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Replay value

Replay value or replayability is a term used to assess a video game's potential for continued play value after its first completion. Factors that influence replay value are secrets or alternate endings; the replay value of a game may be based on the individual's tastes. A player might enjoy repeating a game because of the music, gameplay or because of product loyalty. Dynamic environments, challenging AI, a wide variety of ways to accomplish tasks, a rich array of assets could result in a high replay value. A game with a linear plot will have a lower replay value due to the limited choices a character can make. Games that offer more choices in regard to what the player can do, such as strategy games, roguelikes or construction and management sims, tend to have higher replay value since the player might be able to make each play through different; as a non-video game example, consider the difference between a "traditional" book and a Choose Your Own Adventure book. For a traditional book the reader will read it from start to finish, should they choose to re-read it the plot would remain constant, thus offering the same experience the second time around.

The plot of a Choose Your Own Adventure book, on the other hand, is more varied and different events would occur, some that the reader might not have seen the last time they read it, prompting the reader to read through the book again if they have done so just moments before. In the case of role-playing video games, plots can be non-linear; the plots of older RPGs tended to show little to no plot changes with each play through. A good example of an RPG with a non-linear plot is Mass Effect and its sequel, Mass Effect 2. Role playing games released in years allow for more freedom. For instance, choosing to be ruthless instead of lenient might prevent certain events from taking place. Allowing a particular character into the party could cause the plot to branch off in a new direction, if for a short time. A good example of this point is the character Juhani in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic; the player has the option of sparing her life. Should the player be merciful, Juhani joins the player's party.

In the game, the player will run into an enemy from her past. This is the ability to play as different characters each time through the game. For example, the game Diablo allows the player to choose one of three character classes: warrior, rogue, or sorcerer. Party-based RPGs can have a good degree of replayability if the plot is linear; the plot of the first Final Fantasy game remained the same with each play through, but since the player was able to choose their party of four from six different classes they could choose a new party configuration with each new game. The Final Fantasy instruction manual gave the player ideas for different types of parties. In the first Final Fantasy game you can choose from the classes of Fighter, White Mage, Black Mage and Red Mage, providing the player with 15 possible character combinations with 4 distinct classes, or 126 with repetition. Multitude of classes, accompanied by a multitude of races, is another typical characteristic of roguelike games. For example, Dungeon Crawl at this moment employs 22 races and 23 classes, allowing a total of 654 race/class combinations.

Some races are more suited for some classes, much less suited towards others. Such "unsuited" combinations may prove an extra challenge for an experienced player, yet it's not frequent for this challenge to be high to the point of the game being unwinnable. In some RPGs, such as Skies of Arcadia, the player controls the leader of a party of characters, additional members will join the group if the player makes the right decisions, it is unlikely that a player will "collect" every possible member on their first attempt, so they may choose to play through the story again in order to acquire the full cast. Different characters offer new ways to tackle the obstacles within the game, they may offer unique dialogue options and opportunities to interact with other players. SquareSoft RPG Chrono Cross was an example of this with over 40 characters available for play. In the case of action-oriented games, there may be some areas in the game that are only reachable using a character with certain abilities.

For example, see the Sega game Sonic & Knuckles. The character Knuckles can explore areas in Sonic the Hedgehog 2 that the previous characters couldn't; some games might offer a wide array of characters from whom to choose to play with, but gamers are deterred from replaying if all characters share the same story line and function more or less the same. This is the case of Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction and its sequel: the player can choose one out of three mercenaries to play with, but the story line remains the same, the differences in gameplay are too subtle to invite further replays; some games give the player a choice. Two good examples are Shadow the Hedgehog. In Castlevania III, the hero Trevor Belmont can choose. Additionally, the route he takes allows him to encounter three different companions. In Shadow the Hedgehog, Shadow must choose to do Neutral, Dark or Hero in a stage (i.e. choosing whether to destroy all the humans in Dark, destroy all the black aliens in Hero, or to collec

William Cather Hook

William Cather Hook was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and of the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit and was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kansas. Born on September 24, 1857, in Waynesburg, Hook received a Bachelor of Laws in 1878 from the Washington University School of Law, he entered private practice in Leavenworth, Kansas from 1878 to 1899. He was city attorney for Leavenworth, he was city legal adviser for Leavenworth from 1889 to 1895. Hook was nominated by President William McKinley on January 28, 1899, to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Kansas vacated by Judge Cassius Gaius Foster. Hook's nomination was opposed by railroad companies, who were displeased that Hook had won judgments against them while in private practice, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1899, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on December 1903, due to his elevation to the Eighth Circuit.

Hook was nominated by President Theodore Roosevelt on November 10, 1903, to a joint seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge Henry Clay Caldwell. He was confirmed by the Senate on November 17, 1903, received his commission the same day. On December 31, 1911, the Circuit Courts were abolished and he thereafter served only on the Court of Appeals, his service terminated on August 1921, due to his death in Sayner, Wisconsin. On February 6, 1912, President William Howard Taft announced that he would nominate Hook to fill the vacancy on the United States Supreme Court, caused by the death of Justice John Marshall Harlan. Opposition was raised, however, by leaders of the NAACP, the Washington Bee, other African-American newspapers and organizations. Concerned parties discussed Hook's decision in upholding the constitutionality of an Oklahoma Jim Crow law discriminating against African American passengers on trains crossing the state line between Kansas and Oklahoma.

The railroad interests continued their opposition to Hook, as did large corporations displeased with his rulings in antitrust cases. A prominent critic of the nomination was Governor of Nebraska Chester Hardy Aldrich. Mahlon Pitney was selected by the President in place of Hook. William Cather Hook at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center


Adwa is a market town and separate woreda in Tigray, Ethiopia. It is best known as the community closest to the decisive Battle of Adwa fought in 1896 with Italian troops. Notably, Ethiopian soldiers, won the battle, thus being one of the only African nations to thwart European colonialism. Located in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the Tigray Region, Adwa has a longitude and latitude of 14°10′N 38°54′E, an elevation of 1907 meters. Adwa is surrounded by Adwa woreda. Adwa is home to several notable churches: Adwa Gebri'el Bet, Adwa Maryam Bet, Adwa Medhane `Alem Bete, Adwa Nigiste Saba Huletenya Dereja Timhirt Bet, Adwa Selasse Bet. Near Adwa is Abba Garima Monastery, founded in the sixth century by one of the Nine Saints and known for its tenth century gospels. Nearby is the village of Fremona, the base of the 16th century Jesuits sent to convert Ethiopia to Catholicism. According to Richard Pankhurst, Adwa derives its name from Adi Awa, "village of the Awa"; the Awa are a tribe, mentioned in the anonymous Monumentum Adulitanum that once stood at Adulis.

Francisco Alvares records that the Portuguese diplomatic mission passed Adwa, which he called "Houses of St. Michael," in August 1520. Despite this claim of antiquity, Adwa only acquired major importance following the establishment of a permanent capital at Gondar; as the traveler James Bruce noted, Adwa was situated on a piece of "flat ground through which every body must go in their way from Gondar to the Red Sea". The person who controlled this plain could levy profitable tolls on the caravans which passed through. By 1700, it had become the residence for the governor of Tigray province and grew to overshadow Debarwa, the traditional seat of the Bahr negus, as the most important town in northern Ethiopia, its market was important enough to need a nagadras. The earliest known person to hold this office was the Greek immigrant Janni of Adwa, a brother of Petros, chamberlain to Emperor Iyoas I. Adwa was home to a small colony of Greek merchants into the 19th century; because of its location on this major trade route, it is mentioned in the memoirs of numerous 19th-century Europeans visiting Ethiopia.

These include Arnaud and Antoine d'Abbadie, Henry Salt, Samuel Gobat, Mansfield Parkyns and Théophile Lefebvre. After the defeat and death of Ras Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay, its inhabitants fled Adwa for safety; the town was held by Emperor Tewodros II in January 1860, who had marched from the south in response to the rebellion of Agew Neguse, who had burned fled the town. Giacomo Naretti passed through Adwa in March 1879, after it had been devastated by a typhus epidemic, it had been reduced to a shadow of itself, having about 200 inhabitants. Its geographical importance has led to Adwa's greatest importance as the site of the final battle of the First Italo–Ethiopian War, where the Ethiopian Emperor fought to defend Ethiopia's independence against Italy in 1896. Menelik led the Ethiopian Army to a decisive victory against the Italians, which ensured an independent Ethiopia until the Italians invaded again in 1935. A large tree at the edge of the town was shown to visitors in the following years as the place where Emperor Menelik passed judgement on about 800 Eritrean askaris captured in the battle.

Eritrean Battalions were part of the Italian colonial army, but the drumhead court-martial that passed judgment on them did not recognise this, condemned the prisoners to having their right hand and left foot cut off. Writing in the 1890s, Augustus B. Wylde described the Adwa market, held on Saturdays, as a large one with cattle of all sorts available for purchase; the Asmara-Addis Ababa telegraph line, constructed by the Italians in 1902-1904, passed through Adwa and had an office there. By 1905 it was considered the third-largest town in Tigray. Telephone service reached Adwa by 1935, but no phone numbers are listed for the town in 1954. On 6 October 1935 Italian forces entered Adwa, after two days of bombardment had shocked Ras Seyoum Mengesha into a hasty retreat, abandoning large stocks of food and other supplies; the Italian Gavinana Division brought with them a stone monument in honor of the Italian soldiers who had fallen in 1896. This monument was erected after their arrival, inaugurated on 15 October in the presence of General Emilio De Bono.

The town had passed from Italian hands before 12 June 1941, when the newly arrived 34th Indian State Force Brigade set up a post office there. During the Woyane rebellion, 6000 of the territorial troops retreated to Adwa on 22 September 1943. By 1958 Adwa was one of 27 places in Ethiopia ranked as First Class Township. During the 1960s the town was not only an educational center but an early focus for nationalist dissent, indicated by the fact that all three of the leaders of the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front over the 22-year period from 1975 to 1997, Aregawi Berhe, Sebhat Nega, Meles Zenawi, all came from Adwa and attended the town's government school. Adwa was a frequent target of attacks by the TPLF during the Ethiopian Civil War: in 1978 the TPLF attacked Adwa; the town permanently passed into TPLF control in March 1988. Adwa and its environs are the native district of many of the core leaders of the TPLF which lead Ethiopia today, the district was represented in Parliament by the former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi himself.

Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this town has a total population of 40,500, of whom 18,307 are men and 22,193 women. The majority of the inhabitants said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox

Yogi Bear

Yogi Bear is an anthropomorphic funny animal who has appeared in numerous comic books, animated television shows and films. He made his debut in 1958 as a supporting character in The Huckleberry Hound Show. Yogi Bear was the first breakout character in animated television. In January 1961, he was given his own show, The Yogi Bear Show, sponsored by Kellogg's, which included the segments Snagglepuss and Yakky Doodle. Hokey Wolf replaced his segment on The Huckleberry Hound Show. A musical animated feature film, Hey There, It's Yogi Bear!, was released in 1964. Yogi was one of several Hanna-Barbera characters to have a collar; this allowed animators to keep his body static, redrawing only his head in each frame when he spoke—one of the methods used by Hanna-Barbera to cut costs by reducing the number of drawings needed for a seven-minute cartoon from around 14,000 to around 2,000. Like many Hanna-Barbera characters, Yogi's personality and mannerisms were based on a popular celebrity of the time.

Art Carney's Ed Norton character on The Honeymooners was said to be Yogi's inspiration. Carney, in turn, received influence from comedians of vaudeville. Yogi's name was similar to that of contemporary baseball star Yogi Berra, known for his amusing quotes, such as "half the lies they tell about me aren't true." Berra sued Hanna-Barbera for defamation, but their management claimed that the similarity of the names was just a coincidence. Berra withdrew his suit. At the time Yogi Bear first hit TV screens, Yogi Berra was a household name; the plot of most of Yogi's cartoons centered on his antics in the fictional Jellystone Park, a variant of the real Yellowstone National Park. Yogi, accompanied by his constant companion Boo-Boo Bear, would try to steal picnic baskets from campers in the park, much to the displeasure of Park Ranger Smith. Yogi's girlfriend, Cindy Bear, sometimes appeared and disapproved of Yogi's antics. Besides speaking in rhyme, Yogi Bear had a number of catchphrases, including his pet name for picnic baskets and his favorite self-promotion, although he overestimates his own cleverness.

Another characteristic of Yogi was his silly voice. He greets the ranger with a cordial, "Hello, Mr. Ranger, sir!" and "Hey there, Boo Boo!" as his preferred greeting to his sidekick, Boo Boo. Yogi would often use puns in his speech and had a habit of pronouncing large words with a long vocal flourish. Animation historian Christopher P. Lehman considers the original concept of the Yogi Bear series to contain political symbolism relative to its era of production. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, racial segregation in the United States was still enforced, people were confined to living in their designated social "place", attempts to venture outside it came with serious consequences. Yogi has a designated social place, restricted to spending his life in Jellystone Park, under an overseer in the form of a white park ranger. Yogi tries to take advantage of his situation. People come to the Park to bring with them picnic baskets. Yogi resorts to theft, stealing the picnic baskets, enjoying their contents.

Yogi's habitual criminality and preoccupation with his own nourishment and survival are not portrayed as negative traits. He is depicted as a sympathetic protagonist. Yogi never challenges the social hierarchy of the Park, does not challenge the authority of the ranger over him, does not seek more autonomy in his life. Lehman contrasts Yogi's acceptance of the way things are with the activists of the series' contemporary Civil Rights Movement who did challenge the way things were, they wanted to integrate into wider society. The press and politicians of the time were portraying these activists as radicals and opposed their efforts. From the time of the character's debut until 1988, Yogi was voiced by voice actor Daws Butler. Butler died in 1988. After Butler's death, Greg Burson stepped in to perform the role. Worsening alcoholism led to Burson's firing in 2004 and his death in 2008. Jeff Bergman and Billy West performed the character throughout the 1990s and early 2000s for various Cartoon Network commercials and bumpers.

In the Yogi Bear film, the character is voiced by actor Dan Aykroyd. In the animated stop motion sketch comedy show Robot Chicken created by Seth Green, Dan Milano voiced Yogi Bear. Scott Innes performed the voice of Yogi, along with Boo Boo, in At Picnic and Honey Lesson; the New Scooby-Doo Movies, guest cameo on the giant balloon in The Caped Crusader Caper Laff-A-Lympics, this show had Yogi Bear as captain of The Yogi Yahooeys team Wake and Roll, he and Boo-Boo appear in the Fender Bender 500 segment. A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, guest cameo in The Story Stick The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy and Boo-Boo have a guest appearance in Season 3, Episode 7. Hey There, It's Yogi Bear!, a 1964 animated feature released by Warner Bros. Pictures and Columbia Pictures Yogi's Ark Lark, a 1972 made-for-TV movie for The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie Hanna-Barbera's All-Star Comedy Ice Revue, a 1978 TV special honoring Fred Flintstone on his 48th birthday Casper's First Christmas, a 1979 TV special featuring the characters from Casper and the Angels meeting Yogi and his gang Yogi's Firs

Her Majesty & the Wolves

Her Majesty & the Wolves is a musical duo that consists of ex-Pussycat Dolls member showgirl Kimberly Wyatt, who provides lead vocals, a former Jupiter Rising member Spencer Nezey, who acts as MC and producer for the group. Their debut studio album 111 was released in UK in July 2011. Wyatt and Nezey first formed the group after a strong musical connection was made when working on Kimberly's debut studio album in Los Angeles; when recording her debut album, Kimberly became frustrated when most of the producers that she worked with were focusing on "making something that people will listen to now". Whereas Nezey wanted to make something that "people will listen to in the future", which Kimberly agreed with; the duo released a new track, "Glaciers" on 27 August 2010 as a free download from their website. On 9 November 2010, the duo released the official music video for their first mainstream single "Stars in Your Eyes"; the group released "Stars in Your Eyes" as their first official single on 10 January 2011.

On 11 July 2011 their debut album 111 was released in the UK. Kimberly Wyatt posted on Twitter that there was going to be a 111: Part 2 released in 2013 or 2014; the duo have stated that their musical influences include Florence and the Machine, Sia Furler, Empire of the Sun and Ladyhawke. 111 "Glaciers" "Glaciers" "Stars in Your Eyes" Her Majesty & the Wolves Presents: Spring 2010 Mixtape Official website Her Majesty & the Wolves on Facebook Her Majesty & the Wolves video interview on Virgin Red Room

Jorge Enea Spilimbergo

Jorge Enea Spilimbergo was an Argentine nationalist socialist politician, poet and writer. He was one of the founders of the Izquierda Nacional party. Spilimbergo wrote extensively on Latin America, the "semi-colonial world", Argentina, he wrote on the national question and the inner fabric of alleged imperialist policies, gathered in his The national question in Marx. He was influenced by such Marxist leaders and theoreticians as Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Mao Zedong, Ernesto Guevara and Ho Chi Minh, he wrote on themes of the overthrow of class societies and the passage from the realm of necessity to the realm of liberty. Spilimbergo worked in obscurity as a nonperson due to objections from both the political right and the left, including from many Peronists, who objected to his criticisms of the alleged national bourgeois limitations of Peronism. Spilimbergo died in his Buenos Aires home on 4 September 2004