The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
RMS Republic (1903)
RMS Republic was a steam-powered ocean liner built in 1903 by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, lost at sea in a collision in 1909 while sailing for the White Star Line. The ship was equipped with a new Marconi wireless telegraphy transmitter, issued a CQD distress call, resulting in the saving of around 1,500 lives. Known as the "Millionaires' Ship" because of the number of wealthy Americans who traveled by her, she was described as a "palatial liner" and was the flagship of White Star Line's Boston service; this was the first important marine rescue made possible by radio, brought worldwide attention to this new technology. The ship was built in Belfast, Ireland for the International Mercantile Marine's Dominion Line and was named Columbus, she was launched on 26 February 1903 and made her maiden voyage in October 1903 from Liverpool to Boston. After two voyages with the Dominion Line, along with three other Dominion liners. Columbus was renamed Republic, the second ship under White Star livery to hold the name, while her three fellow former Dominion liners were renamed Romanic and Cretic respectively.
Republic made her first crossing under White Star from Liverpool to Boston on 17 December 1903, arriving in Boston 27 December. In January 1903, she made her first crossing from Boston to the Mediterranean via Gibraltar, making calls at Sao Miguel in the Azores, followed by the Italian ports of Naples and Genoa, ending at Alexandria, a voyage which took up to three weeks to complete one-way. In November 1904, she inaugurated White Star's Mediterranean-New York service. White Star intended this route for two purposes. Second, more predominantly on her westbound crossings, White Star sought to tap into the massive Italian immigrant trade. Republic, with a third class capacity of 2,000, proved to be immensely profitable on this route, as when she sailed for the United States on any given trip, third class was booked to capacity, sometimes beyond. A vast majority of Italian immigrants who sailed by White Star boarded Republic and the other ships at Naples, along with smaller groups of Greeks, Slavs and Syrians.
White Star's placement of Sao Miguel on their Mediterranean services opened them up to traffic from Portuguese immigrants as well. Over the next four years, Republic spent the winter and spring months running on White Star's Mediterranean-New York service alongside the Cretic, while during the summer and fall months she sailed on the Liverpool-Boston route together with Cymric and Arabic. In early morning of 23 January 1909, while sailing from New York City to Gibraltar and Mediterranean ports with 742 passengers and crew and Captain William Inman Sealby in command, Republic entered a thick fog off the island of Nantucket, Massachusetts. Amongst the passengers were plenty of illustrious people such as Mrs. Sophie Mansfield Curtis, wife of George Munson Curtis, Mrs. Mary Harriman Severance, wife of Cordenio A. Severance, Professor John M. Coulter with wife and children, General Brayton Ives, St. Louis millionaire Samuel Cupples, historian Alice Morse Earle, Mildred Montague, Countess Pasolini.
Travelling in first class were Mr. Leonard L. McMurray, who, in 1915, would survive the sinking of the Cunard liner Lusitania, Mrs. Bessie Armstead Davis, daughter-in-law of senator Henry G. Davis of West Virginia with two children. Taking standard precautions and maintaining her speed, the steamer signaled her presence in the outbound shipping traffic lane by whistle. At 5:47 a.m. another whistle was heard and Republic's engines were ordered to full reverse, the helm put "hard-a-port". Out of the fog, the Lloyd Italiano liner SS Florida appeared and hit Republic amidships on her portside, at about a right angle. Two passengers asleep in their cabins on Republic were killed when Floridas bow sliced into her, liquor wholesale manager Eugene Lynch's wife Mary and banker William J. Mooney. Eugene Lynch was critically injured and died as a result of his injuries at Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, 26 January. On Florida, three crewmen were killed when the bow was crushed back to a collision bulkhead.
Six people died in total. The engine and boiler rooms on Republic began to flood, the ship listed. Captain Sealby led the crew in calmly organizing the passengers on deck for evacuation. Republic was equipped with the new Marconi wireless telegraph system, became the first ship in history to issue a CQD distress signal, sent by John R. Binns. Florida came about to rescue Republic's complement, the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service cutter Gresham responded to the distress signal as well. Passengers were distributed between the two ships, with Florida taking the bulk of them, but with 900 Italian immigrants on board, this left the ship dangerously overloaded; the White Star liner Baltic, commanded by Captain J. B. Ranson responded to the CQD call, but due to the persistent fog, it was not until the evening that Baltic was able to locate the drifting Republic. Once on-scene, the rescued passengers were transferred from Florida to Baltic; because of the damage to Florida, that ship's immigrant passengers were transferred to Baltic, but a riot nearly
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
Republic is a Hungarian rock band formed in Budapest in 1990. Their style is a mix of traditional Hungarian folk music; the band is popular in its native country and among Hungarian speaking minorities in other parts of the world. The two founding members are Lászlo Attila Nagy; the two played together for a band called Cipőfűző. From this name, László Bódi acquired i.e. shoe. Cipő died in March 2013 at the age of 47; the most recent change in the band's composition was in 1991 when the original lead guitarist Imre Bali retired and was replaced by Tamás Patai. While not formal members of the band, András “Bundás” Szabó and Gábor Halász perform with the band during their live shows. On albums, Republic refers to itself as “the worst group in Hungary″; the logo of the band is a stylised fish. László Bódi died on 11 March 2013 of heart failure. László Attila Nagy - drums Tamás Patai – guitar Csaba Boros – bass guitar and vocals Gábor Halász – guitar and vocals László “Cipő” Bódi † – vocals and piano – 1990–2013 "Rece Apó" - Bali Imre – guitar – 1990–1991 Szilágyi "Bigyó" László – drums – 1990 Zoltán Tóth – guitar and vocals - 1990-2013 Official website lyrics of their songs concert picture gallery
Republic? is the fifth studio album from Canadian stoner rock band Sheavy. It was produced by Billy Anderson. Jim Martin observed in Terrorizer that "Republic? finds sHeavy rejuvenated, fighting fit and sounding vital and righteous beyond belief. Central to this unexpected rejuvenation is. Although still rooted in elephantine riffs, chugging doom-grooves and 70s shapes, Republic? marks a considerable broadening of this band's horizons, revelling in punkier drives and psychedelic expanses". While Alex Henderson noted sHeavy's affinity for Sabbath, he said that Republic? Differentiated itself from mere tribute due to "a sludginess that you won't find on Sabbath's classic'70s recordings - a sludginess that owes something to the Melvins as well as grunge". Blabbermouth's Scott Alisoglu praised the album for its "biting guitar tone, monster riffage, a batch of cool solos make it worth cranking at top volume in the car stereo with a cooler of brew in the backseat", suggested that "Unless you're looking for a reinvention of the wheel, there isn't much to bitch about on Republic?".
"Spy vs. Spy" "The Rook" "Hangman" "Standing at the Edge of the World" "Revenge of the Viper Three" "A Phone Booth in the Middle of Nowhere" "The Man Who Never Was" "Stingray, Pt. III" "Moments of Silence" "Imitation of Christ" "Last Chance"
Crates of Thebes
Crates of Thebes was a Cynic philosopher. Crates gave away his money to live a life of poverty on the streets of Athens, he married Hipparchia of Maroneia. Respected by the people of Athens, he is remembered for being the teacher of Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. Various fragments of Crates' teachings survive, including his description of the ideal Cynic state. Crates was born c. 365 BC in Thebes. He was the son of Ascondus, was the heir to a large fortune, which he is said to have renounced to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Diogenes Laërtius preserves several different accounts of this story, he moved to Athens. Crates is described as being the student of Bryson the Achaean, of Stilpo, he lived a life of cheerful simplicity, Plutarch, who wrote a detailed biography of Crates which does not survive, records what sort of man Crates was: But Crates with only his wallet and tattered cloak laughed out his life jocosely, as if he had been always at a festival. He is said to have hunched shoulders.
He was nicknamed the Door-Opener because he would enter any house and people would receive him gladly and with honour: He used to enter the houses of his friends, without being invited or otherwise called, in order to reconcile members of a family if it was apparent that they were at odds. He would not reprove them harshly, but in a soothing way, in a manner, non-accusatory towards those whom he was correcting, because he wished to be of service to them as well as to those who were just listening, he attracted the attentions of Hipparchia of Maroneia, the sister of one of Crates' students, Metrocles. Hipparchia is said to have fallen in love with Crates and with his life and teachings, thus rejecting her wealthy upbringing in a manner similar to Crates, she married him; the marriage was remarkable for being based on mutual equality between the couple. Stories about Hipparchia appearing in public everywhere with Crates are mentioned because respectable women did not behave in that way, they had at least two children, a girl, a boy named Pasicles.
We learn that Crates is supposed to have initiated his son into sex by taking him to a brothel, he allowed his daughter a month's trial marriage to potential suitors. He was the teacher of Zeno of Citium in the last years of the century, was undoubtedly the biggest influence on Zeno in his development of Stoic philosophy. Zeno always regarded Crates with the greatest respect, some of the accounts we have of Crates have come down to us via Zeno's writings, his other pupils included Metrocles, Menippus, Cleomenes and Crates' brother Pasicles. He may have taught Cleanthes, Zeno's successor as head of the Stoic school. Crates was in Thebes in 307 BC, when Demetrius Phalereus was exiled there, he is said to have died at a great age, was buried in Boeotia. Crates wrote a book of letters on philosophical subjects, the style of, compared by Diogenes Laërtius to that of Plato. There are 36 surviving Cynic epistles attributed to Crates, but these are 1st-century, compositions. Crates was the author of some philosophical tragedies, some smaller poems called Games.
Several fragments of his thought survive. He taught a simple asceticism, which seems to have been milder than that of his predecessor Diogenes: And therefore Crates replied to the man who asked, "What will be in it for me after I become a philosopher?" "You will be able," he said, "to open your wallet and with your hand scoop out and dispense lavishly instead of, as you do now and hesitating and trembling like those with paralyzed hands. Rather, if the wallet is full, how you will view it, and once you have elected to use the money, you will be able to do so. His philosophy was infused with a rich humour, he urged people not to prefer anything but lentils in their meals, because luxury and extravagance were the chief causes of seditions and insurrections in a city. This jest would be the cause of much satire, as in book 4 of Athenaeus' Deipnosophistae where a group of Cynics sit down for a meal and are served course after course of lentil soup. One of his poems parodied a famous hymn to the Muses written by Solon.
But whereas Solon wished for prosperity, "justly acquired possessions," Crates had Cynic desires: Glorious children of Memory and Olympian Zeus,Muses of Pieria, listen to my prayer! Give me without ceasing food for my belly Which had always made my life frugal and free from slavery.... Make me useful to my friends, rather than agreeable; as for money, I do not wish to amass conspicuous wealth, But only seek the wealth of the beetle or the