Juggling balls, or balls, are a popular prop used by jugglers, either on their own—usually in sets of three or more—or in combination with other props such as clubs or rings. A juggling ball refers to any juggling object, spherical in nature. Beanbags are the most common type of juggling ball. Juggling beanbags are constructed with an outer shell made from several pieces of vinyl or microfiber, filled with millet, plastic pellets, crushed rock, ground rubber, or other material designed to give the beanbag bulk. Beanbags come in a variety of colors, the most common being "beach", other combinations of colors that are visible. Beanbags are preferred by many jugglers because beanbags don't bounce or roll when dropped, are caught the most and have reasonable pricing and availability. Beanbags are found in sizes ranging from 2.5"-3" in diameter, with weights of 90-130g. Smaller beanbags with less filling in them are sometimes used by numbers jugglers, who require a smaller and lighter ball so they can throw and catch many balls using the same hand.
Stage Balls are used during juggling performances. Stage balls have a polished outer shell made of plastic or hard rubber, are hollow. For this reason, stage balls can be manufactured to a greater diameter than beanbags, whilst maintaining a more manageable weight for the juggler. Furthermore, stage balls hold their shape and color better than beanbags making them a more visual prop. Stage balls, tend to roll away when dropped, therefore are not used during practice. Stage balls are found in sizes ranging from 2.5"-4" in diameter, though many performers such as Sergej Ignatov have used balls larger than 4" when performing for extra dramatic effect. DX/Russian Balls are a style of juggling balls that combines many of the benefits of both beanbags and stage balls. DX balls are constructed with a hard PVC outer shell, similar to a stage ball, are part-filled with millet seed, to give the ball a consistent weight; this produces a juggling ball that flies in the air, does not roll away when dropped.
The DX ball is patented in the UK by Beard Enterprises Ltd. Bouncing balls are designed for bounce juggling, feature a 75-90% bounce return, they are made of a synthetic rubber compound. Silicone Balls are a type of bouncing ball most used during bounce juggling and stage performances; these balls are made of silicone and have the same clean appearance as stage balls, a surface, easy to grip and catch, have a consistent, high bounce. Silicone balls are easier to clean than stage balls, which can scuff permanently; these balls cost 5-7 times more than beanbags or stage balls, which limits the use of these balls to performers and serious hobbyists. Many jugglers choose to use non-silicone bouncing balls instead, due to their far cheaper price and similar performance. Russian Balls share some of some advantages of beanbags, they have a thin shell, most of the weight is provided by a filling of granular material. This gives them unusual flight characteristics, but the low centre of mass makes them well suited for catches using other parts of the body than hands.
Russian balls are sometimes home-made. This makes them well-suited for experimentation regarding different sizes and weights, with the main limitation being the availability of the shells. Play, from Italy, makes similar balls with a soft and thicker shell filled with liquid silicone or fine sand. Juggling balls are the first props that beginners attempt to juggle with, due to their simplicity and availability. Additionally, many common types of balls can function as juggling balls for a beginning juggler. Most novice jugglers spend much time learning how to juggle three balls before moving on to other juggling props. However, some jugglers prefer to focus on only one juggling prop in order to achieve "mastery" of one art. For the more advanced juggler, juggling balls are used to demonstrate basic patterns such as the cascade, fountain and half-shower, can be used to form more creative juggling patterns as well, such as patterns involving throws around the body, blind throws or catches, throwing or catching with parts of the body other than the hands.
Many advanced jugglers can juggle seven or more balls at once, but not more rings or clubs. This is because juggling balls are the easiest to juggle, can be manufactured in small sizes and light weights, beanbags can be underfilled to facilitate catching. However, some juggling tricks, such as those done with clubs or rings that involve spinning or twirling the prop are impossible or not as effective with balls, since a juggling ball appears the same from whichever angle it is viewed; the use of juggling balls in passing is, for this reason, less popular than the use of clubs, since the spin of the clubs in the air is one of the appeals of passing with juggling clubs. Clubs are larger and therefore easier to catch when thrown from a great height or distance. Juggling balls can be used for contact juggling, a form of juggling in which the juggler never throws the objects; the contact juggler will use stage balls or balls designed for contact juggling. The record for the most juggling balls juggled (where a "juggle" is defined as at least two throws and catches of e
Knife juggling is a variant of toss juggling using blunt knives as props which are thrown and caught. Although knives are sometimes juggled recreationally, it is a performance art. Knife juggling is seen performed by street entertainers as part of a routine, or at art or historical festivals; the knives are thrown with vertical spin, lending them stability in the air, are allowed to rotate once or twice before being caught. Knife juggling can be performed with any number of objects, but the vast majority of performers use three knives. Patterns used are basic and consist of a cascade, sometimes involve simple juggling tricks such as an under the leg throw; this is due the unwieldy nature and increased weight of knives and the increased level of danger when compared to such props as juggling clubs. Juggling is performed with sharp knives, because there is little point in increasing the risk to performer for no aesthetic benefit. Specially balanced juggling knives are used with a bevelled edge to appear sharp.
