Armenian Democratic Liberal Party
This article is about the Armenian party established as Armenakan Party in 1885 and reformed as Armenian Democratic Liberal Party in 1921. It was established in Constantinople in 1921 as a result of the unification of 3 political parties: the Armenakan Party, the Liberal Party of the Reformed Hunchakians, the Constituent Democratic Party; the Armenakan Party was founded in 1885 by Mekertich Portukalian as part of the national movement in Van in the Ottoman Empire. In the Armenian parliamentary elections on 25 May 2003, the party won 2.9% of the popular vote but no seats. Since, the party has lost all presence in the political landscape of Armenia. A few pockets of its presence exist in the diaspora with ever-decreasing numbers, a far cry from their heyday during the Soviet era; the Armenakan Party was established in Van by Mekertich Portukalian, Setrak Gabudian, Hampig Der Hampartsoumian in 1885 as an underground organization against the ruling system. It was classified as a party based on the fact that it developed a platform, a central body, an official publication.
The founders of the Armenakan party, Mekertich Portukalian, Setrak Gabudian, Hampig Der Hampartsoumian kept in touch with the leaders, published a journal of political and social enlightenment, "Armenia". Portukalian is cited as the father of the Armenian Patriotic Society of Europe. After Mekertich Portukalian, the Armenians of Van continued to develop the political principles behind Armenian nationalism, in secrecy; the party's main misconception was that enemies of the Ottoman Empire would intervene and rescue the Armenian people throughout the period 1885–1918. With the turn of the century, Armenakans had cells outside Van, in other towns in the province, as well as in Trabzon and Istanbul; the military structure was developed in Russian Transcaucasia, in Persia, in the United States. Military activities in the Ottoman Empire included Bashkaleh Resistance in May 1889, Defense of Van in June 1896 and the Siege of Van from April 19 to May 6, 1915. In 1921 three groupings, namely the Armenakans, the reformed factions splitting from the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party known as Azatakan party, the "Sahmanadir Ramkavars" joined forces to form together the Democratic Liberal Party.
The majority of the membership of the Armenakan Party was absorbed into the new party. The Ramgavar party advocates liberalism and capitalism, unlike the other two classical Armenian political parties, the Hunchagians Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and Armenian Revolutionary Federation, which both have the leftist ideology; the current numbers of the party are minimal compared to other traditional parties in the Diaspora and Armenia. Moreover, while having solid constituency. Subsequently, the situation has risen a debate over the existence of the party. Party member Unger Garabed Manushian has called for reform or disbandment of the party, "We, the Ramgavars, today are at a focal point of our history. We have insignificant role in the Diaspora. We must start a process of reforming the party, its ideology, its activities if we want to exist in the next 10 years. If we do not choose this course we must admit to ourselves that our party has come to an end." Armenian Democratic Liberal Party has long-established media in the Armenian diaspora as well as in Armenia.
Argentina: Sardarabad Armenia: Azg Canada: Abaka Egypt: Arev Greece: Nor Ashkharh Lebanon: Zartonk ADL Daily in Armenian published in Beirut, Lebanon since 1937 United States: Armenian Mirror-Spectator Baikar Nor Or: As a result of the rift in the party, some party organs have started supporting the rival Armenakan-Democratic Liberal Party and the latter's policies, most notably Azg in Armenia, Armenian Mirror-Spectator in the United States and Abaka in Canada. The party was active during and after the Armenian Genocide when the Armenians began mobilising politically for rights under the oppressing Ottoman regime. A main figure in the Ramgavar party, Diran Pasha, led the resistance within the Ottoman political arena and subsequently picked up arms when the Ottoman government began the systematic annihilation of the Armenian population in Anatolia and Northeastern Turkey. With his band of brothe
My Step Alliance
The My Step Alliance is a political alliance formed by the Civil Contract party, the Mission Party and various independent representatives of civil society. It was formed in August 2018, before the Yerevan City Council election, 2018; the leader of the alliance is the Prime Minister of Armenia Nikol Pashinyan. On 31 March, at the beginning of the 2018 Armenian revolution, Nikol Pashinyan and a group of supporters began a march from Gyumri, Armenia's second largest city; the campaign, named "My Step", was declared with the intention to prevent Sargsyan's election as prime minister on 17 April. On 23 September 2018 the alliance participated and won in the Yerevan City Council election, 2018 with Hayk Marutyan as a candidate of Mayor and won 57 seats out of 65 in Yerevan City Council; the alliance ran in the Armenian parliamentary election, 2018. They won 88 оf 132 seats; the alliance is composed of the following parties, as well as some independents
Armenian Communist Party
The Armenian Communist Party is a communist party in Armenia. It considers itself the successor to the Armenian branch the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it is the main communist party in Armenia and claimed 18,000 members in 2006. HKK publishes Pravda Armenii, it should not be confused with the historical Communist Party of Armenia during the Soviet era, nor the Democratic Party of Armenia, a party founded by the last secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia, Aram Gaspar Sargsyan. The title of the party leader is First Secretary. 1991–1999: Sergey Badalyan 2000–2005: Vladimir Darbinyan 2005–2014: Ruben Tovmasyan 2014–2017: Tachat Sargsyan The party was described as "staunchly pro-Russian" by the US-funded Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in 2002. In 2011, party members marched through downtown Yerevan towards the square named after Stepan Shahumyan, an early Armenian communist revolutionary, they held banners reading “Socialism”, “Long Live the Communist Party of Armenia”, “Down with Capitalism”, “Forever with Russia”.
