SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Repetitive strain injury

A repetitive strain injury is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system, caused by repetitive use, compression or long periods in a fixed position. Other common names include repetitive stress disorders, cumulative trauma disorders, overuse syndrome; some examples of symptoms experienced by patients with RSI are aching, pulsing pain and extremity weakness presenting with intermittent discomfort and with a higher degree of frequency. Repetitive strain injury and associative trauma orders are umbrella terms used to refer to several discrete conditions that can be associated with repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, mechanical compression, sustained or awkward positions, or repetitive eccentric contractions; the exact terminology is controversial, but the terms now used by the United States Department of Labor and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health are musculoskeletal disorders and work-related muscular skeletal disorders. Examples of conditions that may sometimes be attributed to such causes include tendinosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, De Quervain syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, intersection syndrome, golfer's elbow, tennis elbow, trigger finger, radial tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, focal dystonia.

A general worldwide increase since the 1970s in RSIs of the arms, hands and shoulder has been attributed to the widespread use in the workplace of keyboard entry devices, such as typewriters and computers, which require long periods of repetitive motions in a fixed posture. Extreme temperatures have been reported as risk factor for RSI. Workers in certain fields are at risk of repetitive strains. Most occupational injuries are musculoskeletal disorders, many of these are caused by cumulative trauma rather than a single event. Miners and poultry workers, for example, must make repeated motions which can cause tendon and skeletal injuries. Jobs that involve repeated motion patterns or prolonged posture within a work cycle, or both, may be repetitive. Young athletes are predisposed to RSIs due to an underdeveloped musculoskeletal system. Factors such as personality differences to work-place organization problems. Certain workers may negatively perceive their work organization due to excessive work rate, long work hours, limited job control, low social support.

Previous studies shown elevated urinary catecholamines in workers with RSI. Pain related to RSI may evolve into chronic pain syndrome for workers who do not have supports from co-workers and supervisors. Age and gender are important risk factors for RSIs; the risk of RSI increases with age. Women are more affected than men because of their smaller frame, lower muscle mass and strength, due to endocrine influences. In addition, lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption are recognizable risk factors for RSI. Recent scientific findings indicate that obesity and diabetes may predispose an individual to RSIs by creating a chronic low grade inflammatory response that prevents the body from healing damaged tissues. RSIs are assessed using a number of objective clinical measures; these include effort-based tests such as grip and pinch strength, diagnostic tests such as Finkelstein's test for De Quervain's tendinitis, Phalen's Contortion, Tinel's Percussion for carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve conduction velocity tests that show nerve compression in the wrist.

Various imaging techniques can be used to show nerve compression such as x-ray for the wrist, MRI for the thoracic outlet and cervico-brachial areas. Utilization of routine imaging is useful in early detection and treatment of overuse injuries in at risk populations, important in preventing long term adverse effects. There are no quick fixes for RSI. Early diagnosis is critical to limiting damage; the RICE treatment is used as the first treatment for many muscle strains, ligament sprains, or other bruises and injuries. RICE is used after an injury happens and for the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury; these modalities can help reduce pain. Prescribed treatments for early-stage RSIs include analgesics, biofeedback, physical therapy and ultrasound therapy. Low-grade RSIs can sometimes resolve themselves if treatments begin shortly after the onset of symptoms. However, some RSIs may require more aggressive intervention including surgery and can persist for years. Although there are no "quick fixes" for RSI, there are effective approaches to its treatment and prevention.

One is that of the changing of one's environment to minimize repetitive strain. Another is specific massage techniques such as trigger point therapy and related techniques such as the Alexander Technique. Licensed massage therapists specializing in RSI, as well as physical therapists and chiropractors provide hands-on therapy, but expect that the patient supplement and reinforce the office-visit therapy sessions with daily exercises, self-massage, stretching as prescribed by the practitioner. General exercise has been shown to decrease the risk of developing RSI. Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve sitting posture, reduce excessive kyphosis, thoracic outlet syndrome. Modifications of posture and arm use are recommended. Although a modern phenomenon, RSIs have long been documented in the medical literature. In 1700, the Italian physician Bern

Darvin Edwards

Darvin Edwards is a Saint Lucian competitor in men's High Jump. Darvin was born in Castries. Darvin holds the St Lucia National Record for men's High Jump, his career best mark of 2.31m, in Daegu, South Korea at the 2011 IAAF World Championships in Athletics is the record for the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. Darvin attended St Aloysius RC Boys School and Entrepot Secondary School in Castries. At the latter institution, he was introduced to the High Jump event by coach Gregory Lubin. In 2004, Darvin won the under-20 men’s High Jump at the CARIFTA Games in Hamilton, clearing 2.06m on the opening day. In 2005, the Games were held in Bacolet, Tobago. Darvin had reset the St Lucia National Junior Record at 2.15 m a little over. But in the event, he had to settle with a best height of 2.05 m. In 2006, Darvin was selected to represent Saint Lucia at the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia, he cleared 2.10m and finished seventh in his qualifying group and 13th overall, just missing out on a spot in the final through count back.

That year, he opted to join the Belgrave Harriers club. There, he was introduced to coach Trevor Llewellyn, who set about rebuilding his technique. In the Golden Jubilee Cup Semi-Final, at Eton, Darvin cleared 2.20m on his first trial at that height, setting the Saint Lucia National Record for his event, still shy of his 20th birthday. In the Golden Jubilee Cup Final, Darvin cleared 2.15m to finish third. Darvin was introduced to indoor competition during his time in England. In January 2008, competing for Belgrave at Brunel University in Uxbridge, West London, Darvin cleared a career-best of 2.25m to beat teammate Samson Oni into second place. At the time, Oni co-owned the club's indoor record at 2.27m. Darvin was called into international action in 2008, for the North American Central American and Caribbean Under-23 Championships in Toluca, Mexico. Darvin established a new career-best outdoors mark of 2.23m to take silver. Jamaal Wilson of The Bahamas, who had beaten Darvin at CARIFTA in 2005 cleared 2.23 but on this occasion had to settle for bronze.

After a solid start to 2009, which included clearing 2.22m to win the Aviva Great Britain and United Kingdom Indoor Trials, Darvin suffered a major setback through back injury that kept him out of competition throughout the 2010 season. But when he did come back in 2011, he was back on track, jumping better than before. Darvin began the year clearing a modest 2.20m in indoors competition, winning the South of England AA Championships at Lee Valley. In May, Darvin won his first outdoor competition in the London district of Battersea with a height of 2.27m, breaking the 21-year-old All-Division Southern League Record and clearing his best height indoor or out since 2008, a new National Record. Just about a month in the British Athletics League Division 1 at Barnet Copthall, Darvin went a centimetre further, clearing 2.28m and qualifying to represent Saint Lucia at the IAAF World Championships in Athletics and the Games of the XXX Olympiad in London, England. The height represented a new Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States record.

At the 2011 IAAF World Championships in Athletics, in the South Korean city of Daegu, he was the first man in Group A to clear 2.31m, automatically qualifying for the final, attaining the A standard for the 2012 Olympics and setting a new National Record and OECS Record. Edwards failed to qualify for the finals. Darvin Edwards on Twitter: https://twitter.com/DarvinAiRPiG Darvin Edwards IAAF profile: http://www.iaaf.org/athletes/biographies/country=lca/athcode=211389/index.html

1130s in England

Events from the 1130s in England. Monarch – Henry I, Stephen 1130 New choir of Canterbury Cathedral completed. 1131 8 September – the barons swear allegiance to Matilda as the true heir of Henry I of England. Cistercians found Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. Gilbertine Order of nuns founded by Gilbert of Sempringham in Lincolnshire, the only English religious order. 1132 Benedictines found Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire. 1133 August – King Henry I leaves England for the last time for Normandy. A royal charter establishes the first annual Bartholomew Fair at London. First Bishop of Carlisle consecrated. Rebuilt Exeter Cathedral consecrated. 1135 26 May – the Great Fire of 1135 destroys the wooden London Bridge and damages St Paul's Cathedral. 1 December – King Henry I dies having nominated Matilda as his heir. 22 December – Stephen of Blois, nephew of Henry I, claims the throne. 26 December – coronation of Stephen of England at Westminster Abbey by William de Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury. Bruton Abbey, Buildwas Abbey and Byland Abbey founded, the latter in January by the Congregation of Savigny.

1136 1 January – revolt in Wales. 4 January – Henry I is buried in his foundation, Reading Abbey. 5 February – by the Treaty of Durham, Stephen concedes Cumberland to David I of Scotland. Hospital of St Cross, an almshouse in Winchester, is established by Bishop Henry of Blois. Geoffrey of Monmouth writes Historia Regum Britanniae. 1137 March – Stephen fails in his attempt to re-capture Normandy from Matilda. 3 June – a fire damages Rochester Cathedral, but it is soon rebuilt. 4 June – a fire destroys much of the city of York, including 39 churches and York Minster, but the latter is soon rebuilt. 27 June – a fire damages the city of Bath, Somerset. 1138 January–February – King David I of Scotland raids Northumberland, taking the Bishop of Durham's Norham Castle, besieges the castle at Wark on Tweed. 10 April – Robert Warelwast is nominated as Bishop of Exeter. May – The Anarchy: Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, leads a rebellion against King Stephen in favour of his half-sister Matilda. 10 June – Battle of Clitheroe: Having harried Craven in Yorkshire, David I of Scotland's nephew William fitz Duncan meets and defeats an English force on the edge of the Bowland Fells.

22 August – Battle of the Standard: English army defeats that of David I of Scotland at Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire. Alcester Abbey and Bourne Abbey established. 1139 8 January – Theobald of Bec enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury. 9 April – the second Treaty of Durham between King Stephen of England and David I of Scotland. June – Stephen orders the arrest of Roger of Salisbury and Bishop of Salisbury, Alexander of Lincoln, Bishop of Lincoln. 30 September – The Anarchy: Empress Matilda lands near Arundel to begin her campaign to regain the throne from Stephen. 7 November – The Anarchy: Gloucester's army sacks Worcester. 1130 Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke 1133 5 March – King Henry II of England 1136 William of Newburgh, historian year unknown, after 1130 Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury 1130 Maud, Countess of Huntingdon 1134 28 March – Stephen Harding, Abbot of Cîteaux and saint Biddenden Maids, supposed earliest known conjoined twins 1135 1 December – King Henry I of England 1136 15 April – Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford 21 November – William de Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury 1137 10 July – Pain fitzJohn and royal administrator c. 26 September – William Warelwast, Bishop of Exeter and diplomat 1138 11 May – William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey 1139 11 December – Roger of Salisbury and Lord Chancellor