West Virginia Republican Party
The West Virginia Republican Party is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in West Virginia. In 2018, Melody Potter was elected as state chairwoman to fill the unexpired term of Conrad Lucas, who resigned to run for office; the state party platform is similar to the national platform in that the party fervently supports the coal industry against Environmental Protection Agency, supports a patient's right to choose medical care in lieu of the Affordable Care Act mandates, the right to bear arms, advocates the parents' right to choose their child's education, upholds traditional marriage, the right to life. The party favors the elimination of personal property tax on machinery, it favors reducing corporate net tax to the 6 % national average. It favors the Fair Tax Act; the Republican Party arose in 1854. The Democratic Party was an advocate of slavery and the Republican Party opposed it. There was a lot of turmoil in Virginia with the rise of the Republican Party; when the Civil War reached Western Virginia, there was a rise in violence against those who opposed slavery.
In May 1861, people traveled to Virginia to vote on secession of the state. Many Republicans had to leave the city because of the threats; those who fled and others who lived in Western Virginia went to Wheeling to create their own government and began creating a new state, in which they were successful. The Civil War helped the Republican Party gain recognition in the state; the Civil War in West Virginia split families apart. The Boggs family lived in Pendleton County and one son was the head of the Confederate County Court while another son was the head of the Union Home guards in the north. Today, the northern party of Pendleton County is still Republican. Republicans in Hampshire and Hardy counties left after the war to form Mineral and Grant counties, which are still Republican. Republicans held the control in the state until the 1870s and the Confederates began voting and holding offices. In the 1870s, the party was so weak. Major Nathan Goff Jr. restructured the party. He was able to get the party to raise voters and recruit leaders.
He led the party until the 1880s. He won; the Republicans were the dominant party until the Great Depression. Since the Depression, Democrats have controlled the state. Arch Moore Jr. was elected the Republican governor in the 1960s. In 1985, Moore helped raise money and supervised recovery efforts for the flood of 1985; the state voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004. Betty Ireland was elected as Secretary of State in 2004. In the 2014 elections, the West Virginia Republican Party made major gains in West Virginia, capturing one of its two Senate seats, all of its congressional House seats for the first time since 1921, gained control of both the West Virginia House of Delegates and the West Virginia Senate for the first time in 80 years. In the 2016 elections, the Republicans held on to their seats and made gains in the State Senate and gained three statewide offices. In March 2019, the West Virginia GOP was embroiled in national controversy when a poster linking Democratic Rep. Ilhan Omar, a Muslim member of Congress, to the 9/11 attacks was displayed at the state capitol.
The West Virginia Republican Party holds all three of the state's three U. S. House seats. Incumbent governor Jim Justice, elected as a Democrat in 2016, switched to the Republican Party in August 2017. StateGovernor: Jim Justice Attorney General: Patrick Morrisey Supreme Court Justice: Beth Walker Supreme Court Justice: Allen LoughryState LegislaturePresident of the Senate/Lt. Governor: Mitch Carmichael Senate Majority Leader: Ryan Ferns Speaker of the House: Tim Armstead House Majority Leader: Daryl CowlesFederalU. S. Senate Shelley Moore Capito U. S. House of Representatives David McKinley, 1st District Alex Mooney, 2nd District Carol Miller, 3rd District WVGOP Officers: Melody Potter, Chairwoman Roger Hanshaw, Associate Chairman Kris Warner, National Committeeman Michelle Wilshere, Treasurer Shirley Searls, Secretary Mark Carter, General Counsel Greg Smith, Vice Chairman, North Karen McCoy, Vice chairman, South Kevin Poe, Vice Chairman, 1st Congressional Paul Hartling, Vice Chairman, 2nd Congressional Marshall Mann, Vice Chairman, 3rd Congressional Pam Krushansky, At Large, 1st Congressional Jean Jacobs, At Large, 2nd Congressional Julia Long, At Large, 3rd Congressional Marty Sheehan, At Large, Statewide Lewis Rexroad, At Large, Statewide Sarah Minear, At Large, Statewide Karen S. Evans, WV Federation of Republican Women Syed R. Akhtar, WV Federation of College Republicans Dusty Hoylman, WV Federation of Young Republicans West Virginia Republican Party website
Republican Party of Florida
The Republican Party of Florida is the official organization for Republicans in the state of Florida. Several of Florida's governors and U. S. senators were Republican after the Civil War during the Reconstruction era. Afterwards, Florida's state politics were dominated by Democrats until Richard Nixon's Southern Strategy, which took advantage of white objections to the advances of the American Civil Rights Movement resulted in a regional political realignment for the south. In 1967, Claude R. Kirk, Jr. was the first Republican governor elected in the state since the 19th century reconstruction era. And after Nixon's victory in 1968, the state only voted Democratic in presidential elections in 1976 1996, 2008 and 2012; the presidential election in 2000 was decided by a margin of 537 votes out of 6 million cast, giving George W. Bush the presidency over Al Gore; the Florida Senate was still dominated by Democrats until 1992, when a majority of Republicans was elected. The Florida House of Representatives turned Republican after the November 1996 election.
