argentina's national car. From its inception by Kaiser Motors and the Argentinian government in 1955, IKA assembled vehicles that were designed elsewhere. By 1962, management wanted an automobile that would be better suited to their domestic market, one that "combined American ruggedness and European style." IKA and American Motors had signed an agreement for development and production of such a car in Argentina. The Torino was developed by IKA as an Argentine hybrid of AMC's 1964-'65 Rambler American and Classic with designed front and rear body panels and interior.
The central body section is from the Classic, the engine and trunk compartments are derived from the American. Rooflines came from the American as well, some Torino sedans featured the attractive "C" pillar, used in 1968-69 U. S. American sedans; the rear coil suspension was borrowed from the Classic, albeit with a four link setup rather than a torque tube. One unique feature is the Torino's front unibody "frame rails" borrowed from the Classic convertible, they are longer than the American, extending all the way back under the car to the front of the rear rails. This made for a stiffer chassis, better adapting the car to the rougher road conditions of Argentina at the time; the Torino rode on a longer wheelbase by one inch - 2,723 mm. Although the engines were not obtained from American Motors, the vehicle's basic AMC platform continued throughout its lifetime; as upgrades were incorporated over the years, such as AMC's flush door handles, the Torino became a product of Argentina with few imported parts.
The car's badging is based on the city of Turin's coat of arms. The symbol is a bull standing on its two hind legs, mimicking the prancing stallion symbol of Ferrari; the Argentine car's front end, rear fascia, interior were redesigned by Italian auto stylists at Pininfarina to give it a more European look, as well as to make the Torino more appealing to the Argentine public and less like an American car. With the added exterior styling touches, as well as its unique trim and luxurious interior appointments, Argentine built Kaiser-Jeep OHC six, the Torino was a product of Argentina; the Torino debuted on 30 November 1966, at the Municipal Racing circuit of Buenos Aires. Available was a high-performance version, the Torino 380 W, with three Weber two-barrel carburetors, low exhaust restriction and other minor changes in engine specifications producing 176 hp. A floor mounted shift ZF four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, a Lucas electronics gauged wooden instrument panel and leather appointments were standard.
Between 1970 and 1976, the Torino was sold as a "luxury vehicle". Famous owners included Fidel Castro, Leonid Brezhnev, Muammar al-Gaddafi. and Juan Manuel Fangio. From 1977, the top model became a touring sedan; the entire range received some sheetmetal and design changes in 1978, though major panels such as the doors were carried over. The newer models are longer and the sedans can be recognized by their full C-pillar, taken from the 1968-69 Rambler American; the rear window wrapped more into the sides. In its heyday there were over twenty versions, but in its final year, the Torino was only available in two models; when production was ended by Renault in 1982, it was "a dark year for fellow car enthusiasts in Argentina." By the early 1980s, the smaller front-wheel drive Renault 12 was the best seller. All engines were manufactured in Argentina. Tornado Special engine (only available on the 300/300S:Bore X Stroke: 84.94 mm x 87.31 mm Displacement: 2968 cm3 Top RPM: 5000 rpm Number of main bearings: 4Power: 120 hp at 4500 rpm and 26 kg⋅m at 3000 rpmTornado Interceptor engine:Bore X Stroke: 84.94 mm X 111.125 mm Displacement: 3770 cm3 Top RPM: 5000 rpm Number of main bearings: 4Power: 380/380S: 155 hp at 4300 rpm and 32 kg⋅m at 3500 rpm 380W: 176 hp at 4500 rpm and 33 kg⋅m at 3500 rpm TS: 160 hp at 4500 rpm and 31 kg⋅m at 2500 rpm TS/S: 152 hp at 4200 rpm and 30 kg⋅m at 2500 rpm GS200: 185 hp at 4700 rpm and 34 kg⋅m at 3500 rpm *(The gs 200 is the replacement of 380w and was the first Argentine car exceed 200 km / h The Torino 233 engine featuring a new block with 7 main bearings and a new cylinder head.
Bore X Stroke: 84.94 mm x 111.125 mm Displacement: 3770 cm3 Top RPM: 5200 rpm Number of main bearings: 7Power: SE: 170 hp at 4500 rpm and 31 kg⋅m at 2500 rpm GR: 180 hp at 4500 rpm and 31 kg⋅m at 2500 rpm TS: 180 hp at 4700 rpm and 31 kg⋅m at 2500 rpm TSX: 200 hp at 4500 rpm and 33 kg⋅m at 3000 rpm GS: 215 hp (