Performing with genuine machetes is not advised because the spin and balance are unfavourable, tricks beyond the basics become much more difficult. Various bladed implements can be juggled, but many have a dangerous and unpredictable spin as seen on an axe or chainsaw; such items are avoided, although chainsaws provide a preferable spin to axes if needs must. Juggling knives are constructed with a blade of steel or sheet aluminium several millimeters thick and a wooden or composite handle such as found on juggling clubs; the blades are scimitar shaped with a bevelled'cutting' edge, the other edges are rolled to prevent injury. The other common blade shape is an elongated diamond with all edges and the point rolled or otherwise made safe. While this makes knife juggling much safer than popularly assumed, knives can still cause severe trauma injuries to the head and body when falling from a height; because of this, the juggling of large lumps of metal should only be attempted by competent club jugglers who understand the risks.
The current world records for juggling both five and six knives are held by Thom Wall. Short guide on learning how to juggle. Warning: Don't learn to juggle with knives
Forms of juggling
Juggling practice has developed a wide range of patterns and forms which involve different types of manipulation, different props, numbers of props, numbers of jugglers. The forms of juggling shown here are practiced by amateur, non-performing, hobby jugglers as well as by professional jugglers; the variations of juggling shown here are extensive but not exhaustive as juggling practice develops and creates new patterns on a regular basis. Jugglers do not consciously isolate their juggling into one of the categories shown; some forms are mixed, for example: numbers and patterns with balls. Many Western jugglers practice other forms of object manipulation, such as diabolo, devil sticks, cigar box manipulation, fire-spinning, contact juggling, hat manipulation, staff-spinning, balancing tricks, bar flair and general circus skills. Toss juggling is the form of juggling, most recognisable as'juggling'. Objects balls, clubs or rings, are thrown and caught in a variety of different patterns and styles.
The term "toss juggling" is only used by a small subset of jugglers to distinguish between "pure juggling" and the wider range of circus skills associated with the term "juggling" like diabolo, cigar boxes and more. For the purposes of record keeping and ease of communication, the terms balls and beanbags are interchangeable in the juggling world. Numbers juggling is the sport of keeping as many objects aloft as possible. 7 or more balls or rings, or 5 or more clubs is considered the threshold for numbers. Traditionally, the goal has been to "qualify" a number, that is, to get the pattern around twice such that each object has been thrown and caught twice. A newer generation of jugglers tends to value a "flash", to throw and catch each object only once. Since a flash is much less difficult than a qualifying run, there will be numbers flashed but not yet juggled. For example, the current world records are: 14 flashed. Jugglers who focus on juggling as many patterns as possible, many of them mathematically generated using Siteswap.
Jugglers focus on aesthetic variations, trying to juggle the longest patterns, the most complex patterns, or the patterns with the highest throws. They will often juggle well known patterns like Mills Mess, Burke's Barrage, Rubenstein's Revenge with more than three balls. Jugglers make up as many tricks as they can and link them together in unique sequences; the juggler focuses on: body throws, tricks with crossing arms, carrying balls around other balls and different styles of catching. Three, four or five balls are juggled; the juggler is stationary and only uses their hands. Juggling is considered to be "technical" if the skills are of substantial difficulty. While many artistic jugglers are technical, the term is used to refer to those jugglers who focus on doing harder moves, rather than making an artistic impression or performance; the whole body can be used for controlling the objects being manipulated. These manipulations can be the forms from toss juggling such as throws and catches including catches with the head, back and feet and include contact juggling moves such as head and arm rolls.
