Arlene Render is an American former diplomat. A officer of the United States Foreign Service, she served as the United States Ambassador to the Gambia and Ivory Coast, she was noted for her role amidst the initial onset of the Rwandan Genocide. Arlene Render was born in Cleveland in 1943, she received a Bachelor of Science from West Virginia State College in 1965 and a Master of Public Health from the University of Michigan in 1967. Her first job was as a health educator for the City of Cleveland. Render joined the United States Foreign Service in 1970, at the time was one of only 37 African American Foreign Service Officers. A year she was sent to Abidjan, the capital of Ivory Coast, to serve as Vice Consul, she remained there until 1973, when she was appointed Vice Consul in Tehran and served until 1976. She was stationed in Genoa, Italy as Consul from 1976–1978, was sent back to the US to the Bureau of Intelligence and Research to work as a political officer. After a year there, she was assigned to the Bureau of African Affairs to serve as an International Relations Officer, served in that capacity until 1981.
Between 1981–1984, Render was Deputy Chief of Mission at the US Embassy to Zaire in Kinshasa, in 1985 served as Consul General at the US Embassy to Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in Kingston. She was appointed Deputy Chief of Mission at the US Embassy to Ghana in Accra and held that post from 1986–1989. From 1989–1990, she participated in the State Department's Senior Seminar, a professional and educational program that provides Foreign Service Officers the skills needed for advancement in the Foreign Service. On 3 August 1990, President George H. W. Bush announced his intention to nominate Render to serve as the Ambassador to the Gambia. Hearings were held by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on 26 September of that same year, on 2 October, Chairman Senator Claiborne Pell reported that it was "ordered to be reported favorably." On 2 October the nomination was placed on the Senate Executive Calendar, on 19 October 1990 was confirmed by the Senate in a unanimous vote. President Bush appointed Rendor the 12th United States Ambassador to the Gambia on 22 October 1990, she presented her credentials on 31 December of the same year.
She held that position until 8 August 1993. In late 1993, Render assumed the role of Director of the Office of Central African Affairs within the State Department, she became settled in her post only months before the beginning of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, which became the focus of all her efforts and resources. In Render's first briefing on the situation in the Rwanda and Burundi, the unrest was blamed on "common bandits" who were taking advantage of a weak government and unsettled political climate. On March 24, 1994, she arrived in Burundi and would travel to Rwanda with Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Prudence Bushnell to support peace efforts. On that first day, Render went to the house of the American Ambassador to Burundi, Robert Krueger, met with Burundian government officials, all the while shooting was exploding in area around the city. In 1993, Hutu and Tutsi representatives had signed the Arusha Accords but neither side was implementing it. One of the first ways Render and Bushnell addressed the growing tensions was to urge Rwandan Hutu military and police officials to cease broadcasting anti-Tutsi radio messages and renew their focus on providing basic security services, which had become lax.
Released memos and other documents revealed their frustration with the inaction of both the administration of President Bill Clinton and the United Nations in response to the growing violence. Render and Bushnell expressed their "deep concern over the mounting violence in Rwanda", as well as "the distribution of arms and arms caches." They were concerned with President Clinton's prior lack of support for the Arusha Accords, on 25 March 1994, they met with the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front leaders who "blamed the President for the impasse."Their peacemaking efforts were futile. Two weeks following Render and Bushnell's return from the trip to Burundi and Rwanda the plane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down as it approached Kigali kicking off the genocide. In a memo dated 11 April 1994, sent by Render to Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs George Moose titled "Political Strategy for Rwanda," some noted strategies were to "complete evacuation of all Americans wishing to leave," "urge the to agree to a new ceasefire," reaffirm the potential of the Arusha Accords, "monitor the security situation," "if the security situation permits, resume Embassy operations," and "examine options for a confidence-building multilateral military presence of some kind."On 26 April 1994, Render and US Ambassador to Rwanda David P. Rawson met with Rwandan Ambassador to the United States Uwimana and urged him and the Rwandan government to help stop the massacres.
