Bengaline is a woven silk-and-cotton material which became fashionable for women and children to wear in the 1880s and 1890s. It offered the impression of silk but was made with lesser amounts of silk than cotton. Lizzie Borden stated at her December 1892 inquest that she was wearing a dress made of silk on the morning she was accused of murdering her father and stepmother. The fabric went out of fashion when completely smooth-surfaced materials became popular, piqué, coachmans whipcord, diagonal serge, and surah are similar to bengaline silk. Surah was once known in France as silk serge, bengaline silk sold for $2.50 per yard in 1889 but was sometimes discounted to sell for $1.25 per yard. A heavy lined, long cloak for infants, with deep bengaline silk embroidery, retailed for $7.98 at a Manhattan, New York clothing shop, diagonal striped dresses featuring the fabric were popular in the spring of 1912
Corduroy is a textile composed of twisted fibres that, when woven, lie parallel to one another to form the cloths distinct pattern, a cord. Modern corduroy is most commonly composed of tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel between the tufts, corduroy is, in essence, a ridged form of velvet. The fabric looks as if it is made from multiple cords laid parallel to each other, the word corduroy is from cord and duroy, a coarse woollen cloth made in England in the 18th century. The interpretation of the word as corde du roi is a folk etymology, as a fabric, corduroy is considered a durable cloth. Corduroy is found in the construction of trousers and shirts, the width of the cord is commonly referred to as the size of the wale. The lower the number, the thicker the width of the wale. Corduroy’s wale count per inch can vary from 1.5 to 21, wide wale is more commonly used in trousers and furniture upholstery, medium and fine wale fabrics are usually found in garments worn above the waist. Corduroy is made by weaving extra sets of fibre into the fabric to form vertical ridges called wales.
The wales are built so that lines can be seen when they are cut into pile. The dye is applied to the surface of the fabric, the garment is cut, when washed during the final phase of the manufacturing process, the pigment dye washes out in an irregular way, creating a vintage look. The colour of each garment becomes softer with each washing, other names are often used for corduroy. Alternative names include, corded velveteen, elephant cord, pin cord, Manchester cloth, in continental Europe, corduroy is commonly known simply as Manchester, rib cord or rib velvet. Corduroy is a traditionally used in making British country clothing, such as in coat
Barkcloth or bark cloth is a versatile material that was once common in Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Barkcloth comes primarily from trees of the Moraceae family, including Broussonetia papyrifera, Artocarpus altilis and it is made by beating sodden strips of the fibrous inner bark of these trees into sheets, which are finished into a variety of items. Many texts that mention paper clothing are actually referring to barkcloth, barkcloth has been manufactured in Uganda for centuries and is Ugandas sole representative on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. Today, what is commonly called barkcloth is a soft, slightly textured fabric and this barkcloth is usually made of densely woven cotton fibers. Historically, the fabric has been used in home furnishings, such as curtains, upholstery, waverly, a famed design house for textiles and wall coverings between 1923 and 2007, called their version of this fabric rhino cloth, possibly for the rough, nubbly surface. Cedar bark textile Lacebark Osnaburg Tapa cloth Bark Cloth − Then and Now, Amazing Discoveries, Patricia L.
Quilters Muse Virtual Museum
Aertex is a British clothing company based in Manchester, established in 1888, and the name of the original textile manufactured by the company. The company owns the trademark for Aertex fabric, a lightweight and loosely woven cotton material that is used to make shirts, Aertex sells a range of menswear. The result was a fabric that provided a barrier between the warmth of the skin and the chill of the atmosphere and in 1888 they formed the Aertex Company, by 1891 Aertex was firmly established in the wardrobes of the English middle classes. These uniforms were designated as Jungle Green for the Far East, in 1959 Aertex, together with Ovaltine, sponsored the All New Netball Associations coaching film. Later, Pele was seen to wear an Aertex shirt when he played briefly for the New York Cosmos, Aertex continued to influence the sportswear scene into the 1980s with major manufacturers like Adidas utilizing the unique properties of the fabric. George Best was seen to such a shirt when he played for the San Jose Earthquakes in 1981.
Today Aertex is sold in shops in the UK. Aertex currently sells a range of menswear including polo and other shirts, Aertex clothing has many links with the music and entertainment industry. Ex-Libertines and Dirty Pretty Things frontman Carl Barat and t4 presenters Jeff Leach, list of fabric names Aertex company official site & online store Probert Encyclopedia Article
Chiffon is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a rough feel. Early chiffon was made purely from silk, in 1938, however, a nylon version of chiffon was invented, and in 1958 polyester chiffon was invented and became immensely popular due to its resilience and low cost. Under a magnifying glass chiffon resembles a net or mesh which gives it some transparency. Chiffon is most commonly used in evening wear, especially as an overlay, for giving an elegant and it is a popular fabric used in blouses, ribbons and lingerie. Like other crêpe fabrics, chiffon can be difficult to work with because of its light, due to this delicate nature, chiffon must be hand washed very gently. Since chiffon is a fabric that frays very easily, bound or French seams must be used to stop the fabric from fraying. Chiffon is smoother and more lustrous than the similar fabric georgette
Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and often not fully processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example, the fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still very cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was originally from the city of Kozhikode in southwestern India and it was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans. The raw fabric was dyed and printed in bright hues, Calico originated in Kozhikode in southwestern India during the 11th century. The cloth was known as cāliyan to the natives and it was mentioned in Indian literature by the 12th century when the writer Hēmacandra described calico fabric prints with a lotus design. By the 15th century calico from Gujǎrāt made its appearance in Egypt, trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Calico was woven using Sūrat cotton for both the warp and weft, in the 18th century, England was famous for its woollen and worsted cloth.
That industry, centred in the east and south in such as Norwich. Cotton processing was tiny, in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cottonwool was imported into England and this was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from Hindustān, had become popular, in 1700 an Act of Parliament passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia. This caused demand to switch to imported grey cloth instead—calico that had not been finished—dyed or printed and these were printed with popular patterns in southern England. Also, Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, known as fustian, cottonwool imports recovered though, and by 1720 were almost back to their 1701 levels. Again the woolen manufacturers, in true protectionist fashion, claimed that the imports were taking away from workers in Coventry. A new law passed, enacting fines against anyone caught wearing printed or stained calico muslins, the Lancashire manufacturers exploited this exemption, coloured cotton weft with linen warp were specifically permitted by the 1736 Manchester Act.
There now was a demand for woven cloth. In 1764,3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool were imported and it has been noted that this change in consumer demand a key part of the process that brought the Indian economy from sophisticated textile production to supply of raw materials. These events occurred under colonial rule and were described by Nehru, early Indian chintz, that is, glazed calico with a large floral pattern. Were primarily produced by painting techniques, the hues were applied by wooden blocks, and the cloth manufacturers in Britain printing calico used wooden block printing
A Charvet fabric is woven of silk or acetate in warp-faced rib weave, of a reversed reps type with a double ridge effect. The fabrics name derives from its frequent and clever use in the 19th century by the Parisian shirtmaker Charvet and it is characterized by a soft handle and shiny appearance. The bindings create a herringbone effect parallel to the warp, which make this suitable for creating faint diagonal stripe effects for ties. Patterns on this base are made with supplementary weft. The fabric has used for mufflers and robes. This weave is based on the Régence weave, a kind of reps with all weft raised on the backside, which was popular during the regency of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. In the United States, at the end of the 19th century, since the beginning of the 20th century, the weave is rather found in solid fabrics for semi formal wear. By extension, the term is used in knitting for a certain kind of bias striping, going up from left to right
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Since the 19th century the term has been used for the style of floral decoration developed in those calico textiles, but used more widely, for example on chintzware pottery and wallpaper. Unglazed calico was traditionally called cretonne, the word calico is derived from the name of the Indian city Calicut to which it had a manufacturing association. Chintz was originally a woodblock printed, painted or stained calico produced in India from 1600 to 1800 and popular for bed covers and draperies. Around 1600, Portuguese and Dutch traders were bringing examples of Indian chintz into Europe on a small scale, by 1680 more than a million pieces of chintz were being imported into England per year, and a similar quantity was going to France and the Dutch Republic. These early imports were mostly used for curtains, furnishing fabrics. It has been suggested that wearing them as clothes began when these were replaced and given to maidservants, who made them into dresses, and that they were first worn as linings.
With imported chintz becoming so popular with Europeans during the late 17th century and English mills grew concerned, in 1686 the French declared a ban on all chintz imports. In 1720 Englands Parliament enacted a law forbade the Use and Warings in Apparel of imported chintz. Even though chintz was outlawed, there were loopholes in the legislation, the Court of Versailles was outside the law and fashionable young courtiers continued wearing chintz. In 1734, French naval officer, M and his letters and samples can be seen today in the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle in Paris. In 1742, another Frenchman, Father Coeurdoux supplied details of the making process. In 1759 the ban against chintz was lifted, by this time French and English mills were able to produce chintz. Europeans at first produced reproductions of Indian designs, and added original patterns, a well-known make was toile de Jouy, which was manufactured in Jouy, between 1700 and 1843. Modern chintz usually consists of bright overall floral patterns printed on a light background, an interview with chintz expert Rosemary Crill, senior curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum
A dress is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice. It consists of a top piece that covers the torso and hangs down over the legs, a dress can be any one-piece garment containing a skirt of any length. Dresses can be formal or informal, in many cultures, dresses are more often worn by women and girls. The hemlines of dresses vary depending on the whims of fashion, at that time, the most-often used English word for a womans skirted garment was gown. Only in the last few decades has gown lost its meaning of a womans garment in the United States in favor of dress. In the ancient world, for example Ancient Greece and Rome, from this developed the dress worn by women and male clothing such as cassocks and Fustanella worn by priests and soldiers respectively. An ancient Greek tunic, appearing on the Charioteer of Delphi inspired an early twentieth gown designer, dresses increased dramatically to the hoopskirt and crinoline-supported styles of the 1860s, fullness was draped and drawn to the back.
Dresses had a day bodice with a high neckline and long sleeves, throughout this period, the length of fashionable dresses varied only slightly, between ankle-length and floor-sweeping. Beginning around 1915, hemlines for daytime dresses left the floor for good, for the next fifty years fashionable dresses became short, shorter, long. Since the 1970s, no one type or length has dominated fashion for long, with short and ankle-length styles often appearing side-by-side in fashion magazines. In most varieties of dress codes in Western cultures, a dress of an appropriate style is mandatory for women. They are popular for special occasions such as proms or weddings. For such occasions they, together with blouse and skirt, remain the de facto standard attire for many girls, the Theory of Fashion Design, Wiley,1965. Picken, Mary Brooks, The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls,1957, tozer and Sarah Levitt, Fabric of Society, A Century of People and Their Clothes 1770–1870, Laura Ashley Ltd. 1983, ISBN 0-9508913-0-4 ApparelSeach glossary of textile and apparel terms
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa. The greatest diversity of wild species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds, the fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, China is the worlds largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years, in the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms.
Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India, for example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 3400 and 2300 BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and this may be a reference to tree cotton, Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, Cotton has been spun, woven and it clothed the people of ancient India and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, in Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran, in Persian poets poems, especially Ferdowsis Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persia, during the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt, and dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops