Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th
Ujazdów Avenue is a major thoroughfare parallel to the Vistula River in the downtown district of Warsaw, Poland. The Avenue's origins date to 1724-31, when King Augustus II the Strong ordered the construction of a Calvary Road. By 1766 the route was part of the Royal Route as Belweder Avenue, leading to the Belweder Palace. In the second half of the 19th century, a number of Polish aristocrats' and industrialists' villas and palaces were built along the route. Following the restoration of Polish independence in 1918, the majority of these houses and mansions were transformed into foreign embassies. During World War II under the Nazi occupation, it was planned to be transformed into a German district, according to the so-called Pabst Plan. Nazi authorities renamed the avenue Lindenallee, Siegenallee. On 1 February 1944, Franz Kutschera, the SS Police Chief in German-occupied Warsaw was assassinated by members of the Polish resistance outside Ujazdów Avenue number 23 - an action known as Operation Kutschera.
During the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, the street and the surrounding buildings were destroyed, however the majority of the historical residences and some tenements along the route survived. In the war's aftermath, the avenue experienced massive reconstruction, with works lasting until 1955. In 1953, following the death of Joseph Stalin, authorities renamed the thoroughfare as Stalin Avenue. Three years during the Polish October, a period of de-Stalinization, the avenue's traditional name was restored. In September 1994, as part of the Royal Route, Ujazdów Avenue was included in Poland's official national List of Historical Monuments by President Lech Wałęsa. In 2009, Ujazdów Avenue underwent a complete renovation, with the planting of new trees, the complete reconstruction of sidewalks, bus turnouts, creating bike paths for the route. Located in the Śródmieście district, Ujazdów Avenue begins at Belweder Street and runs for 1.6 km to Three Crosses Square. The contemporary avenue is surrounded by many notable historical villas and palaces, as well as politically important buildings.
Notable landmarks along Ujazdów include the Chancellery of the Prime Minister, Ujazdów Castle, Ujazdów Park, Łazienki Park, the Botanical Gardens, the Ministry of Justice, St. Alexander's Church and several embassies, including those of Switzerland, the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Lithuania. In addition to street traffic, Ujazdów is used for ceremonial purposes as a military parade route during Armed Forces Day, held annually on 15 August
Guard of honour
A guard of honour, guard of honor honour guard, honor guard ceremonial guard, is a guard military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials funerals. In military weddings those of commissioned officers, a guard, composed of service members of the same branch, form the Saber arch. In principle any military unit could act as a guard of honour. However, in some countries certain units are specially designated for guard of honour duty. Guards of Honour serve in the civilian world for fallen police officers and other civil servants. Certain religious bodies Churches of the Anglican Communion and the Methodist movement, have the tradition of an Honour Guard at the funeral of an ordained elder, in which all other ordained elders present "guard the line" between the door of the church and the grave, or hearse if the deceased is to be buried elsewhere or cremated; the practice of providing a guard of honour as a mark of respect occurs in sports throughout the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Algerian Republican Guard, is a ceremonial military corps of the Algerian Army, composed of 6,000 troops. It is similar to the French Army in its formation style; the Republican Guard includes a horse mounted cavalry unit and a musicak fanfare military band, with the cavalry detachment basing its uniform and traditions in the roots of the military traditions of the famous Berber cavalry, the Numidian cavalry, the French cavalry, the Arab cavalry. The Egyptian Republican Guard is a division level unit in the Egyptian Army, the seniormost unit in the Egyptian Armed Forces that has the responsibility of defending the President of Egypt, as well as major presidential and national institutions, it is a type of guard regiment, composed of dozens upon dozens of armored brigades, mechanized brigades and divisional artillery, Being the seniormost unit in the armed forces, the Republican Guard Division is the only major military unit allowed in central Cairo besides the troops of intelligence services and Central Security Forces.
The members of the Nigerian Presidential Guard Brigade are elite Nigerian soldiers who guard the residence of the President of the Federal Republic and his/he guests as well as perform ceremonial duties. It is similar to the United States Secret Service in that its members provide security for the head of state of foreign visits; the brigade performs a weekly changing of the guard ceremony outside Aso Villa and stands guard at the Presidential Villa. Aside from that, the guards brigade mounts the guard of honour for state visits, as well as the Independence Day Military Parade in Abuja; the brigade is the seniormost unit in the Nigerian Army's order of battle. The Red Guard of Senegal is a Senegalese Gendarmerie unit, responsible for maintaining the security of the President of Senegal, it is similar to the ceremonial elements in the French Republican Guard. The unit's uniform is derived from the French colonial Spahi; the Red Guard is under the direct command of the Security Legion of the Senegalese Mobile Gendarmerie.
It is composed of many units that serve ceremonial duties, with the most notable being the honour guard battalion and the mounted squadron. The guard of honour unit in South Africa was the State Presidents Guard until 1990; the unit has since been replaced by the National Ceremonial Guard in the South African National Defence Force. Permanent honour guards in the country had not existed prior to the Staatspresidentseenheid's founding in 1967. Following the abolition of apartheid in South Africa, the guard was disestablished, leaving the defense forces without an official guard of honour until 1995, when the NCG was founded; the Presidential Guard is an elite combat unit of the Zimbabwe National Army, serving as a Household Division-like service for the President of Zimbabwe. The unit, in their green service uniform and yellow berets, mount the guard of honour on behalf of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces. Recent guard of honour events provided by the presidential guard include the following: The flag of the Presidential Guard of Zimbabwe consists of a beige background, with three equal horizontal stripes of red and red, the centre having a shield which contains a white wreath beneath a bird, over which are two brown rifles in saltire.
The brigade is based at Dzivarasekwa Barracks in Harare and is led by Brigadier Anselem Sanyatwe. The Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers serves as a part of the Argentine Army, serving as the presidential guard and ceremonial companions. Two unmounted grenadiers are stationed in front of the Pink House as a symbol of the ceremonial and honour guard; the Brazilian armed forces and police have several troops for ceremonial usages. The most important of them is the Brazilian president's honour guard, it is composed of the 1st Guards Cavalry Regiment – "Independence Dragoons", the Presidential Guard Battalion and the Cayenne Battery. The Canadian guard of honour is formed from members of the company-sized Ceremonial Guard, an ad hoc unit drawn from all branches of the Canadian Armed Forces. Although the unit's members are derived from a variety of military units, the Ceremonial Guard uses similar uniforms to Canada's two Foot Guards regiments as a reflection of their traditional connection with those regiments.
The unit comprises 400 people, including the Band of the Ceremonial Guard. The Ceremonial Guard executes public duties in Ottawa fr
A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term "battalion" varies by branch of service. A battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries, the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry; the term was first used in Italian as battaglione no than the 16th century. It derived from the Italian word for battaglia; the first use of battalion in English was in the 1580s, the first use to mean "part of a regiment" is from 1708. A battalion is the smallest military unit capable of "limited independent operations", meaning it includes an executive, staff with a support and services unit; the battalion must have a source of re-supply to enable it to sustain operations for more than a few days. This is because a battalion's complement of ammunition, expendable weapons, rations, lubricants, replacement parts and medical supplies consists of only what the battalion's soldiers and the battalion's vehicles can carry.
In addition to sufficient personnel and equipment to conduct operations, as well as a limited administrative and logistics capability, the commander's staff coordinates and plans operations. A battalion's subordinate companies and their platoons are dependent upon the battalion headquarters for command, control and intelligence, the battalion's service and support structure; the battalion is part of a brigade, or group, depending on the branch of service. A battalion's companies are of one type, although there are exceptions such as combined arms battalions in the U. S. Army. A battalion includes a headquarters company and some sort of combat service support, combined in a combat support company; the term battalion is used in the British Army Infantry and some corps including the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, intelligence corps. It was used in the Royal Engineers, was used in the now defunct Royal Army Ordnance Corps and Royal Pioneer Corps. Other corps use the term "regiment" instead.
An infantry battalion is numbered ordinarily within its regiment. It has a headquarters company, support company, three rifle companies; each company is commanded by a major, the officer commanding, with a captain or senior lieutenant as second-in-command. The HQ company contains signals, catering, administration, training and medical elements; the support company contains anti-tank, machine gun, mortar and reconnaissance platoons. Mechanised units have an attached light aid detachment of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers to perform field repairs on vehicles and equipment. A British battalion in theatre during World War II had around 845 men, whereas, as of 2012, a British battalion had around 650 soldiers. With successive rounds of cutbacks after the war, many infantry regiments were reduced to a single battalion. Important figures in a battalion headquarters include: Commanding officer Second-in-command Adjutant Quartermaster Quartermaster Medical officer Administrative officer Padre Operations officer Regimental sergeant major Regimental quartermaster sergeant Regimental quartermaster sergeant Battalions of other corps are given separate cardinal numbers within their corps.
A battle group consists of an infantry battalion or armoured regiment with sub-units detached from other military units acting under the command of the battalion commander. In the Canadian Forces, most battalions are reserve units of between 100–200 soldiers that include an operationally ready, field-deployable component of a half-company apiece; the nine regular force infantry battalions each contain three or four rifle companies and one or two support companies. Canadian battalions are commanded by lieutenant-colonels, though smaller reserve battalions may be commanded by majors; those regiments consisting of more than one battalion are: The Royal Canadian Regiment Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Royal 22e Régiment The Royal Newfoundland Regiment Tactically, the Canadian battalion forms the core of the infantry battle group, which includes various supporting elements such as armour, combat engineers and combat service support. An infantry battle group will be commanded by the commander of the core infantry battalion around which it is formed and can range in size from 300 to 1,500 or more soldiers, depending on the nature of the mission assigned.
In the Royal Netherlands Army, a mechanised infantry battalion consists of one command- and medical company, three mechanised infantry companies, one support company
Presidential Palace, Warsaw
The Presidential Palace in Warsaw, Poland, is the elegant classicist latest version of a building that has stood on the Krakowskie Przedmieście site since 1643. Over the years, it has been remodeled many times. For its first 175 years, the palace was the private property of several aristocratic families. In 1791 it hosted the authors and advocates of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, it was in 1818 that the palace began its ongoing career as a governmental structure, when it became the seat of the Viceroy of the Polish Kingdom under Russian occupation. Following Poland's resurrection after World War I, in 1918, the building was taken over by the newly reconstituted Polish authorities and became the seat of the Council of Ministers. During World War II, it served the country's German occupiers as a Deutsches Haus and survived intact the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. After the war, it resumed its function as seat of the Polish Council of Ministers. Construction of the present-day Presidential Palace in Warsaw was begun in 1643 by Crown Great Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, owner of the town of Brody and of numerous latifundia situated in Poland's eastern borderlands.
It was said that he owned so much landed property that he could cross the breadth of the Commonwealth while spending every night in one of his own manors. The palace was not completed in the Hetman's lifetime, as he died unexpectedly in 1646 at his Brody residence, a few weeks after taking a young wife; the palace's architect was Constantino Tencalla, architect to Poland's King Władysław IV and designer of King Zygmunt's Column, in front of the nearby Royal Castle, commemorating Sigismund III of Poland. The palace was completed by Koniecpolski's son Aleksander in the style of a baroque residence, imitating those of northern Italy and Genoa. A view of the palace in a Warsaw panorama of 1656 by Erik Dahlberg confirms this; the next owner of the palace was Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski—Grand Crown Hetman and Crown Chancellor, the leader of a rebellion against the king—who bought the palace from Aleksander Koniecpolski. In 1674 the palace became, for the next 144 years, the property of the Radziwiłł family.
It was bought from descendants of Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski — Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski and Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski — by Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł of the Nieśwież–Ołyka line, whose wife Katarzyna was a sister of King Jan III Sobieski. After her death, her son Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł I began renovation of the palace and tidied up its surroundings, he entrusted this task to Augustyn Locci. The next-to-last heir in tail of Nieśwież and Ołyka was Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł, Voivode of Vilnius, son of Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł, he had inherited huge estates from his father and uncle which made him the wealthiest magnate in Poland in the second half of the 18th century, one of the richest men in Europe. He leased out the palace to Franciszek Ryx to house a theater which staged plays and threw masked balls. During the Four-Year Sejm of 1788-1792, he invited all the members of the four deliberating estates to dine there daily. Two meals were served every day: breakfast before the day's session, for 300 people, dinner after the session.
One of the most impressive feasts given by him was on St. Catherine's Day, November 25, 1789, the 25th anniversary of King Stanisław August's coronation, commemorating the Union of Lithuania with the Polish Crown. Four thousand guests were invited, the feast cost over 2 million złotys. On the night of May 2—3, 1791, a conspiratorial group of members of the Four-Year Sejm who were bent on saving the Commonwealth met at the palace to strategize means to secure the adoption, next day, of the May 3rd Constitution; this document is called "the first constitution of its kind in Europe" by historian Norman Davies. Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł II died a sick and blind man at age 56, his property was inherited by son of his half-brother Hieronim. Dominik, wounded at the Battle of Hanau, died heirless on November 11, 1813; the line of the Nieśwież–Ołyka heirs in tail died out with him. In 1818 the palace became the seat of the Viceroy of the Polish Kingdom; the first Viceroy, from 1815, was Józef Zajączek, former aide-de-champ to Hetman Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, deputy to the Four-year Sejm, secretary of the Friends of the Constitution, a division commander during the Polish-Russian War of 1792, hero of the Battle of Zieleńce, a Polish Jacobin, a soldier in Jan Henryk Dąbrowski's legions, a general of Napoleon's.
At the last he adopted a servile attitude toward Alexander I, King of Poland and Tsar of Russia, who created him a duke in 1818. Zajączek was carried about by his valets in an armchair. Beginning in 1818 the palace was rebuilt in classicist style by the architect Chrystian Piotr Aigner, he extended the palace, placed a new grand staircase between the main body of the building and its northern wing, remodeled the palace facades, redecorated the rooms on the first and second floors of the main body of the building. Because of its massive vaulting, the ground floor remained unchanged. Aigner had two associates: Camillo Landini, who sculpted the four stone lions guarding the palace courtyard on the Krakowskie Przedmieście side, Mikołaj Monti, an Italian painter; the main body of the building was remodeled to the Corinthian order and
Rogatywka is the Polish generic name for an asymmetrical, four-pointed cap used by various Polish military formations throughout the ages. It is a distant relative of its 18th-century predecessor, although similar caps have been used by light cavalry since the 14th century, it consists of a four-pointed top and a short peak made of black or brown leather. Although rogatywka in English seems to mean the same as czapka, the word'czapka' in Polish designates not only rogatywka, but all caps, it comes in two variants: the hardened and soft version. The hardened model, based on the rogatywka Mk. 1935, olive green with black peak, is used in full gala uniforms, while the rim colour marks unit type. It was not worn during most of the People's Republic of Poland era but was reintroduced for ceremonial wear by the Honour Guard Company in 1983; the soft version was used before World War II and during the People's Republic of Poland period for garrison dress. Polish soldiers, unlike in most militaries, decorate caps not with the emblem of their corps, but with their service's version of the Polish military eagle.
The military eagle insignia is based on an early 19th-century design, comprising a modified White Eagle perched atop an'amazon shield'. Army branches are indicated by the following colored cap bands: navy blue – generals, mechanized troops, legal corps, logistics corps, National Honour Guard orange – units dedicated to honour historical armoured troops, scouts dark green – rocket forces, anti-aircraft units black – engineering units, chemical corps, cartographic service, technical cadets cornflower – adjutant general corps and communication corps cherry – medical service, medical cadets scarlet – military police violet – chaplains yellow – headquarters of 1st Warsaw Mechanized Division, 1st Warsaw Armoured Division Rogatywka is used by Polish firefighters and Polish State Railways staff. Green rogatywka with brown leather peak and scout Fleur-de-lis symbol, is traditionally worn by Polish boy scouts, grey is sometimes used by girl guides
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of the head of state of that foreign country, with the latter acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit. Speaking for the host, it is called a state reception. State visits are considered to be the highest expression of friendly bilateral relations between two sovereign states, are in general characterised by an emphasis on official public ceremonies. Less formal visits than a state visit to another country with a lesser emphasis on ceremonial events, by either a head of state or a head of government, can be classified as either an official visit, a working visit, a private visit, or a Guest of Government visit. In parliamentary democracies, while heads of state in such systems of government may formally issue and accept invitations, they do so on the advice of their heads of government, who decides on when the invitation is to be issued or accepted in advance. Queen Elizabeth II is "the most travelled head of state in the world," having made 261 official overseas visits and 96 state visits to 116 countries by the time of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012.
Although she is sovereign of each of the Commonwealth realms, in practice, she performs full state visits as Queen of the United Kingdom, while the relevant governor-general undertakes state visits for his or her respective country on the sovereign's behalf. However, the Queen has made some state and official visits representing one of her other Commonwealth realms. State visits involve some or all the following components: The visiting head of state is greeted upon arrival by the host and by his or her ambassador accredited to the host country. A 21-gun salute is fired in honor of the visiting head of state; the playing of the two national anthems by a military band. The guest country's anthem is played first. A review of a military guard of honour; the visiting head of state is formally introduced to senior officials/representatives of the host country and the hosting head of state is introduced to the delegation accompanying the visiting head of state. An exchange of gifts between the two heads of state.
A state dinner, either white tie or black tie, is mounted by the hosting head of state, with the visiting head of state being the guest of honor. A visit to the legislature of the host country with the visiting head of state being invited to deliver a formal address to the assembled members of the legislature. High-profile visits by the visiting heads of state to host country landmarks such as laying a wreath at a military shrine or cemetery; the staging of cultural events celebrating links between the two nations. The visiting head of state is accompanied by a senior government minister by a foreign minister. Behind the diplomatic protocol, delegations made up from trade organizations accompanies the visiting head of state, offered an opportunity to network and develop economic and social links with industry leaders in the nation being visited. At the end of a state visit, the foreign head of state traditionally issues a formal invitation to the head of state of the nation being visited who at another time in the future, would pay a reciprocal state visit.
While the costs of a state visit are borne by state funds of the host country, most nations host fewer than ten state visits per year, with some as few as two. Most foreign heads of state will stay in the official residence of the head of state, hosting the state visit, in a guest house reserved for foreign visitors, or in their own nation's embassy located in the foreign nation being visited. State visits by well-known global leaders, such as Elizabeth II, the President of the United States or the Pope draw much publicity and large crowds; these include protesters. State visits to Armenia are held in the capital of Yerevan, with a welcoming ceremony being held at Zvartnots International Airport. Foreign heads of state are welcomed at the President's Residence while heads of government are welcomed at the Residence of the Prime Minister; these visits consist of the following components: Since 1991, foreign leaders who embark on visits to Armenia have payed tribute to the victims of the Armenian Genocide at the Tsitsernakaberd complex.
During a visit to the complex, most leaders receive a tour of the museum, plant trees near the memorial, lay wreaths at the eternal flame. The Governor General's Foot Guards, one of two household Foot Guards, take part in state, official visits to Ottawa. Arrival ceremonies take place at either Parliament Hill or Rideau Hall, where they will be received by the Prime Minister of Canada and the Governor General of Canada respectively. State visits include a visit to the National War Memorial; the Office of Protocol coordinates the operational aspects of state and official visits to Canada and manages all events that are related to the visit. It defines the protocol standards for state visits of heads of state and government. State and official visits by Canada is performed by the Monarch of Canada or a representative—the Governor General, a lieutenant governor, or another member of the Royal Family; the first state visit by Canada was to the United States in 1937, when the United States accorded the Governor General the equivalent status given to a visiting head of state.
However, the Governor General was not formally empowered to represent Canada for state visits until 1947, when the Letters Patent came into effect. Tours of Canada by the Monarch of Canada (and othe