Uwimana claimed that the massacres were acts of self-defense on behalf of the Hutus, when asked what the United States could do to help stop the killings, he replied that they could "tell the minority Tutsis to accept their status as a minority, tell the RPF that, although they might win the war, they cannot govern the country." Both Render and Rawson emphasized to the Rwandan Ambassador that "the most crucial priority right now is to stop the massacres." Render made a point of telling him that "the Government of Rwanda and the Army must take on the responsibility of getting the people to stop killing each other," and Uwimana agreed to pass on to the Rwandan Government the United States' "demand for an immediate e
Architectural rendering, or architectural illustration, is the art of creating two-dimensional images or animations showing the attributes of a proposed architectural design. Images that are generated by a computer using three-dimensional modeling software or other computer software for presentation purposes are termed "Computer Generated Renderings". Rendering techniques vary; some methods create simple flat images with basic shadows. A popular technique uses sophisticated software to approximate accurate lighting and materials; this technique is referred to as a "Photo Real" rendering. Renderings are created for presentation and design analysis purposes. Still renderings 3D Walk through and fly by animations Virtual Tours Floor Plans Photo realistic 3D Rendering Realtime 3D Renderings Panoramic Renderings Light and Shadow study renderings Renovation Renderings and others3D renderings play a major role in real estate marketing and sales, it makes it possible to make design related decisions well before the building is built.
Thus it helps experimenting with its visual aspects. Architectural renderings are categorized into 3 sub-types: Exterior Renderings, Interior Renderings, Aerial Renderings. Exterior renderings are defined as images where the vantage point or viewing angle is located outside of the building, while interior renderings are defined as images where the vantage point or viewing angle is located inside of the building. Aerial renderings are similar to exterior renderings however their viewing angle is located outside and above the building, looking down at an angle; until 3D computer modeling became common, architectural renderings were generated by hand. There are still architectural illustrators who create renderings by hand, as well as illustrators who use a combination of hand drawing/painting and computer generated color and/or linework. Common mediums for hand-done architectural renderings include: watercolor, colored pencil and graphite or charcoal pencil; the Hugh Ferriss Memorial Prize is awarded by the American Society of Architectural Illustrators in recognition of excellence in the graphic representation of architecture.
It is the Society's highest award. The CGarchitect Architectural 3D Awards are awarded by CGarchitect.com in recognition of outstanding achievement in the field of computer-generated architectural rendering. The awards were started in 2004 and award in five main categories: Best Architectural Image, Best Architectural Film, Best Student Image, Best Student Film, Best Interactive Presentation/Emerging Technology. Traditionally rendering techniques were taught in a "master class" practice, where a student works creatively with a mentor in the study of fine arts. Contemporary architects use hand-drawn sketches and ink drawings, watercolor renderings to represent their design with the vision of an artist. Computer generated. During the past 20–30 years, many professional architectural illustrators came from an education in architecture first moved into the profession as their skills in illustration progressed. 3D rendering Architectural animation Concept art Museum for Architectural Drawing, Germany
3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer. 3D renders may include non-photorealistic rendering. Rendering is the final process of creating the actual 2D animation from the prepared scene; this can be compared to taking a photo or filming the scene after the setup is finished in real life. Several different, specialized, rendering methods have been developed; these range from the distinctly non-realistic wireframe rendering through polygon-based rendering, to more advanced techniques such as: scanline rendering, ray tracing, or radiosity. Rendering may take from fractions of a second to days for a single image/frame. In general, different methods are better suited for either photo-realistic rendering, or real-time rendering. Rendering for interactive media, such as games and simulations, is calculated and displayed in real time, at rates of 20 to 120 frames per second. In real-time rendering, the goal is to show as much information as possible as the eye can process in a fraction of a second.
The primary goal is to achieve an as high as possible degree of photorealism at an acceptable minimum rendering speed. In fact, exploitations can be applied in the way the eye'perceives' the world, as a result, the final image presented is not that of the real world, but one close enough for the human eye to tolerate. Rendering software may simulate such visual effects as depth of field or motion blur; these are attempts to simulate visual phenomena resulting from the optical characteristics of cameras and of the human eye. These effects can lend an element of realism to a scene if the effect is a simulated artifact of a camera; this is the basic method employed in games, interactive worlds and VRML. The rapid increase in computer processing power has allowed a progressively higher degree of realism for real-time rendering, including techniques such as HDR rendering. Real-time rendering is polygonal and aided by the computer's GPU. Animations for non-interactive media, such as feature films and video, are rendered much more slowly.
Non-real time rendering enables the leveraging of limited processing power in order to obtain higher image quality. Rendering times for individual frames may vary from a few seconds to several days for complex scenes. Rendered frames are stored on a hard disk can be transferred to other media such as motion picture film or optical disk; these frames are displayed sequentially at high frame rates 24, 25, or 30 frames per second, to achieve the illusion of movement. When the goal is photo-realism, techniques such as ray tracing, path tracing, photon mapping or radiosity are employed; this is the basic method employed in artistic works. Techniques have been developed for the purpose of simulating other occurring effects, such as the interaction of light with various forms of matter. Examples of such techniques include particle systems, volumetric sampling and subsurface scattering; the rendering process is computationally expensive, given the complex variety of physical processes being simulated.
Computer processing power has increased over the years, allowing for a progressively higher degree of realistic rendering. Film studios that produce computer-generated animations make use of a render farm to generate images in a timely manner. However, falling hardware costs mean that it is possible to create small amounts of 3D animation on a home computer system; the output of the renderer is used as only one small part of a completed motion-picture scene. Many layers of material may be rendered separately and integrated into the final shot using compositing software. Models of reflection/scattering and shading are used to describe the appearance of a surface. Although these issues may seem like problems all on their own, they are studied exclusively within the context of rendering. Modern 3D computer graphics rely on a simplified reflection model called Phong reflection model. In refraction of light, an important concept is the refractive index. In most 3D programming implementations, the term for this value is "index of refraction".
Shading can be broken down into two different techniques, which are studied independently: Surface shading - How light spreads across a surface Reflection/Scattering - How light interacts with a surface at a given point Popular surface shading algorithms in 3D computer graphics include: Flat shading: A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source. Gouraud shading: Invented by H. Gouraud in 1971, a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces. Phong shading: Invented by Bui Tuong Phong, used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces. Ref
Cement rendering is the application of a premixed layer of sand and cement to brick, stone, or mud brick. It is textured, colored, or painted after application, it is used on exterior walls but can be used to feature an interior wall. Depending on the'look' required, rendering can be fine or coarse, textured or smooth, natural or colored, pigmented or painted; the cement rendering of brick and mud houses has been used for centuries to improve the appearance of exterior walls. It can be seen in different forms all over southern Europe. Different countries have their own styles and traditional colors. Different finishes can be created by using different tools such as sponges, or brushes; the art in traditional rendering is the appearance of the top coat. Different tradesmen have different finishing styles and are able to produce different textures and decorative effects; some of these special finishing effects may need to be created with a thin finishing'top coat' or a finishing wash. Cement render consists of 6 parts clean sharp fine sand, 1 part cement, 1 part lime.
The lime reduces cracking when the render dries. Any general purpose cement can be used. Various additives can be added to the mix to increase adhesion. Coarser sand is used in the base layer and finer sand in the top layer; the application process resembles the process for applying paint. To ensure adhesion, the surface to be rendered is hosed off to ensure it is free of any dirt and loose particles. Old paint or old render is scraped away; the surface is roughened to improve adhesion. For large areas, vertical battens are fixed to the wall every 1 to 1.5 meters, to keep the render flat and even. There is a wide variety of premixed renders for different situations; some have a polymer additive to the traditional cement and sand mix for enhanced water resistance and adhesion. Acrylic premixed renders have strength, they can be used on a wider variety of surfaces than cement render, including concrete, cement blocks, AAC concrete paneling. With the right preparation, they can be used on smoother surfaces like cement sheeting, new high tech polymer exterior cladding such as Uni-Base, expanded polystyrene.
A few of these require activation with cement just prior to application. Some premixed. There are many various acrylic-bound pigmented'designer' finishing coats that can be applied over acrylic render. Various finishes and textures are possible such as sand, marble, stone chip, lime wash or clay like finishes. There are stipple, glistening finishes, those with enhanced water resistance and anti fungal properties. Depending upon the product, they can be troweled or sponged on. A limited number can be sprayed on. Acrylic renders take only 2 days to dry and cure—much faster than the 28 days for traditional render. A significant disadvantage of acrylic render vs. traditional rendering is that acrylic render lacks the sustainability and environmental compatibility of traditional cement-and-mineral render. All buildings have a finite lifetime, their materials will be either recycled or absorbed into the environment. Acrylic being a synthetic polymer material, it does not break down by natural weathering the way that a cement and lime mixture will, persisting in the natural environment for centuries as synthetic chemical compounds that have unknown long-term effects on ecosystems.
The application and drying process of acrylic resin render involves the atmospheric evaporation of pollutant solvents—necessary for the application of the resin—which are hazardous to the health of humans and of many organisms on which humans depend. Synthetic polymers such as acrylic are manufactured from chemical feedstocks such as acetone, hydrogen cyanide, ethylene and other petroleum derivatives; the polymer products cannot be recycled, so new raw materials, taken from the finite and diminishing supply of raw natural resources, must always be put into their manufacture, making the process unsustainable. Traditional cement-based render does not have these problems, making it an arguably better choice in many cases, despite its working limitations. Cement plaster Exterior insulation finishing system Harl Lath and plaster Pargeting Plaster Plasterwork Polished plaster Siding Stucco Tadelakt Reichel, Alexander. Plaster, Render and Coatings: Details, Case Studies
Rendered Waters is the twelfth album by American/German hard rock/Heavy Metal, band Kingdom Come. All but three tracks on this disc are old material from previous albums. Lenny Wolf—lead vocals, guitar Eric Förster—lead guitar Frank Binke—bass guitar Nader Rahy—drums Produced by Lenny Wolf Recorded and Mixed at Two Square Noise Factory, Germany Mastered by Hanan Rubinstein at The Hub, Germany Lenny Wolf – Official website
Jan Adam Render was a German-American hunter and trader in southern Africa, recorded as the first white man to see the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, having inadvertently come across the ruins while hunting big game in 1867. He subsequently guided the explorer and geographer Karl Mauch during the first archaeological expedition to the site in 1871, discovered prehistoric gold mines in the region. Born in Germany in 1822, Render lived in the United States from early childhood until about 1842, when he emigrated to Natal in South Africa, he joined the Boer Voortrekkers and fought with them against the British at the Battle of Boomplaats in 1848. The same year Render settled in Zoutpansberg in the north-east of the Transvaal, he married Willem Andries Petrus Pretorius's daughter Elsje Magdalina Josina Pretorius, hunted and traded on both sides of the Limpopo River. During one of his big-game hunting trips north of the river in 1867, he inadvertently came across the ruins of Great Zimbabwe, an ancient walled city, abandoned for centuries.
Render deserted his wife and 4 children in 1868 following a series of quarrels, relocated north of the Limpopo and "went native", living about 20 kilometres south-east of Great Zimbabwe with the daughter of a local chief for the rest of his life. He made little effort to report his discovery of Great Zimbabwe to other Westerners. Continuing to informally explore the region, he found a number of ancient gold mines. In 1871, Render hosted the German explorer and geographer Karl Mauch, who had heard of Great Zimbabwe and come to the area hoping to make the first archaeological study. Mauch stayed with Render for nine months, making a number of study excursions to the ruins during that time. In stark contrast to Render, Mauch sent flamboyant descriptions of the site to the overseas press, claiming that the site was a replica of Solomon's Temple and that he had found the land of Ophir described in the Bible; as the first Westerner to report on Great Zimbabwe, it was Mauch who received most of the credit for finding it.
Render died in obscurity in 1881. Great Zimbabwe has been marked by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site since 1986
Michael Santiago Render, better known by his stage name Killer Mike, is an American rapper and activist. He is the founder of Grind Time Official Records, which he launched through the SMC and Fontana Distribution. Mike made his debut on "Snappin' and Trappin'" from OutKast's 2000 LP Stankonia, appeared on the Grammy-winning song "The Whole World", a single from Outkast's greatest hits album Big Boi and Dre Present... Outkast, he has since released five full-length albums as a solo artist. In December 2008, Mike confirmed he signed to fellow Atlanta-based rapper T. I.'s Grand Hustle Records. In 2012, he released R. A. P. Music, produced by American rapper/producer El-P. Killer Mike and El-P subsequently formed a duo in 2013. Killer Mike is known as a social and political activist, focusing on subjects including social inequality, police brutality, systemic racism. In addition to addressing themes of racism and police brutality in his music, he has delivered several lectures at colleges and universities, written about social justice topics for publications such as Billboard, been the subject of televised and published interviews regarding police misconduct and race relations.
He was a visible and vocal supporter of Bernie Sanders during his 2016 U. S. presidential campaign, refused to support Hillary Clinton after Sanders left the race. Killer Mike has been featured in the films 20 Funerals, Baby Driver and ATL. In January 2019, his Netflix documentary series Trigger Warning with Killer Mike premiered. Michael Santiago Render was born in the Adamsville neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia on April 20, 1975, the son of a policeman father and a florist mother; because his parents were teenagers at the time of his birth, he was raised by his grandparents in the Collier Heights neighborhood of Atlanta. In 1995, Killer Mike attended Atlanta's Morehouse College, where he met producers The Beat Bullies and Big Boi of OutKast, his music debut was a feature appearance on OutKast's "Snappin' & Trappin'" from the 2000 album Stankonia, followed by their 2001 single "The Whole World", which won the 2002 Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group. He was featured on several other tracks that year, including "Poppin' Tags" from Jay-Z's The Blueprint 2.
Killer Mike released his debut album, Monster, in 2003 while being managed by Dayo Adebiyi and Al Thrash of Own Music. The album's lead single was "Akshon". A remix of "Akshon" was included on the soundtrack of EA Sports' video game Madden NFL 2004; the album's second single was "A. D. I. D. A. S.", featuring Big Boi and Sleepy Brown, which peaked at #60 on the Billboard Hot 100. It is Killer Mike's highest charting single to date as a lead artist. Following the release of his own material, he appeared on "Flip Flop Rock" and "Bust" on the Speakerboxx half of OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below double album, he appeared on "Southern Takeover" with Pastor Troy on Chamillionaire's CD The Sound of Revenge. Killer Mike appeared alongside T. I. on the song "Never Scared" by Bone Crusher in his album AttenCHUN!. It peaked at # 26 on the Hot 100; the song was used on the Madden NFL 2004 game soundtrack and by the Atlanta Braves for their 2003 season. What was to be his second album, Ghetto Extraordinary, had its release date pushed back several times due to disputes between Big Boi and Sony Records.
Recorded in 2005, the album was self-released as a mixtape in 2008. Killer Mike's second official album, I Pledge Allegiance to the Grind, was released on his own Grind Time Official label in 2006, followed by I Pledge Allegiance to the Grind II in 2008. According to an article published in the June 2007 issue of XXL, Killer Mike addressed why he left the Purple Ribbon roster, he stated that he felt as if Purple Ribbon was the equivalent to the "Clippers," while he wanted to join the "Lakers." T. I. announced that he and Killer Mike had been in talks about bringing Mike to his Grand Hustle imprint on Atlantic, Killer Mike confirmed that he had signed in December 2008. He released his fourth official album, PL3DGE, on Grand Hustle in 2011. In 2013, Killer Mike announced that he was working to release two albums in 2014, I Pledge Allegiance to the Grind IV and R. A. P. Music II, both of which were to feature production by EL-P. Although neither album was released as planned, 2013 and 2014 did see the release of two Run the Jewels albums, both collaborative efforts between Killer Mike and EL-P.
Killer Mike announced in 2013 that his next solo album would be titled Elegant Elephant, a project he described as his "Moby Dick". He did not specify a timeline for its release. Killer Mike was introduced to rapper/producer El-P by Cartoon Network executive Jason DeMarco in 2011; the following year, El-P produced Mike's album R. A. P. Music and guested on the song "Butane"; that same year, Killer Mike guested on El-P's album Cancer 4 Cure. When R. A. P. Music and Cancer 4 Cure were released within weeks of each other, the two rappers decided to tour together; the success of the tour led to the decision to record as a duo, which they named Run the Jewels. Run the Jewels released a free eponymous album on June 26, 2013; the next year, on October 28, 2014, Run the Jewels released their second free album, Run the Jewels 2. On September 25, 2015, the duo released a re-recorded version of Run the Jewels 2 made with cat sounds, titled Meow the Jewels. A third album, Run the Jewels 3, was released on December 24, 2016.
Mike has been featured in the f