A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion. A party will feature food and beverages, music and dancing or other forms of entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine, or distilled spirits; some parties are held in honor of a specific person, day, or event, such as a birthday party, a Super Bowl party, or a St. Patrick’s Day party. Parties of this kind are called celebrations. A party is not a private occasion. Public parties are sometimes held in restaurants, beer gardens, nightclubs or bars, people attending such parties may be charged an admission fee by the host. Large parties in public streets may celebrate events such as Mardi Gras or the signing of a peace treaty ending a long war. A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person, being honored.
The tradition started in the mid-nineteenth century but did not become popular until the mid-twentieth century. Birthday parties are now a feature of many cultures. In Western cultures, birthday parties include a number of common rituals; the guests may be asked to bring a gift for the honored person. Party locations are decorated with colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. A birthday cake is served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a "birthday wish" has been made; the person being honored will be given the first piece of cake. While the birthday cake is being brought to the table, the song "Happy Birthday to You" or some other birthday song is sung by the guests. At parties for children, time is taken for the "gift opening" wherein the individual whose birthday is celebrated opens each of the gifts brought, it is common at children's parties for the host to give parting gifts to the attendees in the form of "goodie bags". Children and adults sometimes wear colorful cone-shaped party hats.
Birthday parties are larger and more extravagant if they celebrate someone who has reached what is regarded in the culture as a milestone age, such as transition from childhood to adulthood. Examples of traditional coming of age celebrations include the North American sweet sixteen party and the Latin American quinceañera. A surprise party is a party, not made known beforehand to the person in whose honor it is being held. Birthday surprise parties are the most common kind of surprise party. At most such parties, the guests will arrive an hour or so before the honored person arrives. A friend in on the surprise will lead the honored person to the location of the party without letting on anything; the guests might conceal themselves from view, when the honored person enters the room, they leap from hiding and all shout, "Surprise!" For some surprise birthday parties, it is considered to be a good tactic to shock the honored person. Streamers, silly string, balloons may be used for this purpose.
Evidence of a party, such as decorations and balloons, are not made visible from the exterior of the home, so that the person honored will suspect nothing. A dinner party is a social gathering at which people eat dinner together in the host's home. At the most formal dinner parties, the dinner is served on a dining table with place settings. Dinner parties are preceded by a cocktail hour in a living room or bar, where guests drink cocktails while mingling and conversing. Wine is served throughout the meal with a different wine accompanying each course. At less formal dinner parties, a buffet is provided. Guests eat while standing up and conversing. Women guests may wear cocktail dresses. At some informal dinner parties, the host may ask guests to bring food or beverages. A party of this type is called a potluck dinner. In the United States, potlucks are often held in churches and community centers. A garden party is a party in a garden. An event described as a garden party is more formal than other outdoor gatherings, which may be called parties, barbecues, etc.
A garden party can be a prestigious event. For example, invitations by the British Sovereign to garden parties at Buckingham Palace are considered an honor; the President of France holds a garden party at the Palais de l'Elysée in Paris on Bastille Day. A cocktail party is a party, it is sometimes called a "cocktail reception". Women who attend a cocktail party may wear a cocktail dress. A cocktail hat is sometimes worn as a fashion statement. In Anglo-American culture, a tea party is a formal gathering for afternoon tea; these parties were traditionally attended only by women, but men may be invited. Tea parties are characterized by the use of prestigious tableware, such as bone china and silver; the table, whatever its size or cost, is made to look its prettiest, with cloth napkins and matching cups and plates. In addition to tea, larger parties may serve punch or, in cold weather, hot chocolate; the tea is accompanied by a variety of managed foods. Thin sandwiches such as cucumber or tomato, cake slices and cookies are all common choices.
Formal receptions are parties that are designed to receive a large number of guests at prestigious venues such as Buckingham Palace, the White House or Government Houses of the British Empire and Commonwealth. The hosts and any guests of honor form a receiving line in order of precedence near the entrance; each guest is announced to the host who greets each one in turn as she arrives. Each guest properly speak
Repeal of Prohibition in the United States
The repeal of Prohibition in the United States was accomplished with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933. In 1919, the requisite number of state legislatures ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, enabling national prohibition one year later. Many women, notably members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, were pivotal in bringing about national Prohibition in the United States, believing it would protect families and children from the effects of alcohol abuse. Around 1820, "the typical adult white American male consumed nearly a half pint of whiskey a day". Historian W. J. Rorabaugh, writing on the factors that brought about the start of the temperance movement, Prohibition in the United States, states: As whiskey consumption rose after the American Revolution, it attracted attention. Medical doctors were among the first to notice the increase. More patients were having the shakes from involuntary withdrawal from alcohol, delirium tremens nightmares and psychoses were on the rise, solo drinking of massive quantities in binges that ended with the drinker passing out became the new drinking pattern.