Its leader, Ruben Tovmasyan, stated: "History has proved. The moment the Russian flag stops flying in Gyumri Armenia will start moving towards its end as the enemy will be quick to attack us; the Communist Party of Armenia has always been in favor of consolidation among fraternal peoples." At a 2006 rally the slogan was "Down with America, Always with Russia."In 2001 the party and several thousand supporters advocated Armenia's membership into the Union State of Russia and Belarus. They continued the campaign for Armenia's membership into the union with Russia and Belarus in 2002; the party supported the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union and in 2013 welcomed Armenia's accession into the EEU as a "prelude to the restoration of the Soviet Union."In the 1999 parliamentary election the party's programme included: Armenia's transformation into a parliamentary republic rejection of Western-style market reforms socialism that embraced a mixed economy, including private property close ties with Russia Nagorno-Karabakh's recognition as a subject of international law Armenia's accession to the Union State The party remained a significant political force in the 1990s under its charismatic leader Sergey Badalyan, who died in 1999.
In a 2004 For Official Use Only telegram on Armenian political parties, US Ambassador in Armenia John Ordway wrote that the party has "fewer than 50,000 members country-wide" and that it "is no longer influential."It has contested in every parliamentary election, but has failed to pass the 5% threshold since 2003. In 2003 the party accused the government in "mass falsifications." Communist Party of Artsakh brother party in Artsakh
Robert Kocharyan is an Armenian politician who served as the second President of Armenia between 1998 and 2008. He was President of Nagorno-Karabakh from 1994 to 1997 and Prime Minister of Armenia from 1997 to 1998, he was arrested on December 7, 2018. During most of his presidency, between 2001 and 2007, Armenia's economy grew on average by 12% annually due to the construction boom, his presidency witnessed two of the bloodiest events in post-independence Armenian history: the 1999 Armenian parliament shooting and the killing of ten people during the 2008 presidential election protests. He has been held responsible for both events by the opposition by Armenia's first president Levon Ter-Petrosyan and his party. Both the 1998 and 2003 presidential elections were held in two rounds, they were criticized by international observers. Kocharyan and his family amassed a fortune and extensive business interests worth hundreds of millions of dollars if not billions during his time in office. On July 26, 2018 the Special Investigative Service of Armenia charged Kocharian with “overthrowing constitutional order of Armenia” during the final weeks of his rule.
The SIS asked a Yerevan court to remand him in pre-trial custody. On July 27, 2018 he was arrested. On August 13, 2018 Kocharyan was freed from custody following a court ruling, but remained accused of the charges he was arrested for. On December 7, 2018 Kocharyan was arrested again following another ruling by the Court of Appeals. Armenia's Criminal Court of Appeal refused to release him from custody on February 7, 2019. Robert Kocharyan was born in Stepanakert, NKAO, Azerbaijan SSR, he received his secondary education there and from 1972 to 1974 served in the Soviet Army. He and his wife, Bella Kocharyan, have three children: Sedrak and Levon. Kocharyan speaks English. 1972–1974 – served in the Soviet Army 1975–1976 – labour activities in different enterprises in Stepanakert and Moscow 1977–1982 – electrical engineering faculty of Yerevan State Polytechnic Institute. Diploma with excellence. 1980–1981 – worked as a mechanical engineer at the electrical engineering plant in Stepanakert 1981–1985 – worked at different positions at Municipal committee in Stepanakert town committee of the Komsomol Union, including the post of assistant secretary 1986 – instructor of town committee of Stepanakert Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1987–1989 – head of Karabakh Soviet party organization of the silk factory 19 February 1988 – leader of the Artsakh movement, which called for secession from the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic and for union with Armenia. Complaints included that Kocharyan had not been an Armenian citizen for ten years as required by the constitution though it would have been impossible for him to be a 10-year citizen of a republic, less than 7 years old. During his presidency, several opposition leaders in the Armenian Parliament and the Prime Minister of Armenia were killed by gunmen in an episode known as the 1999 Armenian parliament shooting. Kocharyan himself negotiated with the terrorists to release the MP hostages. In 2001 Kocharyan was attending a jazz performance at Poplavok cafe in Yerevan, was greeted by former classmate Poghos Poghosyan with the words "Hi Rob"; the casualness of the greeting was taken as an insult, Kocharyan's bodyguards took Poghosyan into the cafe toilet and killed him. The bodyguard, Aghamal Harutiunyan, received.
The 2003 Armenian Presidential election was held on 19 February and 5 March 2003. No candidate received a majority in the first round of the election with the incumbent President Kocharyan winning under 50% of the vote. Therefore, a second round was held and Kocharyan defeated Stepan Demirchyan with official results showed him winning just over 67% of the vote. In both rounds, electoral observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe reported significant amounts of electoral fraud by Demirchyan's supporters and numerous supporters of Demirchyan were arrested before the second round took place. Demirchyan described the election as having been rigged and called on his supporters to rally against the results. Tens of thousands of Armenians protested in the days after the election against the results and called on President Kocharyan to step down; however Kocharyan was sworn in for a second term in early April and the constitutional court upheld the election, while recommending that a referendum be held within a year to confirm the election result.
On April 14, 2004 Armenian poet Silva Kaputikyan wrote an open letter Kocharyan Must Go, where she protested Kocharyan's harsh methods towards the demonstrators on April 12–13, 2004. She turned back Mesrop Mashtots Medal awarded by Kocharyan some years ago. A presidential election was held in Armenia on 19 February 2008; the incumbent President Kocharyan, ineligible for a third consecutive term, backed the candidacy of Prime Minister of Armeni
Free Democrats (Armenia)
Free Democrats is an Armenian liberal, Pro-European party. It was founded in 2011 by Khachatur Kokobelyan. In 2017 Armenian parliamentary election it failed to meet the threshold of 5%. Khachatur Kokobelyan was the first on party list, Hrant Bagratyan was the second and Prime minister candidate of party. Programs of political parties in Armenia Official website
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
The Social Democrat Party, is the first Armenian political party, founded in 1887 by a group of students in Geneva, Switzerland. It was the first social Democratic party to operate in Persia. Among its founders were Avetis Nazarbekian, Mariam Vardanian, Gevorg Gharadjian, Ruben Khan-Azat, Christopher Ohanian, Gabriel Kafian and Manuel Manuelian, its original goal was attaining Armenia's independence from the Ottoman Empire during the Armenian national liberation movement. The party is known as Hentchak, Social-Democratic Hentchaks, Hnchakian, its name is taken from its newspaper Hunchak, meaning "Calling" or "Bell", is taken by party members to represent "a call or awakening, for enlightenment and freedom." All seven founders of the party were Russian Armenian students who had left Russian Armenia to further their education in various universities of Western Europe. They were young, in their twenties, supported by their affluent bourgeois families, they were influenced by social-democratic revolutionary ideology, contacted Frederick Engels, Georgi Plekhanov and Vladimir Lenin.
Mariam Vardanian had worked with Russian revolutionaries in Saint Petersburg. For the purpose of furthering revolutionary activity in Turkish Armenia, they formed the Hunchakian Revolutionary Party in August, 1887; the party's manifesto, printed in the first issue of Hunchak journal, contained this slogan: "Those who cannot attain freedom through revolutionary armed struggle are unworthy of it". The Hunchak party fought many battles against the Ottoman Empire, to free the Armenian people from Turkish rule. During this period, many famous intellectuals joined Hunchakian party, including Smpad Piurad, Stepan Sapah-Gulian, Alexander Atabekian and Aram Andonian. One of Armenia's famous national heroes Andranik Ozanian, at first, joined the Hunchak party, but disagreement with party policies led Andranik to leave the Hunchak ranks within less than a year, to join the Dashnaktsutyun party. At the early days of the formation of Armenian political powers, Dashnaktsutyun sought "reforms within the framework of Ottoman Empire", while the Hunchakian party favored an independent Armenian state.
Hunchak was the official organ of Hunchakians. In 1894 in Athens and London the party published a socialist scientific monthly, which for the first time published "The Communist Manifesto" in Armenian, translated by Avetis and Mariam Nazarbekians; the First General Conference of Hunchakian party took place in London, in September 1896. In the Caucasus the Hunchakian party has played a prominent role, it combated the russification policy of Viceroy Galitzin, the Russian governor of Caucasus. In 1903 Paramaz organized the assassination attempt of Golitsin. Paramaz was one of the organizers of self-defence troops during the Armenian-Tatar massacres of 1905-06. On July 27, 1890, Hunchakian activists Harutiun Jangülian, Mihran Damadian and Hambartsum Boyajian headed Kum Kapu Affray in Constantinople, which demanded the implementation of reforms in the Western Armenian provinces. In the early 1890s frequent clashes between the Armenian inhabitants of Sason and the Turkish forces took place because of Sassontsis' refusal to pay retroactive taxes to the Turkish government.
In 1894, Sasun Resistance was organized by the Hunchak party under the leadership of Mihran Damadian, Hambartsum Boyajian, Kevork Chavush and Hrayr Dzhoghk. In 1913 Hunchakian leader Paramaz participated in the 7th Conference of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party in Constanţa, where he represented the idea of assassination of Ittihad leaders, but on June 15, 1915 Paramaz with 19 other his comrades were hanged in the central square of Constantinople. Defense of Van: Khanasor Expedition: Zeitun Resistance: Siege of Van: Shabin-Karahisar uprising: The party played a role in the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia, as party members took part in the Battle of Sardarapat in 1918, which defended the Armenian capital Yerevan from the Army of Islam of the Ottoman Empire. After the takeover of the Armenian communists of power in Armenia in 1921 and dissolving of the Democratic Republic of Armenia, the declaration of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, all political parties apart from the Armenian Communist Party were forbidden.
Thus the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, alongside all the other Armenian traditional political parties became a party of the Armenian diaspora only. But the party remained in general a supporter of the development of the Armenian SSR for many decades, in sharp contrast to the Armenian Revolutionary Federation that remained opposed to the Communist regime in Armenia; this resulted at many times in feuds and rift between the Hunchaks and the Dashnaks in many centers of the Armenian diaspora, a situation becoming worse with religious differences, with the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party supporting Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the ARF supporting the Holy See of Cilicia. In these conflicts, the Armenian Democratic Liberal Party was seen as a political ally on the side of the SDHP and in opposition to the ARF. In the 1950s, it clashed, sometimes violently, with the Dashnak Party, due to tensions that escalated when the ARF elected Bishop Zareh as Zareh I, Catholicos of Cilicia, a move, rejected by the Hunchaks.
This period was characterized by an escalation of conflict between the ARF on one side, the SDHP and the ally ADL on the other side. In the midst of increasing sectarian strife in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which led to th
National Assembly (Armenia)
The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia informally referred to as the Parliament of Armenia is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia. Before 1995, It was referred to as the Supreme Council of Armenia and known as the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic under Soviet rule; the National Assembly is a unicameral body. The National Assembly consists of at least 101 seats, but with additional seats allocated it may grow to about 200 seats in rare cases; the President of the National Assembly is Ararat Mirzoyan. According to a law adopted in 2016, parties need to pass a 5% threshold and coalitions 7% to be included in the distribution of mandates; the election system reserves 50% of votes cast in favor of each party to be distributed via party lists. Out of these, four mandates will be assigned to national minorities first of all. A party list can not include over 70% of representatives of the same sex and its every four consecutive entries shall include members of both sexes.
Another 50% of votes received by each party is distributed among their territorial lists submitted in 13 electoral districts. If neither party wins over 50% of mandates, a second round of elections is held. After the first round, the two best-placed parties participate in the second round. All mandates received during the first round are preserved; the party that wins the second round is given an additional number of mandates to reach 54% of all seats. If any party or coalition wins over two-thirds of the mandates in the first round of elections sufficient additional mandates will be distributed among all other parties to ensure that at least one-third of all seats are given to parties other than the winning one. Avetik Sahakyan 1 August 1918 – 1 August 1919 Avetis Aharonyan 1 August 1919 – 4 November 1920 Hovhannes Kajaznuni 4 November 1920 – 2 December 1920 Levon Ter-Petrosyan 4 August 1990 – 11 November 1991 Babken Ararktsyan 24 December 1991 – 27 July 1995 Babken Ararktsyan 27 July 1995 – 4 February 1998 Khosrov Harutyunyan 4 February 1998 – 11 June 1999 Karen Demirchyan 11 June 1999 – 27 October 1999 Armen Khachatryan 2 November 1999 – 12 June 2003 Artur Baghdasaryan 12 June 2003 – 1 June 2006 Tigran Torosyan 1 June 2006 – 26 September 2008 Hrayr Karapetyan 26 September 2008 – 29 September 2008 Hovik Abrahamyan 28 September 2008 – 21 November 2011 Samvel Nikoyan 6 December 2011 - 31 May 2012 Hovik Abrahamyan 31 May 2012 – 13 April 2014 Galust Sahakyan 29 April 2014 – 18 May 2017 Ara Babloyan 18 May 2017 – 14 January 2019 Ararat Mirzoyan 14 January 2019 – present Babken Ararktsyan 1990 – 1991 Gagik Harutyunyan 1990 – 1991 Ara Sahakian 1991 – 1998 Artashes Tumanyan 1991 – 1995 Karapet Rubinyan 1995 – 1998 Albert Bazeyan 1998 – 1999 Yuri Bakhshyan 1998 – 1999 Ruben Miroyan 1999 Gagik Aslanian 1999 – 2003 Tigran Torosyan 1999 – 2006 Vahan Hovhannisyan 2003 – 2008 Ishkhan Zakarian 2007 Arevik Petrosyan 2007 – 2010 Hrayr Karapetyan 2008 – 2009 Samvel Nikoyan 2009 – 2012 Samvel Balasanyan 2010 – 2012 Hermine Naghdalyan 2012 – 2017 Eduard Sharmazanov 2011 – 2019 Arpine Hovhannisyan 2017 – 2019 Mikayel Melkumyan 2017 – 2019 Alen Simonyan 2019 – present Lena Nazaryan 2019 – present Vahe Enfiajyan 2019 – present The National Assembly has eleven standing committees: Standing Committee on Defense and Security Standing Committee on Economic Affairs Standing Committee on European Integration Standing Committee on Financial and Budgeting Affairs Standing Committee on Foreign Relations Standing Committee on Health Care and Social Affairs Standing Committee on Human Rights and Public Affairs Standing Committee on Science, Culture, Diaspora and Sport Standing Committee on State and Legal Affairs Standing Committee on Territorial Administration, Local Self-Government and Environment Standing Committee on Territorial Integration Ad-hoc committees are special temporary committees established by the decision of the National Assembly to discuss certain draft laws, or investigate certain issues, events or facts and to submit conclusions to the National Assembly.
The aim of these committees is to draw attention to exceptional cases that are not covered by the standing committees. According to the Constitution of Armenia, Article 73 “If appropriate, interim committees may be established as prescribed by the law on the Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly for preliminary discussion of certain draft laws or for submitting to the National Assembly opinions, statements on certain issues and facts”. Following the consideration and definition in the Constitution the Law on Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly defines all the issues concerning the add-hoc committees. More according to the article 22 of the mentioned law, add-hoc committees are created by the decision of the National Assembly; the decision should contain information relating to the tasks and procedures of an add-hoc committee, meaning that the committee should operate only in strict limitations set to the spheres of its investigation, the resources it may gain access to and to the timeframes.
The ultimate reason for existence of such committees is to deliver a report on its finding during a session of the National Assembly. Based on these reports, the Deputy may create a draft resolution in 2 days and if agreed by the Lead Committee, the resolution may be included in the draft agenda for upcoming four-day session. One of the current add-hoc committees of the National Assembly of Armenia is the Committee on Ethics; this is not a classical add-hoc committee as it does exist during every session o