Crocodiles or true crocodiles are large semiaquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, all of whose members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily. A broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae that includes Tomistoma, is not used in this article; the term crocodile here applies to only the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae. The term is sometimes used more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia, which includes the alligators and caimans, the gharial and false gharial, all other living and fossil Crocodylomorpha. Although they appear similar, crocodiles and the gharial belong to separate biological families; the gharial, with its narrow snout, is easier to distinguish, while morphological differences are more difficult to spot in crocodiles and alligators. The most obvious external differences are visible in the head, with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans.
Another obvious trait is that the upper and lower jaws of the crocodiles are the same width, the teeth in the lower jaw fall along the edge or outside the upper jaw when the mouth is closed. When the crocodile's mouth is closed, the large fourth tooth in the lower jaw fits into a constriction in the upper jaw. For hard-to-distinguish specimens, the protruding tooth is the most reliable feature to define the species' family. Crocodiles have more webbing on the toes of the hind feet and can better tolerate saltwater due to specialized salt glands for filtering out salt, which are present, but non-functioning, in alligators. Another trait that separates crocodiles from other crocodilians is their much higher levels of aggression. Crocodile size, morphology and ecology differ somewhat among species. However, they have many similarities in these areas as well. All crocodiles are semiaquatic and tend to congregate in freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes and sometimes in brackish water and saltwater.
They are carnivorous animals, feeding on vertebrates such as fish, reptiles and mammals, sometimes on invertebrates such as molluscs and crustaceans, depending on species and age. All crocodiles are tropical species that, unlike alligators, are sensitive to cold, they separated from other crocodilians during the Eocene epoch, about 55 million years ago. Many species are at the risk of some being classified as critically endangered; the word "crocodile" comes from the Ancient Greek κροκόδιλος, "lizard", used in the phrase ho krokódilos tou potamoú, "the lizard of the river". There are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the form κροκόδειλος found cited in many English reference works. In the Koine Greek of Roman times and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, either or both may be the source of the Latinized form crocodīlus used by the ancient Romans. Crocodilos or crocodeilos is a compound of krokè, drilos/dreilos, although drilos is only attested as a colloquial term for "penis".
It is ascribed to Herodotus, describes the basking habits of the Egyptian crocodile. The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin, it is not clear whether this derives from alternative Greco-Latin forms. A corrupted form cocodrille was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril; the Modern English form crocodile was adapted directly from the Classical Latin crocodīlus in the 16th century, replacing the earlier form. The use of -y- in the scientific name Crocodylus is a corruption introduced by Laurenti. A total of 15 extant species have been recognized. Further genetic study is needed for the confirmation of proposed species under the genus Osteolaemus, monotypic. A crocodile's physical traits allow it to be a successful predator, its external morphology is a sign of its predatory lifestyle. Its streamlined body enables it to swim swiftly. Crocodiles have webbed feet which, though not used to propel them through the water, allow them to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming.
Webbed feet are an advantage in shallow water. Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water; the palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis. The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid; the walls of the braincase lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones. Their tongues are not held in place by a membrane that limits movement. Crocodiles have smooth skin on their bellies and sides, while their dorsal surfaces are armoured with large osteoderms; the armoured skin is thick and rugged, providing some protection. They are still able to absorb heat through this armour, as a network of small capillaries allows blood through the scales to absorb heat. Crocodilian scales have pores believed to be sensory in function, analogous to the lateral line in fishes, they are seen on their upper an
The Pythonidae known as pythons, from the Greek word python, are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Eight genera and 31 species are recognized. Pythons are found in sub-Saharan Africa, India, Sri Lanka, southern China, Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan, Southeast Asia, from the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia. In the United States, an introduced population of Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus, has existed as an invasive species in the Everglades National Park since the late 1990s. Many species have been hunted aggressively, which has reduced the population of some, such as the Indian python, Python molurus. Most members of this family are ambush predators, in that they remain motionless in a camouflaged position, strike at passing prey. Attacks on humans, although known to occur, are rare. Pythons use their sharp, backward-curving teeth, four rows in the upper jaw, two in the lower, to grasp prey, killed by constriction.
Death occurs by cardiac arrest. Larger specimens eat animals about the size of a house cat, but larger food items are known. In 2017, there was a recorded case of a human devoured by a python in Indonesia. All prey is swallowed whole, may take several days or weeks to digest. Contrary to popular belief the larger species, such as the reticulated python, P. reticulatus, do not crush their prey to death. The speed with which the coils are applied is impressive and the force they exert may be significant, but death is caused by cardiac arrest. Pythons are oviparous; this sets them apart from the family Boidae. After they lay their eggs, females incubate them until they hatch; this is achieved by causing the muscles to "shiver", which raises the temperature of the body to a certain degree, thus that of the eggs. Keeping the eggs at a constant temperature is essential for healthy embryo development. During the incubation period, females do not eat and leave only to bask to raise their body temperature.