Doctors such as Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and onetime chief physician of the Continental Army, who had first warned against the overuse of whiskey and other distilled spirits during the Revolution, became alarmed. Experts recognized that over time, drinkers needed to increase their use of alcohol to gain the same sense of euphoric satisfaction from drinking. Down that road was chronic drunkenness or what would be called alcoholism. Medical schools included warnings to students, but most physicians in the early 1800s believed that alcohol was an important medicine. Physicians favored laudanum, opium dissolved in alcohol. Laudanum miraculously ended the craving for alcohol. Children's nurses used laudanum to quiet babies. To Rush, the issue was not just about health, he published many newspaper pamphlets hostile to distilled spirits. His best known work, An Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors, went through at least twenty-one editions and had sold 170,000 copies by 1850.
The Philadelphia doctor argued that democracy would be perverted and destroyed if voters were drunken sots. Public safety in a republic required an electorate capable of wise judgment about political matters. Drunkenness made for bad voters. Rush and others worried about how distilled spirits damaged society in terms of crime and family violence. Many serious crimes, including murder, were committed under the influence of alcohol; the unemployed or unemployable drunkard abandoned his family s that the wife and children sometimes faced starvation while the husband and father debauched himself. Liquor use was associated with gambling and prostitution, which brought financial ruin and sexually transmitted diseases. Drunkenness led to wife beating and child abuse. To many Americans, it appeared that the United States could not be a successful republic unless alcoholic passions were curbed; the proponents of National Prohibition believed that banning alcoholic beverages would reduce or eliminate many social problems drunkenness, domestic violence, mental illness, secondary poverty.
Some scholarly literature regarding the effect of prohibition has held that popular claim that prohibition was a failure is false. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkennness, rates of absenteeism. Mark H. Moore, a professor at Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, with respect to the effects of prohibition: Alcohol consumption declined during Prohibition. Cirrhosis death rates for men were 29.5 per 100,000 in 1911 and 10.7 in 1929. Admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis declined from 10.1 per 100,000 in 1919 to 4.7 in 1928. Arrests for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct declined 50 percent between 1916 and 1922. For the population as a whole, the best estimates are that consumption of alcohol declined by 30 percent to 50 percent. "rates for cirrhosis of the liver fell by 50 percent early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933."
Moore found that contrary to popular opinion, "violent crime did not increase during Prohibition" and that organized crime "existed before and after" Prohibition. The historian Jack S. Blocker Jr. stated that "Death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism, alcoholic psychosis hospital admissions, drunkenness arrests all declined steeply during the latter years of the 1910s, when both the cultural and the legal climate were inhospitable to drink, in the early years after National Prohibition went into effect." In addition, "once Prohibition became the law of the land, many citizens decided to obey it". During the Prohibition era, rates of absenteeism decreased from 10% to 3%. In Michigan, the Ford Motor Company documented "a decrease in absenteeism from 2,620 in April 1918 to 1,628 in May 1918." Journalist H. L. Mencken, writing in 1925, believed the opposite to be true:Five years of Prohibition have had, at least, this one benign effect: they have disposed of all the favorite arguments of the Prohibitionists.
None of the great boons and usufructs that were to follow the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment has come to pass. There is not more. There is not more. There is not more; the cost of government is not vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but diminishe
Joseph H. Choate Jr.
Joseph H. Choate Jr. chaired the Voluntary Committee of Lawyers, a group established in 1927 that promoted the repeal of prohibition. Upon repeal in 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt named Choate the first head of the Federal Alcohol Control Administration, he married Cora Oliver, daughter of General Robert Shaw Oliver in 1903. They had four children, he died in 1968. He graduated from Harvard Law School. One of Choate's famous quotes was "You cannot live without lawyers, you cannot die without them."
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Henry Bourne Joy
Henry Bourne Joy was President of the Packard Motor Car Company, a major developer of automotive activities as well as being a social activist. In 1913, Joy and Carl G. Fisher were driving forces as principal organizers of the Lincoln Highway Association, a group dedicated to building a concrete road from New York to San Francisco. After the first several years, Fisher had become more involved with the Dixie Highway, but Joy remained dedicated to the Lincoln Highway. Naming it after former U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was one of the moves Joy led, his Lincoln Highway project was completed in his lifetime, despite lack of financial support by automotive leaders such as Henry Ford. Joy was a prominent figure on both sides of prohibition during that turbulent era. Henry Joy was born in Detroit in the son of Michigan Central Railroad president James F. Joy. James Joy was involved with the great railroad push to Missouri, hired Abraham Lincoln to assist him with mergers. Henry Joy began his schooling in Michigan graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover in 1883 and Yale University in 1892.
Joy began his career as an office boy with Peninsular Car Company, working his way up to becoming assistant treasurer. He left to try his hand at mining in Utah, but returned to Detroit to become treasurer of the Fort Street Union Depot Company. Joy held various positions at the Detroit Union Railroad Station and Depot Company, becoming president after his father's death in 1896, he was treasurer and director of the Peninsular Sugar Refining Company. During the Spanish–American War, Joy served aboard the auxiliary cruiser USS Yosemite as chief boatswain's mate. During World War I, Joy served in the US Army Signal Corps, entering as a captain and leaving as a lieutenant colonel. In 1902, on a trip to New York City, Joy happened to see two Packards chase down a horse-drawn fire wagon. Intrigued, Joy bought the only Packard available in the city. Joy loved the car, impressed by its reliability, he visited James Ward Packard at his Warren, Ohio headquarters. Packard told his brother William Dowd Packard needed more capital.
Joy enlisted a group of investors that included Truman Handy Newberry. On October 2, 1902, the Ohio Automobile Company became Packard Motor Car Company, with Joy's investors obtaining majority ownership; the company moved to Detroit, where Joy engaged Albert Kahn a young architect with novel ideas, to design and build the world’s first reinforced concrete factory on East Grand Boulevard. The company prospered under Joy's leadership. During this time, Packard gained a reputation for luxury. Joy steered Packard into innovative motor truck developments, the creation of a V-12 engine. Joy began investigating airplane engines with Packard engineers, a research program that culminated in the renowned Liberty Motor. Joy's interest in aviation led the company to continue developing aircraft for use in World War I combat in Europe. Packard acquired a large tract of land on Lake St. Clair, near Mt. Clemens, Michigan at the behest of Joy, who wanted a place to test the airplanes with the Liberty engines.
The air field was at first named Joy Aviation Field and assisted the government with manufacturing and testing aircraft. After World War I the government acquired the field, renaming it Selfridge Air Base, for Thomas Selfridge, the first person killed in an airplane; the street leading to Selfridge is still called Joy Road. Henry Joy served at Packard until 1926, his belief that the national prohibition of alcohol would lead to a safer and better society led him to be active in the Anti-Saloon League. However, after the social experiment was implemented he saw first-hand some of its negative consequences. For example, Treasury agents twice came onto his land and destroyed the property of his elderly watchman looking for illegal alcohol. A fisherman boating near Joy's house was fatally shot by an agent because he couldn't hear over the noise of his motor the demand of the agent that he stop and be searched for contraband beverage. Joy's testimony to the United States Congress contributed to the success of the movement for the repeal of prohibition in 1933.
In 1913, Joy became one of the principal organizers and president of the Lincoln Highway Association, a group dedicated to building a concrete road from New York to San Francisco. The effort, promoted by his vice president, Carl Graham Fisher, a monument to Joy along the Lincoln Highway at the Continental Divide was dedicated on July 2, 1939. In 2001, this monument was moved to a more accessible location west of Wyoming. Joy is directly descended from Thomas Joy and builder of America's first seat of government, Boston's Town House. In 1892, Joy married Helen Hall Newberry. Helen's father was U. S. Congressman John Stoughton Newberry. Kyvig, David Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979. Moore, Charles History of Michigan The Lewis Publishing Co, 1915. Pp 652-653. Ingham, John M. Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders Greenwood Press 1983. Pp 685-688 Barnett LeRoy A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan Wayne State University Press 1983 pp 122-123 Lincoln Highway Association Automotive Hall of Fame Henry Borne Joy at Find a Grave Vance R. Becker.
Walker, Paul, ed. "Pulling at Thin Threads (Tracking Joy