Biodiversity of Colombia
Colombia is the country with the second-highest biodiversity in the world, behind Brazil. As of 2016, 56,343 species are registered in Colombia; the country occupies the first position worldwide in number of orchids and birds, second position in plants, amphibians and fresh water fish, third place in species of palm trees and reptiles and globally holds the fourth position in biodiversity of mammals. The country hosts 59 nationally designated protected areas. At the establishment of the as of 2017 most recent addition, Bahía Portete – Kaurrele National Natural Park, Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos said "The biodiversity is to Colombia, what oil is for the Arabs". According to a report by the WWF, half of Colombia’s ecosystems are in a critical state of deterioration or in a state of danger; the organization said that environmental degradation is due to oil extraction and metal extraction and deforestation. Deteriorating ecosystems are threatening the existence of more than a third of Colombia’s plants and 50 percent of its animals.
Colombia is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world. The country in northwestern South America contains 311 types of continental ecosystems; as of 2016, a total of between 56,343 and 56,724 species are registered in the country, with 9153 endemic species. Colombia is the country with the most páramos in the world. Boyacá is the department. Since December 20, 2014, Colombia hosts 59 protected areas; the biodiversity is highest in the Andean natural region, followed by the Amazon natural region. Since 1998, the Humboldt Institute for Biological Resources in the country has been collecting samples of biodiversity; as of 2014, 16,469 samples, representing around 2530 species from 1289 genera, 323 families of the Colombian biodiversity have been stored in their archives. The biodiversity of Colombia is at risk because of habitat loss, urbanisation and overfishing. According to a study of 2001, 260,000 hectares of forested area is lost every year. Around 1200 species are critically endangered, 922 species are introduced in Colombia, 22 of which are classified as invasive species in Colombia.
Various plans to address the environmental issues are proposed. The National System of Protected Areas is the administrator of protected areas. To commemorate the biodiversity of Colombia, the new coins of the Colombian peso feature a species each. Colombia is divided into six natural regions. Colombia hosts two biodiversity hotspots; the country is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves with five biosphere reserves: Biodiversity of the Eastern Hills, Bogotá Conservation biology Biodiversity of Thomas van der Hammen Natural Reserve Biodiversity of Cape Town, New Caledonia, New Zealand Biodiversity of Borneo, environmental issues in Colombia Environmental personhood Arbeláez Cortés, Enrique. 2015. Colombian frozen biodiversity - 16 years of the tissue collection of the Humboldt Institute - La biodiversidad congelada de Colombia: 16 años de la colección de tejidos del Instituto Humboldt. Acta Biológica Colombiana - Universidad Nacional de Colombia 20. 163-173. Nieto Escalante, Juan Antonio.
2010. Geografía de Colombia - Geography of Colombia, 1-367. Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi. Rodríguez Becerra, Manuel. 2001. La biodiversidad en Colombia, 1-32. Accessed 2017-01-30. SiB.. 2016. Biodiversidad en cifras, 1-9. Sistema de Información sobre Biodiversidad de Colombia. Accessed 2017-01-30. UNDP.. 2014. V Informe nacional de biodiversidad de Colombia - ante el convenio de diversidad biológica, 1-156. United Nations Development Program. Accessed 2017-01-30. Woods, Sarah. 2008. Colombia. Bradt Travel Guides. Accessed 2017-01-30. Biodiversidad Colombia - Universidad de La Salle
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru. Nearly two centuries after the establishment of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 16th century, whose governor was dependent upon the Viceroy of Peru at Lima, an audiencia at Santa Fé de Bogotá, the slowness of communications between the two capitals led to the creation of an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. Other provinces corresponding to modern Ecuador, the eastern and southern parts of today's Venezuela, Panama came together in a political unit under the jurisdiction of Bogotá, confirming that city as one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City.
Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, but control from Spain was never effective. The rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult; the establishment of an autonomous Captaincy General in Caracas in 1777 and the preservation of the older Audiencia of Quito, nominally subject to the Viceroy but for most purposes independent, was a response to the necessities of governing the peripheral regions. Some analysts consider that these measures reflected a degree of local traditions that contributed to the differing political and national differences among these territories once they became independent in the nineteenth century and which the unifying efforts of Simón Bolívar could not overcome; the Wayuu had never been subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a less permanent state of war. There had been rebellions in 1701, 1727, 1741, 1757, 1761 and 1768.
In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them "barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law and without a king". Of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses. In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena; the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church and two Spaniards who had taken refuge in it, they captured the priest. The Spanish dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, a mestizo who had headed the party that had taken the 22 Guajiro captives; the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed; this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, more men joined the revolt.
According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms. Many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes from the Spanish; this enabled the rebels to take nearly all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed and many others taken prisoner. Many cattle were taken by the rebels; the Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the latter responding by sending 100 troops. The rebels themselves were not unified. Sierra's relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death. A battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad; that and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, but not before the Guajiro had regained much territory. New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. By population The territories of the viceroyalty gained full de facto independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in a republic now known as Gran Colombia.
With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador and the Republic of New Granada were created. The Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856; the name "Colombia" reappeared in the "United States of Colombia". The use of the term "New Granada" survived such as among ecclesiastics; as is typical in Spanish, older adjectives of places are used as demonyms for people from those areas. Today, it is typical in Spanish to refer to Colombians as neogranadinos in neighboring Venezuela. History of the Americas History of Colombia History of Ecuador History of Venezuela List of Viceroys of New Granada Spanish Empire Fisher, John R. Allan J. Keuthe and Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8071-1654-8 Kuethe, Alan J. Military Reform and Society in New Granada, 1773-1808. Gainesville, University Presses of Florida, 1978. ISBN 978-0-8130-0570-6 McFarlane, Anthony.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
New Kingdom of Granada
The New Kingdom of Granada, or Kingdom of the New Granada, was the name given to a group of 16th-century Spanish colonial provinces in northern South America governed by the president of the Audiencia of Santa Fe, an area corresponding to modern-day Colombia and Venezuela. The conquistadors organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru; the crown established the audiencia in 1549. The kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. In 1514, the Spanish first permanently settled in the area. With Santa Marta and Cartagena, Spanish control of the coast was established, the extension of colonial control into the interior could begin. Starting in 1536, the conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada explored the extensive highlands of the interior of the region, by following the Magdalena River into the Andean cordillera.
There his force defeated the powerful Muisca and founding the city of Santa Fé de Bogotá and naming the region El nuevo reino de Granada, "the new kingdom of Granada", in honor of the last part of Spain to be recaptured from the Moors, home to the brothers De Quesada. After Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada left for Spain in May 1539, the reign of the colony was transferred to his brother Hernán. De Quesada, lost control of the province when Emperor Charles V granted the right to rule over the area to rival conquistador, Sebastián de Belalcázar, in 1540, who had entered the region from what is today Ecuador, named himself governor of Popayán. Belalcázar's victory placed the region under the Viceroyalty of Peru, being organized at the time. Charles V ordered the establishment of an audiencia, a type of superior court that combined executive and judicial authority, at Santa Fé de Bogotá in 1549; the Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree of July 17, 1549. It was given authority over the provinces of Santa Marta, Río de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena de Indias.
The Audiencia was charged with dispensing justice, but it was to oversee the running of government and the settlement of the territory. It held its first session on April 7, 1550, in a mansion on the Plaza Mayor at the site which today houses the Colombian Palace of Justithey Law VIII of Title XV of Book II of the Recopilación de Leyes de las Indias of 1680—which compiles the decrees of July 17, 1549. In Santa Fé de Bogotá of the New Kingdom of Granada shall reside another Royal Audiencia and Chancery of ours, with a president and captain general, and we order that the Governor and Captain General of said provinces and president of their Royal Audiencia, have and exercise by himself the government of all the district of that Audiencia, in the same manner as our Viceroys of New Spain and appoint the repartimiento of Indians and other offices that need to be appointed, attend to all the matters and business that belong to the government, that the oidores of said Audiencia do not interfere with this, that all sign what in matters of justice is provided for and carried out.
One further change came as part of the Bourbon Reforms of the eighteenth century. Because of the slowness in communications between Lima and Bogotá, the Bourbons decided to establish an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717; the governor-president of Bogotá became the viceroy of the new entity, with military and executive oversight over the neighboring Presidency of Quito and the provinces of Venezuela. The New Kingdom was organized into several Governments and Provinces: The largest cities of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 1791 Census were Cartagena de Indias – 154,304 Santa Fé de Bogotá – 108,533 Popayan – 56,783 Santa Marta – 49,830 Tunja – 43,850 Mompóx – 24,332 Patria Boba United Provinces of New Granada Avellaneda Navas, José Ignacio; the Conquerors of the New Kingdom of Granada Cook, Karoline P. "Religious Identity and Status in New Granada." Race and Blood in the Iberian World. Fisher, John R. Allan J. Keuthe, Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8071-1654-8 Graff, Gary W. "Spanish Parishes in Colonial New Granada: Their Role in Town-Building on the Spanish-American Frontier." The Americas: 336-351. Grahn, Lance Raymond; the Political
Bill of rights
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose is to protect those rights against infringement from public officials and private citizens. Bills of rights may be unentrenched. An entrenched bill of rights cannot be amended or repealed by a country's legislature through regular procedure, instead requiring a supermajority or referendum. A bill of rights, not entrenched is a normal statute law and as such can be modified or repealed by the legislature at will. In practice, not every jurisdiction enforces the protection of the rights articulated in its bill of rights; the history of legal charters asserting certain rights for particular groups goes back to the Middle Ages and earlier. An example is Magna Carta, an English legal charter agreed between the King and his barons in 1215. In the early modern period, there was renewed interest in Magna Carta. English common law judge Sir Edward Coke revived the idea of rights based on citizenship by arguing that Englishmen had enjoyed such rights.
The Petition of Right 1628, the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 and the Bill of Rights 1689 established certain rights in statute. In America, the English Bill of Rights was one of the influences on the 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, which in turn influenced the United States Declaration of Independence that year. Inspired by the Age of Enlightenment, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen asserted the universality of rights, it was adopted in 1789 by France's National Constituent Assembly, during the period of the French Revolution. After the Constitution of the United States was adopted in 1789, the United States Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791; the 20th century saw different groups draw on these earlier documents for influence when drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The constitution of the United Kingdom remains uncodified, however the Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the rights contained in the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law.
Australia is the only common law country with neither a constitutional nor federal legislative bill of rights to protect its citizens, although there is ongoing debate in many of Australia's states. In 1973, Federal Attorney-General Lionel Murphy introduced a human rights Bill into parliament, although it was never passed. In 1984, Senator Stephen Bunce drafted a Bill of Rights, but it was never introduced into parliament, in 1985, Senator Lionel Bowen introduced a bill of rights, passed by the House of Representatives, but failed to pass the Senate. Former Australian Prime Minister John Howard has argued against a bill of rights for Australia on the grounds it would transfer power from elected politicians to unelected judges and bureaucrats. Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory are the only states and territories to have a human rights Act. However, the principle of legality present in the Australian judicial system, seeks to ensure that legislation is interpreted so as not to interfere with basic human rights, unless legislation expressly intends to interfere.
Charter of Liberties rights of inheritance and marriage and environmental protection Magna Carta rights for barons Great Charter of Ireland rights for barons Golden Bull of 1222 rights for nobles Statute of Kalisz Jewish residents' rights Charter of Kortenberg rights for all citizens "rich and poor" Dušan's Code Twelve Articles Pacta conventa Henrician Articles Petition of Right Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689 This applied to all British Colonies of the time, was entrenched in the laws of those colonies that became nations - for instance in Australia with the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 and reconfirmed by the Statute of Westminster 1931 Virginia Declaration of Rights Preamble to the United States Declaration of Independence Chapter 1 of the Pennsylvania Constitution Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution Declaration of the Rights of the People Article I of the Constitution of Connecticut Constitution of Greece Hatt-ı Hümayun Article I of the Constitution of Texas Basic rights and liberties in Finland Articles 13-28 of the Constitution of Italy Universal Declaration of Human Rights Fundamental rights and duties of citizens in People's Republic of China European Convention on Human Rights Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens Implied Bill of Rights Canadian Bill of Rights International Bill of Human Rights Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Article III of the Constitution of the Philippines Article 5 of the Constitution of Brazil New Zealand Bill of Rights Act Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms of the Czech Republic Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance Chapter 2 of the Constitution of South Africa Human Rights Act 1998 Human Rights Act 2004
Suffrage, political franchise, or franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. In some languages, in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, the right to stand for election; the combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage. Suffrage is conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote; the utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, full disclosure and public review. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write and vote on referendums and initiatives.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of linked countries or to certain offices or questions; the word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, shouts", related to frangere "to break". Other sources say; some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth, it does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25.
In 1819 60-80,000 men and women from 30 miles around Manchester assembled in the city's St. Peter's Square to protest their lack of any representation in the Houses of Parliament. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age.. The film Peterloo featured; this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville. The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults. In 1893, when the Kingdom of Hawai'i was overthrown in a coup, New Zealand became the only independent country to practice universal suffrage, the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. Women's suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote; this was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures. Short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jersey's first, 1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners.
"IV. That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. New Jersey 1776 However, the document did not specify an Amendment procedure, the provision was subsequently replaced in 1844 by the adoption of the succeeding constitution, which reverted to "all white male" suffrage restrictions. Although the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted female suffrage in 1840, the right was rescinded in 1852. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both stand for Parliament; the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.
Those against the women's suffrage movement made public organizations to put down the political movement, with the main argument being that a woman's place was in the home, not polls. Political cartoons and public outrage over women's rights increased as the opposition to suffrage worked day and night to organize legitimate groups campaigning against women's voting rights; the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women was one organization that came out of the 1880's to put down the voting efforts. Many anti-suffrage propaganda poked fun at the idea of women in politics. Political cartoons displayed the most sentiment by portraying the issue of women's suffrage to be swapped with men's lives; some mocked the popular suf
Panama the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century, it broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914; the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce and tourism are major and growing sectors.
It is regarded as a high-income country. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM; the definite origin of the name Panama is unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a found species of tree. Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".
A relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified; the legend is corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515. In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site; the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began. The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish and butterflies"; this is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have nearly disappeared; the Isthmus of Panama was formed about three million years ago when the land bridge between North and South America became complete, plants and animals crossed it in both directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities; the earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points. Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC; these evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, their beautiful Gran Coclé style polychrome pottery. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was settled by Chibchan and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva; the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of commerce; when Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives; the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases, chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. Rodrigo de Bastidas sailed westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, became the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous