The White Volta or Nakanbé is the headstream of the Volta River, Ghana's main waterway. The White Volta emerges in northern Burkina Faso, flows through North Ghana and empties into Lake Volta in Ghana; the White Volta's main tributaries are the Black Volta and the Red Volta
The Black Volta or Mouhoun is a river that flows through Burkina Faso flowing about 1,352 km to the White Volta in Dagbon, Ghana. The Black Volta forms part of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Within Ghana, it forms the border between the Brong-Ahafo Region; the Bui Dam is built on the river in Ghana. The river bisects Bui National Park in Ghana
West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016, at 381,981,000 as of 2017, to which 189,672,000 are female, 192,309,000 male. Studies of human mitochondrial DNA suggest that all humans share common ancestors from Africa, originated in the southwestern regions near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola at the approximate coordinates 12.5° E, 17.5°S with a divergence in the migration path around 37.5°E, 22.5°N near the Red Sea. A particular haplogroup of DNA, haplogroup L2, evolved between 87,000 and 107,000 years ago or approx. 90,000 YBP. Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence, however an origin for several L2 groups in West or Central Africa seems with the highest diversity in West Africa.
Most of its subclades are confined to West and western-Central Africa. Because of the large numbers of West Africans enslaved in the Atlantic slave trade, most African Americans are to have mixed ancestry from different regions of western Africa; the history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: first, its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, developed agriculture, made contact with peoples to the north. Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12,000 B. C. At Gobero, the Kiffian, who were hunters of tall stature, lived during the green Sahara between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago; the Tenerian, who were a more built people that hunted and herded cattle, lived during the latter part of the green Sahara 7,000 to 4,500 years ago. Sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B. C, as well as the domestication of cattle. By 1500 B. C, ironworking technology allowed an expansion of agricultural productivity, the first city-states formed.
Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at 400. In the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, an inter-region trade began to appear; the desertification of the Sahara and the climatic change of the coast cause trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen. The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a trans-Saharan trade with cultures across the Sahara, including Carthage and the Berbers. Local leather and gold contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires; the development of the region's economy allowed more centralized states and civilizations to form, beginning with Dhar Tichitt that began in 1600 B. C. followed by Djenné-Djenno beginning in 300 B. C; this was succeeded by the Ghana Empire that first flourished between the 9th and 12th centuries, which gave way to the Mali Empire. In current-day Mauritania, there exist archaeological sites in the towns of Tichit and Oualata that were constructed around 2000 B.
C. and were found to have originated from the Soninke branch of the Mandé peoples, according to their tradition, originate from Aswan, Egypt. Based on the archaeology of city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, the Mali empire came to dominate much of the region until its defeat by Almoravid invaders in 1052. Three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century, they included Ghana and Kanem. The Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire; the Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries, most under Sundiata's grandnephew Musa I, before a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under Mossi and Songhai invaders. In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed. Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city states arose in Igboland, such as the 10th-century Kingdom of Nri, which helped birth the arts and customs of the Igbo people, Bono in the 12th century, which culminated in the formation the all-powerful Akan Empire of Ashanti, while Ife rose to prominence around the 14th century.
Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria. The Kingdom of Nri was a West African medieval state in the present-day southeastern Nigeria and a subgroup of the Igbo people; the Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects. The kingdom existed as a sphere of religious and political influence over a third of Igboland and was administered by a priest-king called as an Eze Nri; the Eze Nri managed trade and diplomacy on behalf of the Nri people and possessed divine authority in religious matters. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North c
2015 Burkinabé general election
General elections were held in Burkina Faso on 29 November 2015. The elections were the first national elections in the country since the 2014 Burkinabé uprising and the departure of President Blaise Compaoré, who had ruled Burkina Faso for 27 years; the party of former President Compaoré, the Congress for Democracy and Progress, was banned from running a presidential candidate but was still able to participate in the parliamentary election. The presidential election was won by Roch Marc Christian Kaboré of the People's Movement for Progress, who received 53% of the vote in the first round, negating the need for a second round. Following an amendment in 2000, the constitution limits presidents to two terms of five years. However, the restrictions were not applied retrospectively, allowing President Blaise Compaoré, in office since 1987, to run for a further two terms. On 30 October 2014 the National Assembly was scheduled to vote on a constitutional amendment that would scrap term limits. However, the vote sparked protests, with the National Assembly building, Ouagadougou City Hall and the Congress for Democracy and Progress headquarters set on fire.
As a result of the protests, the vote was suspended. Protests were reported in other cities, including the second largest city Bobo Dioulasso. Compaoré subsequently announced. On 31 October, Compaoré suggested an election should be held within 90 days. Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Honoré Traoré first assumed the role of acting head of state. However, many protesters criticised the new transition of power because of Traoré's ties to Compaoré; some protesters have called for the election of Kouamé Lougué. After a brief power struggle, the armed forces asserted that Yacouba Isaac Zida had their unanimous backing to be the interim head of state, although some protests continued against having a military-led interim administration; the transitional charter barred any ministers in the transitional government from running for the presidency. The following politicians declared their intent to stand as presidential candidates, although some were barred from running: Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara – party leader for Union for Rebirth / Sankarist Movement and endorsed by nine other Sankarist parties.
Roch Marc Christian Kaboré – party leader of the People's Movement for Progress, Prime Minister from 1994 to 1996, President of the National Assembly from 2002 to 2012. Eddie Komboïgo, party leader of the Congress for Democracy and Progress. Djibril Bassolé, leader of many political parties including New Alliance of Faso. Known as a peacemaker in Africa, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2007 to 2008 and from 2011 to 2014. Gilbert Noël Ouédraogo, party leader of the Alliance for Democracy and Federation – African Democratic Rally, Minister of Transport from 2006 to 2013. In April 2015 the interim legislature passed an electoral code banning any MPs who supported the constitutional amendment to scrap term limits from contesting the elections; the reform of the electoral code was adopted by the transitional parliament on 7 April and signed by President Kafando on 10 April. In protest, the former ruling CDP and its allies announced on 10 April 2015 that they were suspending participation in the National Transition Council and the National Commission for Reconciliation and Reforms, saying the new electoral code was a means of political exclusion.
On 13 July 2015, the ECOWAS Court of Justice ruled against the exclusionary law. According to the court, preventing people from contesting the elections on the basis of a political stance was "a violation of their fundamental human rights". On 16 July 2015 President Kafando confirmed. However, on the same day the transitional government charged Blaise Compaoré with "high treason" over his bid to change the constitution and run for a third term. In addition to these charges against Compaoré, the transitional parliament brought murder and assault charges against all government officials who approved of his bid to stay on; the sudden charges were criticized by some, as they were perceived as a new manoeuvre from the transitional government to exclude all serious candidates from running in the upcoming elections. It reasserted the suspicions of partiality and instrumentalisation that surround the transitional government. Compaoré supporters appealed to the Constitutional Council to annul the charges.
On 10 August, the court ruled that it lacked the authority to decide whether the charges should be annulled.22 people submitted applications to stand as presidential candidates by the deadline at midnight on 21 August 2015. The list included politicians who had served under Compaoré, such as Djibril Bassolé, as well as politicians who had opposed him, such as Bénéwendé Sankara and Zéphirin Diabré. Despite the ECOWAS ruling against the exclusionary law, the Constitutional Council ruled on 25 August that the law had never been overturned by the authorities in Burkina Faso and therefore remained in effect. Accordingly, it barred 42 prospective candidates who had supported changing the constitution from standing as parliamentary candidates, including CDP leader Eddie Komboïgo and ADF-RDA leader Gilbert Noel Ouedraogo. Outraged, the CDP vowed civil disobedience and an electoral boycott, arguing that the ruling was illegal and unconstitutional, that it denied the rights of citizens to participate in the political process and ignored the ECOWAS ruling.
Parties which had supported Compaoré promptly appealed to the Authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government. On 29 August 2015, the Constitutional Council announced that 16 of the 22 prospective candidates would be allowed to run; as with the parliamentary
2014 Burkinabé uprising
The Burkinabé uprising was a series of demonstrations and riots in Burkina Faso in October 2014 that spread to multiple cities. They began in response to attempts at changing the constitution to allow President Blaise Compaoré to run again and extend his 27 years in office. Pressure for political change came in particular from the country's youth. Following a tumultuous day on 30 October, which included the involvement of former Defence Minister Kouamé Lougué and the burning of the National Assembly and other government buildings as well as the ruling Congress for Democracy and Progress party's headquarters, Compaoré dissolved the government and declared a state of emergency before fleeing to Côte d'Ivoire with the support of President Alassane Ouattara. General Honoré Nabéré Traoré announced that a transitional government would run the country until an election within 12 months. After another day of mass protests and refusing to resign, after mounting domestic pressure Compaoré resigned from his 27-year presidency on 31 October and Traoré took over as the interim head of state.
However, Lieutenant Colonel Yacouba Isaac Zida staked a claim to be interim head of state citing Traoré's unpopularity. A statement by military chiefs asserted. A coalition of unnamed opposition parties rejected the military takeover. Further protests were called for the morning of 2 November, but were smaller yet there was at least one casualty amidst a police response; the African Union gave the country a fortnight to end military rule from 3 November. By mid-November, a framework was agreed upon unanimously for a transitional executive and legislative administration. Following an amendment in 2000, the constitution limits presidents to two terms of five years. However, the restrictions were not applied retroactively, allowing President Blaise Compaoré, in office since 1987, to run for a further two terms and be re-elected in 2005 and 2010. In regards to the 2015 presidential election, Compaoré tried to extend his 27 years in power by enacting a constitutional amendment to lift term limits; as a result, the opposition called for protests against the measure, sitting in parliament.
Some people suggested the move could "spark an uprising."The Burkinabé Spring called for change amid a stagnant economy and a non-responsive state, met with some concessions. The events magnified a divide, distrust, between the regular army and the special units, such as the Regiment of Presidential Security. Protests started in late October. Unnamed opposition called for a blockade of parliament. On 28 October, there were street battles during an anti-government rally by hundreds of thousands of demonstrators; the next day, banks and markets reopened. Movement of People for Progress member Pargui Emile Paré said that "one thing is certain: we'll march on the parliament." On 29 October, a mass rally accompanied by street battles took place against a "constitutional coup" involving hundreds of thousands of people. The most serious events occurred on 30 October with the gathering of tens of thousands of people. Protesters compared Compaoré to the Ebola virus amidst the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak.
Police used tear gas to deter the demonstrators, yet they broke through police lines to torch government buildings, including the city hall building, the ruling Congress for Democracy and Progress party's headquarters. The crowd headed to the presidential palace, while the military fired rubber bullets at about 1,500 people storming the National Assembly of Burkina Faso. Protesters burnt documents and stole computer equipment, while cars outside the building were set ablaze. Parts of the parliament building were on fire, including the Speaker Soungalo Ouattara's office, but the main chamber was untouched; the presidential guard fired on civilians charging into the home of the President's brother, François Compaoré, leading to at least three deaths. The state broadcaster RTB's building for its radio unit, Maison de la Radio, television were stormed. At the television unit's building, protesters posed on the set of the evening news programme, while soldiers were deployed outside the Maison de la Radio with an armored personnel carrier to defend it from the crowd.
Five people were reported killed during the day. Some soldiers, including former Defence Minister General Kouamé Lougué, joined the protests. Unnamed opposition activists claimed; the BBC reported that in an area where MPs live two houses were burning and smoke was billowing from two or three more, while Hotel Azalai was on fire. State-television was off-air, while the 3G network and SMS services were blocked, but internet access and telephones were available. Violent protests occurred in the country's second largest city Bobo-Dioulasso, including the toppling of statues and the local CDP headquarters, in Ouahigouya, in the north. Ouagadougou airport was closed and all arriving and departing flights were canceled until further notice. Many MPs fled to an unnamed nearby hotel. Opposition MP Ablasse Ouedraogo said: "I was inside. I was put in secure place by security people of the parliament. Now it is difficult to say what happens next but things are out of control because the demonstrators do not listen to anyone."
General Honoré Nabéré Traoré imposed a night curfew. Following Diabré's call, the next day, protesters gathered at Ouagadougou's central Place de la Nation and outside the army headquarters amidst reports of a tense standoff at the latter with chants of "fulfill your responsibilities or we will do so ourselves." By the end of the day Compaoré had resigned and, though there
Maurice Yaméogo was the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, from 1959 until 1966. "Monsieur Maurice" embodied the Voltaic state at the moment of independence. However, his political ascension did not occur without difficulties; as a member of the colonial administration from 1946, Maurice Yaméogo found a place for himself in the busy political landscape of Upper Volta thanks to his skill as a speaker. In May 1957, during the formation of the first Upper Voltaic government instituted under the Loi Cadre Defferre, he joined the coalition government formed by Ouezzin Coulibaly, as minister for agriculture and a member of the Voltaic Democratic Movement. In January 1958, threatened by a vote of censure, Coulibaly enticed Maurice Yaméogo and his allies in the assembly to join the Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Assembly in exchange for promises of promotion within the government. Maurice Yaméogo rose to be his second in command, with the portfolio of the Interior, a position which allowed him to assume the role of interim head of government, following Coulibay's death in September 1958.
His rather shaky political ascendancy was reinforced by circumstances. After the proclamation of the Republic of Upper Volta on 11 December 1958, he made a surprising volte-face with respect to the Mali Federation advocated by Léopold Sédar Senghor; the Voltaic assembly supported Upper Volta's membership in the Federation, but Yaméogo opted for political sovereignty and limited economic integration with the Conseil de l'Entente. By means of controversial manoeuvres, Yaméogo eliminated all parliamentary opposition; the UDV-RDA was purged of his enemies and he imposed a one party system. Upper Volta found itself under a dictatorship before its independence on 5 August 1960. In foreign policy, Yaméogo envied and admired the international success of his Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the President of Côte d'Ivoire, who defied the anti-communists by establishing an ephemeral customs union with the "progressivist" Ghana of Kwame Nkrumah. Houphouët-Boigny remained his closest ally and in December 1965, Yaméogo signed an agreement with him to extend dual nationality to citizens of both countries.
However, this project did not reach fruition. On 3 January 1966, as a result of severe financial austerity measures, Yaméogo's corrupt regime was overthrown by a peaceful protest organised by the unions, traditional chieftains and the clergy. In 1993, he died after having been rehabilitated by President Blaise Compaoré. According to his official biography, Maurice Yaméogo was born on 31 December 1921 at Koudougou, a town 98 km west of Ouagadougou, along with his twin sister Wamanegdo, he was the son of Mossi peasants, whom he described as a "heathen family given to a whole mob of superstitions." They gave him the name Naoua Laguemba which means "he comes to unite them.". From a young age, Naoua Laguemba was interested in Christianity; this inclination resulted in a great deal of bullying from his family. It is reported that the young Yaméogo received an emergency baptism on 28 July 1929, a year before schedule, after being struck by lightning; the priest Van der Shaegue who performed the baptism gave him Maurice as a patron saint.
His mother died three days supposedly from the shock. After these events, he adopted the name Maurice Yaméogo, intending to become a priest. After spending a few years at school in his village, Maurice Yaméogo was admitted to the Minor Seminary of Pabré. On 5 September 1934, he left his family to pursue his studies. Pabré was one of the most prestigious institutions in the country; as a result, he met many of the rising stars of Upper Volta, such as Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Joseph Ouédraogo, Pierre Tapsoba, with whom he formed a close friendship. But his relationships strayed far from the ecclesiastical standard. Yaméogo wanted to be a priest, but he was keen on women and parties. In 1939, he left the Minor Seminary of Pabré, without graduating. Despite failing to graduate, Yaméogo's education allowed him to gain a public role as a shipping clerk for the French Colonial Administration; this prestigious post meant success and prestige. In this period he increased his involvement with women, he became enamoured of a mixed-race woman, Thérèse Larbat, whose father refused to allow him to marry her because he was an African and was not "civilised enough" to maintain her well-being.
Yaméogo was offended by this, but he resigned himself to marrying an educated woman from Koudougou, Félicité Zagré. Together they presented themselves as the "evolved" couple of Koudougou. In 1940, as part of the World War II war effort, Yaméogo was sent to Abidjan in lower Côte d'Ivoire, a paradise for "evolved" Africans. Regular parties were held there in, he sought among other things to make many friends among the "evolved" non-Voltaic people. In Abidjan Yaméogo was shocked by the fact that some Voltaic businessmen were illegally trafficking workers in order to supply huge plantations with workers. In Upper Volta, Maurice worked as a clerk for the Administrative and Finance Services of the French Colonial Administration. For this purpose, he was appointed in towns like Koudougou. Yaméogo was appointed the head of the CFTC syndicate of his corporation, vice-president of CFTC Upper-Volta. On his return to his native town after the war
Independence is a condition of a person, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory. Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, has been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. In general, revolutions aim only to redistribute power with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization within a state, which as such may remain unaltered. For example, the Mexican Revolution chiefly refers to a multi-factional conflict that led to a new constitution. However, some wars of independence have been described as revolutions, such as the ones in the United States and Indonesia, while some revolutions that were about a change in the political structure have resulted in breakaway states. Mongolia and Finland, for example, gained their independence during the revolutions occurring in China and Russia respectively.
Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many, but most can be summed up as a feeling of inequality compared to the dominant power. The means can extend from peaceful demonstrations like in the case of India, to a violent war like in the case of Algeria. Autonomy refers to a kind of independence, granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory. A protectorate refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region. Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence. Declaring independence and attaining it however, are quite different. A well-known successful example is the U. S. Declaration of Independence issued in 1776; the dates of established independence, are celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day. There have been three major periods of declaring independence: from the 1770s, beginning with the American Revolutionary War through the 1830s, when the last royalist bastions fell at the close of the Spanish American wars of independence.
Independence constitution Independence referendum List of national independence days List of sovereign states by date of formation Lists of active separatist movements Secession Special Committee on Decolonization War of Independence Unilateral declaration of independence United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories