Andrés de Santa Cruz
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana served as the seventh President of Peru during 1827, the Interim President of Peru from 1836 to 1838 and President of Bolivia. He served as Supreme Protector of the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation, a political entity created by his personal endeavors. Santa Cruz was born on December 5, 1792 in the village of Huarina, close to La Paz, which at that time had been transferred from the Viceroyalty of Peru to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, his father was José Santa Cruz y Villavicencio, a Spaniard, his mother Juana Basilia Calahumana, an Amerindian and cacique of the town of Huarina. In years, Andrés de Santa Cruz would claim that through his mother, he descended directly from Inca rulers, he began his studies in his hometown at the San Francisco Convent, continued them at the San Antonio Abad Seminary in the city of Cuzco. In 1809 he returned to La Paz. After Santa Cruz's return home, his father enrolled him as an alférez in the Dragones de Apolobamba Regiment of the Spanish Army.
As such, he participated in the battles of Guaqui and Ayohuma. The latter resulted in the defeat of the Argentine Independentist forces attempting to liberate the Upper Peru from Spanish rule. Santa Cruz took part in the Spanish colonial campaigns to suppress the insurrection of Mateo Pumacahua, further demonstrating his loyalty to the Spanish Crown, his luck ran out at the Battle of La Tablada, where he was captured and taken as prisoner of war to Buenos Aires. He managed to escape, first to Rio de Janeiro and to Lima; as a reward, he was named Commander of Chorrillos. At the time of the landing of the rebel army of José de San Martín on the Peruvian coast, Santa Cruz was commander of militia forces in the region of Huarochirí. In that position, he fought against the independentist in the Battle of Pasco, but the royalists were defeated and Santa Cruz captured. Taken to San Martin's headquarters at Huaura, he decided to switch sides and joined the Patriot Army. Santa Cruz ascended reaching the rank of Colonel that year and that of Brigade General in 1822 for leading Peruvian troops at the Battle of Pichincha.
He revolted against the Peruvian Congress on February 26, 1823, forced it to elect José de la Riva Agüero as President. As commander of a Peruvian Army expedition, Santa Cruz occupied the port of Arica and defeated a royalist army at the Battle of Zepita. Failing to exploit his victory, he retreated hastily; when Simón Bolívar assumed the presidency of Peru, Santa Cruz joined his army and was named Chief of Staff of the Peruvian Division. In that condition, he participated of the Battle of Junín. Afterwards, he was named Prefect of Ayacucho, Chief of Staff of the Patriot Army during the campaign for the liberation of Bolivia; as a reward for his actions, Santa Cruz received the titles of Marshal and Prefect of Chuquisaca in April 1825. Named President of the Government Council in Lima, he was in charge of the Peruvian Executive after Bolívar returned to Gran Colombia on September 4, 1826, until the collapse of the Bolivarian regime in Peru on January 27, 1827. Santa Cruz temporarily assumed the post of President until June 9, 1827, when José La Mar was elected by Congress.
Removed from power, Santa Cruz was named Peruvian ambassador to Chile, but he was recalled to Bolivia where he had been proclaimed as President. Sworn in on May 24, 1829, he found a country afflicted by endemic internal disorders and near to bankruptcy. Measures undertaken to resolve these problems included purging conspirators and strengthening the Army, reforming the bureaucracy, reforming public finances, issuing new currency, issuing a new Constitution, issuing a new Civil Code based on the Napoleonic Code and establishing Cobija as a free port; the authoritarian regime imposed by Santa Cruz brought stability to Bolivia at a time when most countries in Latin America faced widespread unrest. Furthermore, it formed a solid base from which to pursue his main project, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation; as President of Bolivia, Santa Cruz instigated several failed plots to achieve a political union with Peru, taking advantage of that country's chronic political unrest. His best opportunity came in 1835 when the Peruvian President Luis José de Orbegoso requested his assistance to fight the rebel army of Felipe Santiago Salaverry.
Santa Cruz defeated Peruvian caudillo Agustín Gamarra at the Battle of Yanacocha and Salaverry at the Battle of Uchumayo after which he had Salaverry summarily executed. At the instigation of Santa Cruz, a Congress of the Peruvian southern departments gathered at Sicuani and declared the establishment of the Republic of South Peru. A similar assembly at Huaura of the northern departments founded the Republic of North Peru. Both recognized Santa Cruz as Supreme Protector with extensive powers, which enabled him to create the Peru-Bolivian Confederation on October 28, 1836, he summoned to the city of Tacna representatives of both legislatures together with those of the Bolivian Congress assembled at Tapacarí to establish a Constitution for the new State. Under his direction, they signed a pact on May 1, 1837 which named him Supreme Protector for a ten-year period. Invested with considerable powers, Santa Cruz endeavoured to establish in Pe
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Luis José de Orbegoso
Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada-Galindo, de Burutarán y Morales 5th count de Olmos, an aristocratic Peruvian soldier and politician, served as the 11th and 12th President of Peru as well as the first President of North Peru. This was a time of profound social instability and continuing civil war which led his government to coexist with that of Pedro Pablo Bermúdez, with Felipe Santiago Salaverry. Orbegoso was born in Chuquizongo, Huamachuco, in 1799, his parents were Justo de Orbegoso y Burutarán and Francisca Moncada-Galindo y Morales, 4th countess of Olmos. He participated with José de San Martín in the war for independence and in the war against Gran Colombia during the government of José de La Mar. After the collapse of Agustín Gamarra's first government, Orbegoso was elected president in 1833, winning over Pedro Pablo Bermúdez, whom Gamarra had preferred as his successor. During his government, he suffered the enmity of Gamarra, who while in exile had supported Bermúdez in his eventual presidency.
Orbegoso had to deal with the young Felipe Santiago Salaverry, who overthrew him 1835. Orbegoso, did not lose the support of southern Peru and, with the support of President of Bolivia, Andrés de Santa Cruz, he regained his leadership throughout the country and executed Salaverry. In retribution to the support he received from Santa Cruz, he acceded to form the new Peru-Bolivian Confederacy. Santa Cruz assumed the "Supreme Protectorship" of the confederation and Orbegoso maintained only the presidency of the Republic of North Peru. After being defeated by Gamarra's efforts to regain power with the support of Chile, Orbegoso had to abandon the country and staying away from an active political life, he died in Trujillo in 1847. Politics of Peru List of Presidents of Peru
Plurinational Legislative Assembly
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government. The assembly is bicameral, consisting of an upper house; the Vice President of Bolivia serves as the President of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly. Each house elects its own directorate: a President and second Vice Presidents, three or four Secretaries; each party is said to have a seat consisting of its parliamentarians. The representatives of each department comprise a brigade; each house considers legislation in standing committees. The Senate has 36 seats; each of the country's nine departments returns four senators elected by proportional representation. Senators are elected from party lists to serve five-year terms, the minimum age to hold a Senate seat is 35 years; the Chamber of Deputies comprises 130 seats, elected using the additional member system: 70 deputies are elected to represent single-member electoral districts, 7 of which are Indigenous or Campesino seats elected by the usos y costumbres of minority groups, 60 are elected by proportional representation from party lists on a departmental basis.
Deputies serve five-year terms, must be aged at least 25 on the day of the election. Party lists are required to alternate between men and women, in the single-member districts, men are required to run with a female alternate, vice versa. At least 50% of the deputies from single-member districts are required to be women. Both the senate, the proportional part of the Chamber of Deputies is elected based on the vote for the presidential candidates, while the deputies from the single-member districts are elected separately; the legislative body was known as the National Congress. The 2010–2015 Plurinational Legislative Assembly were controlled in both houses by the governing Movement for Socialism, elected with a 2/3 supermajority. Just four incumbent members of the 2005–2010 Congress returned: Deputy Antonio Franco; as part of a break between the MAS-IPSP and its ally the Without Fear Movement, the latter party's four deputies, elected on the MAS slate pledged in late March 2010, "to act in accord with our political identity, with our conscience, with the people who elected us with their vote."
MAS-IPSP now has 84 members in the Chambers of Deputies, while the MSM has four. Congressional elections were held as part of general elections on 9 December 2009. After the votes were counted, party strengths in Congress were as follows: The President of the Senate, elected on 19 January 2010, is Ana María Romero de Campero. Seventeen of 36 members of the Senate are women; the 26-member MAS-IPSP majority includes all four senators from La Paz and Potosí. The President of the Chamber of Deputies, elected on 19 January 2010, is Héctor Arce. 33 of 130 deputies are women. Congressional elections were held on 18 December 2005, concurrently with the 2005 presidential election; the Chamber of Deputies had the following leadership: President Edmundo Novillo Aguilar. Congressional elections were held on 30 June 2002. After the votes were counted, party strengths in Congress were as follows: The next election was scheduled to take place in June 2007, but was brought forward to December 2005 on a decision from interim President Eduardo Rodríguez.
The two chambers of Congress meet in the legislative palace located on Plaza Murillo, La Paz's main city-centre square. Plaza Murillo is flanked by the presidential palace and the cathedral of Nuestra Señora de La Paz. Prior to becoming the seat of the legislature in 1904, the congress building had, at different times, housed a convent and a university; the Vice-President, in his capacity as President of Congress, has an imposing suite of offices on Calle Mercado in central La Paz. The building, designed by Emilio Villanueva, was erected during the 1920s and was intended to serve as the headquarters of Bolivia's central bank. Under Jaime Paz Zamora's 1989–1993 presidency, the building was reassigned to the vice-presidency, but the vice-presidential staff did not relocate until major reconstruction and renovation work, starting in 1997, had been carried out; the Library of Congress and the National Congressional Archive are located on the premises. List of members of the Chamber of Deputies of Bolivia, 1997–2002 List of members of the Chamber of Deputies of Bolivia, 2002–2005 List of members of the Chamber of Deputies of Bolivia, 2005–2009 List of members of the Chamber of Senators of Bolivia, 1997–2002 Li
Cusco spelled Cuzco, is a department in Peru. It is bordered by the departments of Ucayali on the north, its capital is the capital of the Inca Empire. The plain of Anta contains some of the best communal cultivated lands of the Department of Cusco, it is located about 3,000 metres above sea level and is used to cultivate high altitude crops such as potatoes, tarwi and quinoa. Acomayo Anta Calca Canas Canchis Chumbivilcas Cusco Espinar La Convención Paruro Paucartambo Quispicanchi Urubamba According to the 2007 Peru Census, the language learnt first by most of the residents was Quechua, followed by Spanish; the Quechua variety spoken in this department is Cusco Quechua. The following table shows the results concerning the language learnt first in the Department of Cusco by province: Many of the toponyms of the Department of Cusco originate from Quechua and Aymara; these names are overwhelmingly predominant throughout the region. Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalised alphabets of these languages.
According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on July 22, 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalised alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardising the naming used by the National Geographic Institute The National Geographic Institute realises the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru. The Ministry of Culture additionally proposes to the municipalities of the provinces to recover ancient indigenous toponyms and that these names should be spread by the local and communal authorities on posters and other signage. Administrative divisions of Peru Machiguenga Communal Reserve Megantoni National Sanctuary Otishi National Park Travelogue Cusco Region
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy, it is a form of government. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy; as of 2017, 159 of the world’s 206 sovereign states use the word “republic” as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word “republic” used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads of state tend to claim that they rule only by the “consent of the governed”, elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of “show” than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.
The word republic comes from the Latin term res publica, which means “public thing,” “public matter,” or “public affair” and was used to refer to the state as a whole. The term developed its modern meaning in reference to the constitution of the ancient Roman Republic, lasting from the overthrow of the kings in 509 B. C. to the establishment of the Empire in 27 B. C; this constitution was characterized by a Senate composed of wealthy aristocrats and wielding significant influence. Most a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as “republican” in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of “Republics” and as a “federal multinational state composed of 15 republics”, was viewed as being a totalitarian form of government and not a genuine republic, since its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.
The term originates from the Latin translation of Greek word politeia. Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as "republic"; the term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. One of Plato's major works on political science was titled Politeia and in English it is thus known as The Republic. However, apart from the title, in modern translations of The Republic, alternative translations of politeia are used. However, in Book III of his Politics, Aristotle was the first classical writer to state that the term politeia can be used to refer more to one type of politeia: "When the citizens at large govern for the public good, it is called by the name common to all governments, government". Amongst classical Latin, the term "republic" can be used in a general way to refer to any regime, or in a specific way to refer to governments which work for the public good.
In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had signoria based governments. In the late Middle Ages, writers such as Giovanni Villani began writing about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime, they used terms such as a free people, to describe the states. The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term res publica has a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin; the term can quite be translated as "public matter". It was most used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government during the period of the Roman Empire. In subsequent centuries, the English word "commonwealth" came to be used as a translation of res publica, its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica.
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was in common use. In Polish the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to Poland. Presently, the term "republic" means a system of government which derives its power from the people rather than from another basis, such as heredity or divine right. While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and Rome, as noted by Aristotle there was a long history of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in Greece but in the Middle East. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many free cities developed again, such as Venice; the modern type of "republic" itself is different from any type of state found in the c
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices. A jurisdiction that has a civil code also has a code of civil procedure. In some jurisdictions with a civil code, a number of the core areas of private law that would otherwise be codified in a civil code may instead be codified in a commercial code; the concept of codification dates back to ancient Babylon. The earliest surviving civil code is the Code of Ur-Nammu, in. 2100–2050 BC. The Corpus Juris Civilis, a codification of Roman law produced between 529-534 AD by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, forms the basis of civil law legal systems. Other codified laws used since ancient times include various texts used in religious laws, such as the Law of Manu in Hindu law, the Mishnah in Jewish Halakha law, the Canons of the Apostles in Christian Canon law, the Qur'an and Sunnah in Islamic Sharia law to some extent; the idea of codification re-emerged during the Age of Enlightenment, when it was believed that all spheres of life could be dealt with in a conclusive system based on human rationality, following from the experience of the early codifications of Roman Law during the Roman Empire.
The first attempts at modern codification were made in the second half of the 18th century in Germany, when the states of Austria, Prussia and Saxony began to codify their laws. The first statute that used this denomination was the Codex Maximilianeus bavaricus civilis of 1756 in Bavaria, still using the Latin language, it was followed in 1792 by a legal compilation that included civil and constitutional law, the Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preussischen Staaten promulgated by King Frederick II the Great. In Austria, the first step towards fully-fledged codification were the yet incomplete Codex Theresianus, the Josephinian Code and the complete West Galician Code; the final Austrian Civil Code was only completed in 1811 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire under the influence of the Napoleonic Wars. One of the first countries to follow up through legal transplants in codification was Serbia, the Serbian Civil Code. Meanwhile, the French Napoleonic code was enacted in 1804 after only a few years of preparation, but it was a child of the French Revolution, reflected by its content.
The French code was the most influential one because it was introduced in many countries standing under French occupation during the Napoleonic Wars. In particular, countries such as Italy, the Benelux countries, Portugal, the Latin American countries, the province of Quebec in Canada, the state of Louisiana in the United States, all other former French colonies which base their civil law systems to a strong extent on the Napoleonic Code; the late 19th century and the beginning 20th century saw the emergence of the School of Pandectism, whose work peaked in the German Civil Code, enacted in 1900 in the course of Germany's national unification project, in the Swiss Civil Code of 1907. Those two codes had been most advanced in their systematic structure and classification from fundamental and general principles to specific areas of law. While the French Civil Code was structured in a "casuistic" approach attempting to regulate every possible case, the German BGB and the Swiss ZGB applied a more abstract and systematic approach.
Therefore, the BGB had a great deal of influence on codification projects in countries as diverse as Japan, Turkey and Macau. Since 2002 with the First law of the Civil Code of Catalonia, Parliament of Catalonia's several laws have approved the successive books of the Civil Code of Catalonia; this has replaced most of the Compilation of the Civil Law of Catalonia, several special laws and two partial codes. Only the Sixth book, relating to obligations and contracts, has to be approved. In Europe, apart from the common law countries of the United Kingdom and Ireland, only Scandinavia remained untouched by the codification movement; the particular tradition of the civil code enacted in a country is thought to have a lasting influence on the methodology employed in legal interpretation. Scholars of comparative law and economists promoting the legal origins theory of development subdivide the countries of the civil law tradition as belonging either to the French, Scandinavian or German group; the first civil code promulgated in Canada was that of New Brunswick of 1804, inspired by the 1800 project of the French civil code, known as the Projet de l'an VIII.
In the United States, codification appears to be widespread at a first glance, but U. S. legal codes are collections of common law rules and a variety of ad hoc statutes. For example, the California Civil Code codifies common law doctrine and is different in form and content from all other civil codes. In 1825, Haiti promulgated a Code Civil, a copy of the Napoleonic one; the Mexican state of Oaxaca promulgated t