Since the number of Democrats in both chambers have continued to drop. The Florida Legislature became the first legislature in any of the states of the former confederacy to come under complete Republican control when the Republicans gained control of the House and Senate in the 1996 election. However, in the 2006 election the Democrats gained seats in the State House, the first instance of this occurring since the early 1980s; the most Republican region of the state is the northern third, which contains the large cities of Pensacola and Jacksonville. The Tampa Bay region is Democratic, although it has become much more competitive in recent electoral cycles. While North Florida and the Panhandle have voted Democratic at the local level, both are solid Republican strongholds in presidential elections. In the 2014 election, the Republican nominee for Governor was Governor of Florida Rick Scott, he defeated the Democratic nominee, the Former Governor of Florida, Charlie Crist, once elected as a Republican.
The current Chairman of the Republican Party of Florida is Joe Gruters, a newly elected member to the Florida Senate, elected by RPOF members in January 2019. The Republican National Committee is responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities, it is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Senator Mel Martinez of Florida is the Republican Party's former General Chairman. Ronna McDaniel is the current Chairman of RNC; the chairman of the RNC is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the Party's state committees. The RNC, under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, supervises the Republican National Convention, raises funds, coordinates campaign strategy. On the local level there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body.
The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fund strategy committees. The National Republican Congressional Committee assists in House races, the National Republican Senatorial Committee in Senate races, they each raise over $100 million per election cycle, play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates. The Republican Governors Association is a discussion group that funds state races; the membership of the Republican Party is made up of fiscal conservatives, social conservatives and members of the Religious Right. The Republican Party is strong on defense and the more conservative and economically libertarian of the two major parties in the state of Florida; the party supports lower taxes and limited government in some economic areas, although it does support government intervention in other areas. Republicans favor free-market policies supporting business, economic liberalism, limited regulation as the best means of fostering economic prosperity; as such, most Republicans tend to ascribe to Reaganomics, an economic theory, popularized by Ronald Reagan which holds that reduced income tax rates increase GDP growth and thereby generate more revenue for the government from the taxes on the extra growth.
"A rising tide raises all boats". Opposition to the increases in the minimum wage stems from counterproduction on the economy- minimum wage increases unemployment and discourages business. While Republicans believe that the private sector is more effective in helping the poor than government, they nonetheless agree that there should be a "safety net" to assist the less fortunate. Rather than involve the government in the distribution of aid, many Republicans support giving government grants to faith-based and other private charitable organizations to supplant welfare spending. Additionally, most Republicans believe that limits on eligibility and benefits must be in place to ensure the safety net is not abused. Republicans are opposed to a single-payer universal health care system, such as that found in Canada or in most of Europe, sometimes referring to it as "socialized medicine" and are in favor of the current personal or employer based system of insurance, supplemented by Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid, which covers 40% of the poor.
Republicans are opposed by labor unions and have supported various legislation on the state and federal levels, including right-to-work legislation and the Taft-Hartley Act which gives workers the right not to participate in unions, as opposed to a closed shop which prohibits workers
Alaska Republican Party
The Alaska Republican Party is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Alaska, headquartered in Anchorage. It is the majority party in Alaska; as of 2015, Republicans hold both of Alaska's seats in the United States Senate, Alaska's single seat in the United States House of Representatives. They hold majorities in both houses of the state legislature; the Alaska Republican Party has greatly helped GOP presidential candidates in the state and has transformed the Last Frontier into one of the most staunchly Republican states in the nation. For instance, Republican John McCain won Alaska in 2008 with 59.42% of the total statewide vote over Democrat Barack Obama who received 37.89%, a 21.53-percent margin of victory for the senior U. S. Senator from Arizona. All Republican presidential nominees have won Alaska in recent elections; the Alaska Republican Party originates from Alaska's first district governor. Once Alaska was granted the status of United States District civilian leadership could be appointed by the current president of the United States.
President Chester A. Arthur appointed Alaska's first territorial governor, he was a Republican named John Henry Kinkead. Alaska Republicans as a party organization can trace their origin to Alaska's first legislature in 1913. Randy Ruedrich, former Deputy Chair of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission for Petroleum Engineering, served as the long-time Chairman of the Alaska Republican Party, serving from June 2000 to 2013. Ruedrich served as Deputy Treasurer from 2013 to 2016. Tuckerman Babcock succeeded Peter Goldberg as Chairman on April 30, 2016. Lisa Murkowski Dan Sullivan AK-At-Large: Don Young Senate President: Kevin Meyer Senate Majority Leader: John Coghill Majority Leader: Charisse Millett Sarah Palin is one of Alaska's most recognizable Republicans, she was elected governor in 2006 and was John McCain's running-mate in the 2008 Presidential Election. Political party strength in Alaska Alaska Republican Party website Alaska Federation of Republican Women
Hawaii Republican Party
The Hawaii Republican Party is the state affiliate of the Republican Party of the United States. Based in Honolulu, the party is a central organization established for the promotion of the party platform as it is drafted in convention every other year, it is charged with registering voters and delivering voter turnout through four major county organizations for Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, the City and County of Honolulu. As a whole, Hawaiʻi Republicans advocate for limited government, lower taxes, decentralized control of public schools, improving the state's business climate. Republicans have been supportive of big business plans and commitments to assist companies in the state in competing against large businesses in other states, they usually support interstate and international commerce. For example, former Lieutenant Governor Duke Aiona has been a strong proponent of keeping the National Football League's Pro Bowl in Hawaii, former Governor Linda Lingle proposed tax reduction incentives to businesses to encourage creation of work opportunities, such as hotel renovations.
In the Reform Party, a pre-statehood group that after annexation was sympathetic toward the Republican Party, Lorrin Thurston was a strong supporter of the formation of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. In the 21st century, Governor Lingle proposed a Clean Energy Initiative to promote clean and renewable energy resources, with the goal of making the state 70% energy self-sustainable by 2030; the initiative plans to use solar, ocean and biomass as energy resources with a phased reduction in the use of fossil fuels. Despite the influence of the early missionaries and despite recent national trends, the Republican party in Hawaiʻi lost its Christian overtone over time. After annexation, Christians proselytized to new, incoming immigrants contracted to work on Hawaii's growing sugar industry; this was, in large part, brought on by Farrington v. Tokushige, a Supreme Court case brought by 100 Japanese and Chinese language schools, a number of which were Buddhist religious schools, against Republican Governor Wallace R. Farrington and the Republican government for passing laws limiting the material taught in private schools, including Buddhist philosophy.
The court found the laws unconstitutional and in violation of parents' Fifth Amendment right to choose the education of their children. Duke Aiona, a Republican, presented a proclamation to the president of the Junior Young Buddhist Association in 2004 and attended the 2010 lantern festival; the Party has been hesitant to associate itself with religion in general, with members citing the negative effects of the party's association with the Hawaii branch of the Christian Coalition formed by Pat Robertson in 1988. The Coalition swelled Republican membership by 50%, but gave rise to infighting. None Kurt Fevella Bob McDermott Lauren Matsumoto Cynthia Thielen Gene Ward Val Okimoto Green Party of Hawaii Democratic Party of Hawaii Andrade Jr. Ernest. Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880–1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-417-6. Chapin, Helen Geracimos. Shaping history: the role of newspapers in Hawai'i. Shaping history: the role of newspapers in Hawai'i. Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala.
A synopsis of Traditional Hawaiian Culture, the Events Leading to the 1887 Bayonet Constitution and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Government.. Laenui, Poka. East Wind, Vol. III, No. 1. East Wind, Vol. III, No. 1. Liliuokalani. Hawaii's Story. Tothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. Official website
Republican Party of Louisiana
The Republican Party of Louisiana is the U. S. state of Louisiana's organization of the national Republican Party. The state chairman is Louis Gurvich, a businessman from New Orleans, elected on February 24, 2018. Since the late 20th century, white conservatives in the states have shifted to the Republican Party from the Democratic Party; as of 2016, every statewide elected official in Louisiana, with the exception of the governor, is a Republican. The Republican Party of Louisiana was founded as the "Friends of Universal Suffrage" on November 4, 1865, by a group of whites, free men of color, newly emancipated freedmen led by Benjamin Flanders, he had been an Alderman of New Orleans from 1847 to 1852. Constitutional amendments after the American Civil War granted citizenship and suffrage to freedmen, most of whom affiliated with the Republican Party that had gained their freedom. Among the achievements of the biracial state legislature during the Reconstruction era was founding public education and some charitable institutions.
Threatened by black majorities in several areas and unhappy with the outcome of the war, white insurgents challenged voting by blacks, elections were disrupted by violence and fraud in the period of 1868 through the Reconstruction era. Chapters of the White League arose across the state in the 1874 as a white militia that worked for the Democratic Party to achieve the overthrow of the Reconstruction government. Notable extreme events of white violence against blacks in this period were the Colfax Massacre and the Coushatta Massacre. In addition, armed Democratic forces of the White League occupied New Orleans and took over state offices after the disputed gubernatorial election of 1872. In 1898 the Democratic-dominated Louisiana legislature followed Mississippi in passing a new constitution and laws with provisions that created barriers to voter registration and voting by blacks in the state, adversely affected many poor whites; these provisions included a poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clauses and similar requirements that were applied in a discriminatory manner against African Americans.
They were excluded from the political system for decades, depleting the Republican Party. The Democratic white-dominated state legislature passed racial segregation and other Jim Crow laws that enforced second-class status for African Americans. Disenfranchisement of African Americans kept the Republican Party hollowed out well into the 20th century. In the first part of the 20th century up to 1970, tens of thousands of blacks left Louisiana for northern and western states in the Great Migration, contributing to changes in demographics of some areas of the state; as leaders of the national Democratic Party had supported the civil rights movement, after African Americans regained the power to vote and re-entered politics, most affiliated with the Democratic Party. Since the late 20th century, the Republican Party in Louisiana and other southern states has had a resurgence fed by the movement of white conservatives from the Democratic Party to its ranks; this change was seen first in their voting for Republican presidential candidates, in states across the South.
Until the early 1950s, when blacks were still disenfranchised, no Republican won a single electoral vote in any Louisiana presidential election. But in 1956, the state supported national hero and Republican presidential candidate General Dwight David Eisenhower, admired for his leadership in World War II, his was the first of nine Republican presidential victories in the state among the 14 presidential campaigns from 1956 to 2008 inclusive. Since the 1990s, Louisiana's U. S. House delegation has overall had a Republican tilt, the number of Republicans elected to both houses of the Louisiana legislature has increased incrementally; as of 2009, Republicans had not had the majority in either the Louisiana House or state Senate since the Reconstruction era. The first Republicans elected to the state house in Louisiana in the 20th century were Morley A. Hudson and Taylor W. O'Hearn in 1964, the year that the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed; the next year the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed, ensuring that African Americans would again be able to exercise their constitutional right to vote in Louisiana and other states.
The first Republican elected to the State Senate in Louisiana in the 20th century was Edwards Barham in 1975. Although it was years before Republicans commanded a majority of the state house, they secured important leadership posts. A notable example is John Hainkel, the first person in U. S. history to have been elected by his peers in any state legislature as both Speaker of the House and as President of the Senate. David C. Treen was elected as governor in 1979. Charlton Lyons had made the first serious Republican gubernatorial campaign in 1964, when blacks were still disenfranchised, he drew a record 37.5 percent of the general white election vote. Drawing on increasing support in the state, Republicans have won the Louisiana governorship most of the time since Treen's election. In 2004 David Vitter, a U. S. representative, was elected as Louisiana's first Republican United States Senator since the Reconstruction era, disenfranchisement at the turn of the century, realignment of political parties in the state.
As of 2010 the Republican Party holds all of the statewide elected offices, which include Governor Bobby Jindal, Lieutenant Governor Jay Dardenne, Secretary of State Tom Schedler, State Treasurer John Neely Kennedy, Attorney General Buddy Caldwell, Commissioner of Agriculture & Forestry Mike Strain, Commissioner of Insurance J
Washington State Republican Party
The Washington State Republican Party is the state affiliate of the national United States Republican Party, headquartered in Bellevue. Washington voters tend to support Democratic Party candidates, with the New York Times referring to the state as "Democratopolis." The last Republican governor in Washington was John Spellman, who held office from 1981 to 1985. Republicans came closest to recapturing the state's chief executive office in 2004 when Democrat Christine Gregoire secured election by just 133 votes out of 2.8 million cast. The last time Washington gave its electoral votes to a Republican candidate for U. S. president was in 1984. The early history of the state saw firm electoral dominance by the Republican party. In 1889, Republicans prevailed in the first election for governor and scored majorities in both chambers of the inaugural state legislature. William Owen Bush, Washington's first African-American legislator, is credited with introducing the legislation that led to the establishment of Washington State University.
Elected as a Republican from Thurston County, Bush was known as a tireless promoter of Washington agriculture. Republican policies in the early period of statehood were advanced by the party-connected Seattle Post-Intelligencer and by the Seattle Republican. Founded by ex-slave Horace Cayton, the Seattle Republican would grow to become the second-largest newspaper in Seattle before it folded in 1917. "The success of the Republican Party is one of its highest ambitions," Cayton said of his publication. In 1922 Republican Reba Hurn of Spokane became the first woman elected to the Washington State Senate, serving from 1923 to 1930. Hurn advocated for conservative fiscal policies and was a supporter of prohibition, but otherwise espoused a liberal social agenda, helping to pass the state's first child labor laws. Charles Stokes became the first African-American elected to the state legislature from King County in 1950, he led the Republican party delegation to the 1952 Republican National Convention where he spoke in support of Dwight Eisenhower's presidential nomination and introduced the legislation that created Washington's Lottery.
After a period of declining fortunes, in 1964 Republican Dan Evans was elected governor at the age of 39, becoming the youngest person to hold the state's chief executive office. The architect of Evans' victory, C. Montgomery Johnson. Became the party's first full-time chairman. Johnson, a former forest ranger, publicist for Weyerhauser, early pro-choice advocate and champion of limited government, led a purge of John Birch Society members from the Washington Republican party, declaring afterward that "we had to make the term'conservative' respectable again; the only way to do it was to get the far right off the backs of conservatives. The Republican Party is not the far-right." In 1971 Johnson quit the party chairmanship to form a political consulting firm. With the warning that future tolerance of the John Birch Society would be "the instrument of Republican defeat - statewide and locally," party leaders elected Johnson's political ally, Earl Davenport, to replace him as party head; the election, the same year, of Republican Michael Ross from Seattle's 37th legislative district foreshadowed eventual changes in Washington state law.
The former treasurer of the Seattle chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality, Ross grabbed headlines when he introduced a bill to legalize marijuana. During a period of racial tensions at Rainier Beach High School, Ross commandeered a state vehicle and drove a contingent of armed Black Panthers to the school to protect African-American students. In 1973 Ross attempted an unsuccessful bid for Seattle City Council. One of his campaign volunteers in that contest was the Republican party's 2004 and 2008 gubernatorial nominee Dino Rossi; the Republican Revolution of 1994 helped party candidates score an unprecedented six of the state's nine seats in the U. S. House of Representatives. In Washington's 5th congressional district Republican George Nethercutt unseated Tom Foley, the incumbent Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Foley's defeat marked the first time a sitting Speaker had been defeated in a reelection in 132 years. Another Republican elevated to national office. Described by The Seattle Times as "the vestige of a certain place the Northwest used to be," Metcalf typified the unconventional characteristics for which Washington Republicans had been known.
One of the few Republicans in the late 1990s endorsed by organized labor, Metcalf blended fiscal conservatism with environmental advocacy, working with the anti-whaling group Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and sponsoring an abortive effort to require labeling of genetically modified foods. The Washington state Republican party has, in recent years, struggled with internal divisions between its historic core of social liberals and a strengthening contingent of religious conservatives; the party's 1996 gubernatorial candidate, paleoconservative Ellen Craswell, won the Republican nomination by only a slim margin before being soundly defeated in the general election by Democrat Gary Locke. Craswell would quit the party to help form the American Heritage Party. Concerns about increasing social conservatism in the party led state legislators Fred Jarrett and Rodney Tom to drop their Republican affiliation in the late 2000s and join the Democratic Party. In 2013, chair Susan Hutchison stoked controversy within the party when she implied a $20,000 difference in pay she was receiving between that of her male predecessor, Kirby Wilb
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa