Representative money is any medium of exchange printed on paper, that represents something of value, but has little or no value of its own. Unlike some forms of fiat money, genuine representative money must have something of intrinsic value supporting the face value. More the term representative money has been used variously to mean: A claim on a commodity, for example gold and silver certificates. In this sense it may be called "commodity-backed money". Any type of money that has face value greater than its value as material substance. Used in this sense, most types of fiat money are a type of representative money; the use of representative money predates the invention of coinage. In the ancient empires of Egypt, Babylon and China, the temples and palaces had commodity warehouses which issued certificates of deposit as evidence of a claim upon a portion of the goods stored in the warehouses, a form of "representative money". According to economist William Stanley Jevons, representative money in the form of bank notes arose because metal coins were "variously clipped or depreciated" during use, but representative money could not have its face value thus divided.
In 1895 economist Joseph Shield Nicholson wrote that credit expansion and contraction was in fact the expansion and contraction of representative money. In 1934 economist William Howard Steiner wrote that the term was used "at one time to signify that a certain amount of bullion was stored in the Treasury while the equivalent paper in circulation" represented the bullion. Commodity money Gold standard Hard currency Silver standard Store of value
Fast and Fearless is a 1924 silent western film directed by Richard Thorpe, written by Betty Burbridge and starring Buffalo Bill, Jr. and Jean Arthur. The film is lost: only reel 2 out of 5 has been saved at the Library of Congress. Lightning Bill Lewis pursues to capture a gang led by Pedro Gómez, terrorizing a border town; when Pedro captures his girlfriend, Bill uses the help of Captain Duerta to stop Pedro. In the end, Pedro is caught by Mexican soldiers and Bill is free to marry his girl. Buffalo Bill, Jr. as Lightning Bill Lewis Jean Arthur as Mary Brown William H. Turner as Judge Brown George Magrill as Pedro Gómez Julian Rivero as Captain Duerta Emily Barrye as Blanca Kewpie King as Fatty Doolittle Steve Clemente as Gonzales Victor Allen as Sheriff Hawkins Fast and Fearless on IMDb
The Ugly Swans is a science fiction novel by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. In the USSR, it was published in 1987, in the Latvian magazine Daugava, with the title "The Time of Rains"; the novel was written in 1966-1967 to be published in the Soviet literary magazine Molodaya Gvardiya, but the publication was rejected by censor due to prominent political and free-thought overtones in the novel. It circulated in samizdat, in 1972 was published without the authors' permission abroad, in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 2006, a loose film adaptation of the novel was made by Konstantin Lopushansky; the action takes place in an uncertain mildly-authoritarian country, in an unnamed town. Famous writer Victor Banev, a middle-aged heavy drinker, comes from the capital city to the town of his childhood where the rain never stops. Banev finds himself in the middle of strange events linked to slimies or four-eyes - strange leper people suffering from disfiguring "yellow leprosy" manifesting itself as yellow circles around the eyes.
These slimies live in a former leper colony. The town's adult population is terrified by their existence, considering them to be the cause of all the bad and odd things in the town; the town's teenagers adore slimies, that including Banev's daughter Irma. A boy named Bol-Kunats, Irma's friend, invites the writer to a meeting with the town school's students. Banev is shocked by teenagers' high intelligence and disullusioned point of view, they appear as superhuman geniuses despising the dirty and corrupt human world and having no pity for the adults. Banev makes acquaintance with Diana, discusses slimies in dinner conversations with the chief doctor of the leprosarium Yul Golem, a drunken artist Ram Quadriga and sanitary inspector Pavor Summan. Banev dislikes the mayor, a patron of local fascist thugs, the military who guard the slimies. Golem mentions that the genetic disease of slimies represents the future of humanity, a new genetic type of people and morally superior to ordinary people. Events begin to unfold dramatically.
Banev discovers that Pavor Summan works for counterintelligence, learning he's guilty of kidnapping and killing of a slimy, notifies the military out of spite. The town's children move into the leper colony. Adults of the town are gripped with a sudden overpowering feeling of terror, exodus begins; as soon as all the residents have left town, the rain stops. Golem leaves the last. Banev and Diana enter the city, now disappearing under the rays of Sun, they see Irma and Bol-Kunats all grown up in a day and happy, Banev's saying to himself: "All this is nice and fine, but I mustn't forget to return." The novel shares some ideas with works like The Second Invasion from Mars, Roadside Picnic, The Time Wanderers. The prototype of Victor Banev is, according to Boris Strugatsky, "a generalized image of the Bard." Among those included in this image, Strugatsky named Alexander Galich, Yuliy Kim, Bulat Okudzhava and Vladimir Vysotsky. With the permission of Vladimir Vysotsky, a modified version of his song "I'm fed up to the neck, chin up.... " is used in the story.
Boris Strugatsky explained that the original story ended with the Golem's words, "... poor beautiful duckling", that the ending with a happy ending, writers came up with while trying to prepare the story for publication. In an off-line interview, Boris Strugatsky confirmed, but this future is a terrible thing and they returned to the past, trying to change it. The success of the operation destroyed slimies; the names of many characters in the story are borrowed from the classical mythologies and reflect the essence of their carriers. For example: Pavor Summan, "medical officer", but a counter-intelligence officer Pavor - Greek god of fear, moon god of war Mars. Flamen Juventa, the nephew of the chief of police, "a member of the Legion of liberty", "the young Goliath in a sports jacket, sparkling with numerous logos, our simple home Sturmführer, faithful to support the nation with a rubber truncheon in his back pocket, storm Left and moderates Flamen - priests in ancient Rome. Juventas - the Roman goddess of youth.
Yule Golem - head doctor leprosarium, playing the role of mediator between slimies and the outside world Golem - from Jewish mythology, artificial person, created out of clay and execute the instructions of its creator. Arkadii Natanovich Strugatskii, The Ugly Swans translated by Alice Stone Nakhimovsky and Alexander Nakhimovsky, New York: MacMillan, ISBN 0-02-615190-1 Arkady Strugatsky, The Ugly Swans, New York: Collier Books, 1980, 234pp, ISBN 0-02-007240-6 The Ugly Duckling Б. Стругацкий «Комментарии к пройденному. 1979—1984 гг.» Ugly Swans as part of Limping Destiny on authors site Full text of «Гадкие лебеди» in Russian