A full body juggler may use forms of body movement akin to dance altering their stance and their orientation and using their body and the props in a choreographed performance. In bounce juggling, a form of tossing, silicone or rubber balls are allowed to bounce off a hard surface the floor, before catching again. There are a few distinct tricks with bouncing balls, mixing up different rhythms and types of throws, but most popular is numbers bouncing. Bounce juggling may be "easier to accomplish than is toss juggling because the balls are grabbed at the top of their trajectories, when they are moving the slowest." Juggling footballs, water polo balls or volleyballs. The most classic skills are spinning balls stacking the spinning balls, bouncing balls on the head, feet or floor. Elements of contact juggling are mixed in, rolling the larger balls around the body. Rings are less popular than clubs; the main reasons are: they can be quite painful to catch for beginners, as the thin cross-section and hard plastic can act like blades.
However, when jugglers are comfortable with ring juggling, they can create an effective performance. Rings are about as impressive as clubs onstage, but are easier to juggle because they do not have to be spun as precisely. Rings lend themselves well to numbers juggling; because of their light weight and aerodynamic structure they can be thrown high with less exertion than would be required when juggling balls or clubs. Numbers juggling with rings begins at 8 or more rings; some jugglers attempt to set world records for most rings juggled and longest runs with increased numbers of rings. Few people use rings to create new tricks. A juggler will do tricks that they have learned with balls or clubs, but using rings instea
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, art or sport. The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling. Juggling can be the manipulation of one object or many objects at the same time, most using one or two hands but possible with feet. Jugglers refer to the objects they juggle as props; the most common props are clubs, or rings. Some jugglers use more dramatic objects such as fire torches or chainsaws; the term juggling can commonly refer to other prop-based manipulation skills, such as diabolo, devil sticks, cigar boxes, contact juggling, hooping, yo-yo, hat manipulation. The words juggling and juggler derive from the Middle English jogelen, which in turn is from the Old French jangler. There is the Late Latin form joculare of Latin joculari, meaning "to jest". Although the etymology of the terms juggler and juggling in the sense of manipulating objects for entertainment originates as far back as the 11th century, the current sense of to juggle, meaning "to continually toss objects in the air and catch them", originates from the late 19th century.
From the 12th to the 17th century and juggler were the terms most used to describe acts of magic, though some have called the term juggling a lexicographical nightmare, stating that it is one of the least understood relating to magic. In the 21st century, the term juggling refers to toss juggling, where objects are continuously thrown into the air and caught again, repeating in a rhythmical pattern. According to James Ernest in his book Contact Juggling, most people will describe juggling as "throwing and catching things". David Levinson and Karen Christensen describe juggling as "the sport of tossing and catching or manipulating objects keeping them in constant motion". "Juggling, like music, combines abstract patterns and mind-body coordination in a pleasing way." The earliest record of juggling is suggested in a panel from the 15th Beni Hasan tomb of an unknown Egyptian prince, showing female dancers and acrobats throwing balls. Juggling has been recorded in many early cultures including Egyptian, Chinese, Greek, Norse and Polynesian civilizations.
Juggling in ancient China was an art performed by some warriors. One such warrior was Xiong Yiliao, whose juggling of nine balls in front of troops on a battlefield caused the opposing troops to flee without fighting, resulting in a complete victory. In Europe, juggling was an acceptable diversion until the decline of the Roman Empire, after which the activity fell into disgrace. Throughout the Middle Ages, most histories were written by religious clerics who frowned upon the type of performers who juggled, called gleemen, accusing them of base morals or practicing witchcraft. Jugglers in this era would only perform in marketplaces, fairs, or drinking houses, they would perform short and bawdy acts and pass a hat or bag among the audience for tips. Some kings' and noblemen’s bards, fools, or jesters would have been able to juggle or perform acrobatics, though their main skills would have been oral. In 1768, Philip Astley opened the first modern circus. A few years he employed jugglers to perform acts along with the horse and clown acts.
Since jugglers have been associated with circuses. In the early 19th century, troupes from Asia, such as the famous "Indian Jugglers" referred to by William Hazlitt, arrived to tour Britain and parts of America. In the 19th century and music hall theatres became more popular, jugglers were in demand to fill time between music acts, performing in front of the curtain while sets were changed. Performers started specializing in juggling, separating it from other kinds of performance such as sword swallowing and magic; the Gentleman Juggler style was established by German jugglers such as Kara. Rubber processing developed, jugglers started using rubber balls. Juggling balls were made from balls of twine, stuffed leather bags, wooden spheres, or various metals. Solid or inflatable rubber balls meant. Inflated rubber balls made ball spinning easier and more accessible. Soon in North America, vaudeville theatres employed jugglers hiring European performers. In the early to mid-20th century and vaudeville shows decreased in popularity due to competition from motion picture theatres and television, juggling suffered as a result.
Music and comedy transferred easily to radio, but juggling could not. In the early years of TV, when variety-style programming was popular, jugglers were featured; the International Jugglers' Association, founded in 1947, began as an association for professional vaudeville jugglers, but restrictions for membership were changed, non-performers were permitted to join and attend the annual conventions. The IJA continues to hold an annual convention each summer and runs a number of other programs dedicated to advance the art of juggling worldwide. World Juggling Day was created as an annual day of recognition for the hobby, with the intent to teach people how to juggle, to promote juggling and to get jugglers together and celebrate, it is held on the Saturday in June closes
Many countries, cities or juggling clubs hold their own annual juggling convention or juggling festival. These are the backbone of the juggling scene, the events that bring jugglers from a wide area together to socialize; the attendance of a convention can be anything from a few dozen to a few thousand people. The principal focus of most juggling conventions is the main hall - where any participant can juggle share and learn tricks, try out multi-person passing patterns. Additionally, more formal "workshops" are organized, in which expert jugglers work with small groups on specific skills and techniques. Most Juggling Conventions will include a big show and juggling games. Many juggling conventions host some kind of Renegade Show, an open stage where anyone can, at short notice, get up and perform just about anything; the Juggling Edge maintains a searchable database of past and upcoming juggling festivals and events. Conventions can be split into three distinct types, though all call themselves "Juggling Conventions": These last three to ten days and can attract between 150 and 5,500 people.
Most attendees camp, pitching tents within the convention site, this is covered by the cost of attendance. Onsite there are food tents, bar tents, various sports halls or large bigtops for juggling space. During the day there can be shows, games and exhibitions; every night there is entertainment provided in the forms of professional shows, open stages, late night stages, live music and more. The largest festival style conventions are held in Europe; some notable festival style conventions are: The European Juggling Convention - The world's largest convention visits different European countries each year. The first EJC was held in 1978 in Brighton and attracted 11 jugglers from five different countries; the convention lasts 7 to 9 days. In 2011 it was held in Munich and attracted over 7200 jugglers from all over the world, making it the biggest EJC since the start of this convention; the 2019 EJC will take place in United Kingdom. The British Juggling Convention - a 5-7 day juggling convention in the UK, now attracts between 750-1,000 each year, held in the Easter school holiday.
Israeli Juggling Convention - runs for 5 days over the Passover holiday and is held at Gan HaShlosha National Park in the north of Israel. It attracts between 1200-1400 jugglers. Berlin Juggling Convention - Germany's largest juggling convention, about 600-800 people attend each year, it is cheap and some food is included. Circulation - A 3-5 day multicultural juggling festival in New Zealand in its fifth year of operation attended by up to 300 people; the Dutch Juggling Convention - a 4-day convention run each year in a different city in the Netherlands over the ascension day holiday and is attended by about 500 jugglers. Broxford - a 9-day convention held in southern England, it isn't large but has a dedicated core group that return year after year. The Bungay Balls Up - a 10-day convention held in Suffolk, UK - small and friendly, held on a working farm; the Turkish Juggling Convention - From now on this convention will be 7 days in Sundance-Antalya The Swedish Juggling Convention - Four day convention inside a gymnastics hall.
Always held over the Easter holiday. Brianza Juggling Convention - Imbersago, Italy - a four-day convention held over the long weekend in May each year Dali Flow Fest - Dali City, China - a seven-day convention held on first week of third moon of Chinese calendar These are held in city center hotels or conference centers, they are invariably in North America and more expensive than the European Juggling Convention. Camping is only an option, as most are held in hotel convention centers. Notable conference-style conventions are: The IJA Summer Festival - The first and longest running juggling convention, it is held in different cities each year, with the largest attendance in the 1990s with up to 1,300 jugglers. In 2014 it was held in West Lafayette and attracted over 500 jugglers; the World Juggling Federation Convention - the first WJF convention was held in Las Vegas in December 2004 and attracted 150-200 jugglers, more recent WJF are televised for ESPN. Small, regional conventions that can last up to two or three days.
These attract between 25 and 250 people, have workshops throughout the day and a show in the evening of the main day. At these conventions accommodation and food is not provided, they are held in sports centres, schools or universities. Some notable one day conventions are: Chocfest - in York, UK Juggle This - in New York City, United States Leeds Juggling Festival - Leeds, UK Camvention - Cambridge, UK Bath Upchuck - at University of Bath UK The most well attended convention is the European Juggling Convention, along with the British Juggling Convention, the Israeli Juggling Convention, the IJA Festival, they all take place annually. The BJC occurs every spring, the IJC is staged over Passover, the EJC and IJA are summer festivals; the BJC takes place in Britain, the IJC in Israel, the EJC in Europe, as one might expect, but the IJA Festival has so far proven to be an North American event, despite it being the principal date in the calendar of the International Jugglers' Association. This list was compiled from data provided by Mike Armstrong at a Yahoo! group.
A Yahoo! login will be required to view the source material
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruz's population at 62,864. Situated on the northern edge of Monterey Bay, about 32 mi south of San Jose and 75 mi south of San Francisco, the city is part of the 12-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area. Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, natural environment, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, liberal leanings, it is home to the University of California, Santa Cruz, a premier research institution and educational hub, as well as the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, an oceanfront amusement park operating continuously since 1907. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz and the pueblo of Branciforte; the City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876. Important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture.
Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a beach resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, Santa Cruz County was home to the Awaswas Natives; the misnomer Ohlone, while used to describe the native people of the Santa Cruz area, is a generalized name for the many diverse groups that lived in the region stretching from San Francisco to the Monterey Bay. The diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan; the term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature. Awaswa was one of the eight Costanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, stretching north of Davenport to Rio Del Mar; the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their spoken language are three local place names: Aptos and Zayante.
The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, lived in small villages scattered around the Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay regions. Within fifty years of the Spaniards' arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had disappeared in the Bay area. Today, two of the Coastanoan tribes, the Awaswa people'missionized' in Santa Cruz and the Mutsun people'missionized' at San Juan Bautista, have joined together as the Amah Mutsan Tribal Band in an effort to protect and maintain the authentic and distinct cultural history and practices; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà, passed through the area on its way north, still searching for the "port of Monterey" described by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17, 1769. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This river was named San Lorenzo.".
Next morning, the expedition set out again, Crespi noted that, "Five hundred steps after we started we crossed a good arroyo of running water which descends from some high hills where it rises. It was named "El Arroyo de la Santisima Cruz, which translates as "The Stream of the Most Holy Cross"). In 1791, Father Fermín Lasuén continued the use of Crespi's name when he declared the establishment of La Misión de la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz for the conversion of the Awaswas of Chatu-Mu and surrounding Ohlone villages. Santa Cruz was the twelfth mission to be founded in California; the creek, however lost the name, is known today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the main feeder of Neary Lagoon. In 1797, Governor Diego de Borica, by order of the Viceroy of New Spain, Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, established the Villa de Branciforte, a town named in honor of the Viceroy. One of only three civilian towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River, less than a mile from the Mission.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue. Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area. Following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the government attempted to rename the community that had grown up around the Mission, to Pueblo de Figueroa; the pueblo designation was never made official, however. The new name didn't catch on and Santa Cruz remained Santa Cruz. Mission farming and grazing lands, which once extended from the San Lorenzo River north along the coast to today's Santa Cruz County border, were taken away and broken up into large land grants called ranchos; the grants were made by several different governors between 1834 and 1845. Only two ranchos were within the boundaries of today's city of Santa Cruz. Rancho Potrero Y Rincon de San Pedro Regalado consisted of flat, river-bottom pasture land north of Mission Hill. Rancho Tres Ojos de Agua was on the west side.
Three other rancho boundaries became part of the modern city limits: Rancho Refugio on the west. Rancho Carbonera on the north, Rancho Arroyo del Rodeo on the east. After secularization put most California land into private hands, immigran