Most species in this family are available in the exotic pet trade. However, caution must be exercised with the larger species. *) Not including the nominate subspecies. T) Type genus. Obsolete classification schemes—such as that of Boulenger —place pythons in Pythoninae, a subfamily of the boa family, Boidae. However, despite a superficial resemblance to boas, pythons are more related to sunbeam snakes and burrowing pythons. Pythonidae at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 3 November 2008. Pythons at Answers.com. Accessed 3 November 2008
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c
Boyd Conservation Area
Boyd Conservation Area is a suburban land preserve owned and operated by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority in the city of Vaughan, Regional Municipality of York, Canada. It overlaps a life science Area of Natural and Scientific Interest of the same name, it is a moderate-size park. The park is situated in the Humber River valley. Public operations run between late April and early October, are funded in part by nominal fees to access the park. Optionally, individuals or families may acquire a membership, which provides access to a number of parks operated by the Conservation Authority. A little known fact concerning the park is that, upon its creation, it was given the unofficial motto "Natura exorno omnis nos postulo". In September and October, the park is used as the venue for cross country running events, the most prominent being the OFSAA meet which brings together the best runners in the province, a yearly event it hosted from 1960 to 1965, 1968 to 1972, 1981, 1989, 2009. In the summer, it is a popular destination for local residents to enjoy a picnic.
Bocce courts and basketball courts, soccer fields, children's playgrounds are found within the park for the benefit of families and youth groups. Bird watching and nature hiking are popular. Outdoor musical concerts are frequent in Boyd Conservation Area throughout the summer due to the sheltered outdoor sites; the Boyd staff uniform consists of powder blue shirts bearing the TRCA crest, dark blue work pants, steel-toed boots and TRCA caps or cowboy hats. The Boyd Staff have received positive reviews on their service from patrons to the park. Boyd Park is affiliated with the Kortright Centre and all full-time Boyd staff take up work at Kortright over the winter season. Due to limited funding, Boyd only retains a few full-time staff; the rest of their staff is made up of summer students and those who wish to complete community service outdoors, aiding in keeping the grounds clean. Official website
Vaughan Public Libraries
Vaughan Public Libraries is a public library system consisting of nine libraries in the city of Vaughan in Ontario, Canada. It serves over 1.7 million visitors a year. VPL has nine branch locations, including three resource libraries; the Bathurst Clark Resource Library opened in 1994. Pierre Berton Resource Library opened in 2004; the newest library, Civic Centre Resource Library, opened in May 2016, houses VPL’s administration offices. VPL serves the growing multicultural community of Vaughan by offering collections in Chinese, Hebrew, Italian, Malayalam, Persian, Russian, Tamil and Vietnamese, in addition to French and English; the current Chief Executive Officer of Vaughan Public Libraries is Margie Singleton. The branches of Vaughan Public Library are: A 20,000-square-foot branch will be built in the PwC-YMCA Tower at Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, for which construction started in July 2017, it will be located on the second floor of the building, with a 350-square-foot self-service library accessible using a library card open 24 hours a day at ground level.
The branch will open in late 2019. Free library memberships are available for those who live, attend school full-time or own property in the city of Vaughan. VPL offer free membership to members of Aurora Public Library, Brampton Library, Caledon Public Library, King Township Public Library, Newmarket Public Library, Richmond Hill Public Library, Markham Public Library. All other people may acquire a membership by paying an annual fee of $80.00. Members of Vaughan Public Libraries have access to a diverse collection of resources including books, electronic databases, other library services. Information and reference services Access to full text databases Community information Internet access Reader's advisory services Programs for children and adults Delivery to homebound individuals Interlibrary loan Free downloadable audiobooks WiFi Access Public Microsoft Office workstations Email Librarian AskON live chat research help services Business resources Community information Job/Career resources Access to full-text databases Computer training suite and boardroom Meeting room rentals Exam proctoring Study rooms Volunteer opportunities Photocopiers/Printers available Adult Basic Literacy English as a Second Language Overdrive Digital Collection Multilingual Collections Holdings are loaned to a patron for a period of time dependent on the type of item borrowed: Special collections at VPL include:Adult Basic Literacy – This is a collection for adult learners.
It includes books, kits of books and audio, Internet links, databases. Adult Basic Literacy collections are available at all locations. Black Heritage - Vaughan Public Libraries' Black Heritage Collection was begun on February 25, 1989, it was the first of its kind in York Region, is housed at Dufferin Clark Library. Cinema Collection - This collection is housed at Pierre Berton Resource Library and Bathurst Clark Resource Library, it features the work of important directors from around the world and films not made by the major studios or with big Hollywood budgets. Award-winning films from world cinema festivals can be found in this collection. English as a Second Language – This collection includes books, DVDs, kits of books and audio or CD-ROM to meet the needs English Language learners. Of particular note are book chat sets of short novels at various learning levels, TOEFL, IELTS, other test preparation materials. Government Documents – Housed at the Bathurst Clark Resource Library, the Government Documents collection offers access to Federal and Provincial Government documents, including statistics and research papers, other historical records.
Local Studies – This collection is useful for genealogists, those wishing to construct family trees, local researchers needing access to current and historical municipal documents. The Local Studies Collection assists contains information concerning the history of Vaughan as a township, a town and a city; this collection now features VPL’s first digital local history project “Villages to City: An Oral History of Vaughan”. Professional Collection – The professional collection offers access to resources for public and school library professionals. Topics covered range to collection development, to library management; the professional collection is housed at the Bathurst Clark Resource Library. Vaughan Public Libraries VPL KidZone! VPL Teen Vortex Online catalogue Ontario Public Libraries
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h