A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms; as of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth. In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. Since new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics. There are 16 Commonwealth realms with a combined area of 18.7 million km2 and a population of 144 million, of which all but about two million live in the six most populous: the United Kingdom, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica.
The Commonwealth realms are, for purposes of sovereign states. They are united only in their voluntary connection with the institution of the monarchy, the succession, the Queen herself. Political scientist Peter Boyce called this grouping of countries associated in this manner, "an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations or constitutional law." Terms such as personal union, a form of personal union, shared monarchy, among others, have all been advanced as definitions since the beginning of the Commonwealth itself, though there has been no agreement on which term is most accurate, or whether personal union is applicable at all. Since the Balfour Declaration of 1926, the realms have been considered "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown." and the monarch is "equally and explicitly of separate, autonomous realms." Andrew Michie wrote in 1952 "Elizabeth II embodies in her own person many monarchies: she is Queen of Great Britain, but she is Queen of Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon... it is now possible for Elizabeth II to be, in practice as well as theory Queen in all her realms."
Still, Boyce holds the counter-opinion the crowns of all the non-British realms are "derivative, if not subordinate" to the crown of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom no longer possesses any legislative power over any country besides itself, although some countries continue to use, by their own volition, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as part of their own judiciary. Since each realm has the same person as its monarch, the diplomatic practice of exchanging ambassadors with letters of credence and recall from one head of state to another is redundant. Diplomatic relations between the Commonwealth realms are thus at a cabinet level only and high commissioners are exchanged between realms. A high commissioner's full title will thus be High Commissioner for Her Majesty's Government in. For certain ceremonies, the order of precedence for the realms' high commissioners or national flags is set according to the chronological order of, when the country became a Dominion and the date on which the country gained independence.
Conflicts of interest have arisen from this relationship amongst independent states, ranging from minor diplomatic matters—such as the monarch expressing on the advice of one of her cabinets views that counter those of another of her cabinets—to more serious conflicts regarding matters of armed conflict, wherein the monarch, as head of state of two different realms, may be at war and at peace with a third country, or at war with herself as head of two hostile nations. In such cases, viceroys have tended to avoid placing the sovereign directly in the centre of the conflict, meaning that a governor-general may have to take controversial actions on his or her own initiative through the exercise of the reserve powers. In recent years, advocates have argued for free movement of citizens among a subset of the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, which they argue "share the same head of state, the same native language, the same respect for the common law." Opinion on the prospect of the plan coming to fruition is mixed.
British Eurosceptics have expressed a preference for a relationship "similar in nature and goals to the EU" between the same four countries: the CANZUK Union without repeating the "mistakes of Europe"—though this possibility has been characterised as "difficult and in some ways far-fetched". Despite this, public opinion polling conducted by organisations such as CANZUK International and YouGov have indicated widespread support for free movement of goods and people across Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, with support for the proposals ranging from between 58–64% in the United Kingdom, 70–72% in Australia, 75–77% in Canada and 81–82% in New Zealand; the evolution of the Commonwealth realms has resulted in the Crown having both a shared and a separate character, with the one individual being mona
Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T
The Fijian dollar has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Fiji followed the pattern of South Africa and New Zealand in that when it adopted the decimal system, it decided to use the half pound unit as opposed to the pound unit of account; the choice of the name dollar was motivated by the fact that the reduced value of the new unit corresponded more to the value of the US dollar than it did to the pound sterling. The dollar was reintroduced on 15 January 1969, replacing the Fijian pound at a rate of 1 pound = 2 dollars, or 10 shillings = FJ$1. Despite Fiji having been a republic since 1987, coins and banknotes continued to feature Queen Elizabeth II until 2013, when her portrait was replaced with pictures of plants and animals. In 1969, coins were introduced in denominations of 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c & 20c, with a 50c coin issued in 1975.
The coins had the same sizes and compositions as the corresponding Australian coins, with the 50 cents matching the cupronickel dodecagonal type introduced in Australia in 1969. In 1990, new compositions were introduced, with copper-plated zinc used for the 1¢ and 2¢ coins, nickel-plated steel for the 5c, 10c, 20c & 50c. An aluminium-bronze $1 coin was introduced in 1995. 2009 saw the introduction of a new smaller coinage from 5 to 50 cents. These are made with the three-ply electroplate method; the 1 and 2 cents were discontinued and withdrawn the same year. A thinner brass plated steel $1 coin was introduced in 2010 phasing out the older type. In 2013 Fiji released a whole family of new coins, with fauna themes, without the Queen's portrait; this new series saw the introduction of a $2 coin, replacing the corresponding note just as the $1 coin had done before. This coin faced controversy due to being too mistaken as a $1, as it was only larger of the same color, it was replaced by a larger and thicker Spanish flower shaped $2 coin in 2014.
The metallic content of both the $1 and $2 was changed in 2014 for better durability and resistance to wear after widespread complaints of the coins corroding and "turning black". In 1867, the government treasury issued 1 dollar notes; these were followed by notes for $1, $5, $10, $25 and $50 issued between 1871 and 1873. Between 1871 and 1873, King Seru Epenisa Cakobau issued notes in denominations of 12½¢, 25¢, 50¢, 100¢ and $5. Levuka issued $1 and $5 notes during the 1870s. On 15 January 1969, the government introduced notes in denominations of 50 cents, $1, $2, $10, $20; the Central Monetary Authority took over the issuance of paper money in 1974, issuing the same denominations, although the 50c note was replaced by a coin on 3 March 1975. In 1986, the Reserve Bank of Fiji began issuing notes; the $1 note was replaced by a coin in 1995. The $50 note was introduced in 1996, followed by a $100 note on 10 April 2007. Banknote denominations in circulation as of 2017 are: $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100.
2000 2 Dollars - Millennium. 2000 2,000 Dollars - Millennium. 2017 7 Dollars - Victory of the Fijian 7s rugby team at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. On 16 August 2005, Finance Minister Ratu Jone Kubuabola announced that the Cabinet had approved the introduction of a $100 banknote and the withdrawal of the 1 and 2 cent coin, as the minting cost exceeded its face value. Kubuabola said that the $100 banknote would measure 156 × 67 mm, with the other banknotes receding at 5 mm towards the lowest banknote denomination; the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II would remain on all banknotes, he added in answer to calls from some politicians to remove the Queen's portrait from the currency after 18 years as a republic. Fiji is, however, a member of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth is recognized as Paramount Chief of the Great Council of Chiefs of Fiji, her portrait was updated to a more mature one, released in 2007, becoming the fourth portrait of the Queen to appear on Fijian currency. In 2009, the demonetization of the 1 and 2 cent coins was made official and a new coin set of 5, 10, 20, 50 cent coins with reduced size were introduced.
The old coins based on the Australian size standard were withdrawn from circulation. The reformed coins were introduced to save on production costs; the new 50 cent piece is round with reeded edges rather than twelve-sided. On 2 March 2011, it was announced that Fiji would drop Queen Elizabeth II from its coins and notes, instead opting for local flora and fauna; the removal was seen as retaliation for Fiji's suspension from its full membership of the Commonwealth. The new set, unveiled on 12 December 2012 and was issued on 2 January 2013; the new series of Fijian coins include a bi-metallic $2 coin intended to replace the note, a thinner, reduced weight $1 coin. The new series of Fijian dollar banknotes feature Fijian flora and fauna to replace the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. One change in the redesign of the Fijian dollar banknotes was the $5 note. Printed on paper, it is now issued as a polymer banknote; the Reserve Bank of Fiji Governor Savenaca Narube announced on 11 February 2006 that polymer plastic-coated notes would be introduced, featuring images of local people, culture and industry.
The new notes, which would be ready for distribution in early 2007, would vary in size, Narube said. A new series of notes, the "Flora and Fauna" design series, is being introduced starting in 2013 which will feature the country's endemic flora and fa
The Maldives the Republic of Maldives, are an Asian country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. The country lies southwest of Sri India, about 1,000 kilometres from the Asian continent; the chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning 298 square kilometres, the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed sovereign states as well as the smallest Asian country by land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and a populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location; the Maldives archipelago is located on the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos Archipelago and Lakshadweep. With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres above sea level, it is the world's lowest country, with its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 5.1 metres.
Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019. Islam was introduced to the Maldivian archipelago in the 12th century, consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid-16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis; the ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform, environmental challenges posed by climate change. The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy.
Fishing has been the dominant economic activity, remains the largest sector by far, followed by the growing tourism industry. Maldives is rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its per capita income higher than other SAARC nations; the Maldives was a Commonwealth republic from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights. The name "Maldives" may derive from මාල දිවයින in Sinhala; the Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu means "island", Dhives means "islanders"; the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa refers to an island called Mahiladiva in Pali, a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit word meaning "garland". Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives derives from the Sanskrit mālādvīpa, meaning "garland of islands". In Tamil, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Malai Theevu. In Malayalam, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maladweepu.
In Kannada, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maaledweepa. None of these names is mentioned in any literature, but classical Sanskrit texts dating back to the Vedic period mention the "Hundred Thousand Islands", a generic name which would include not only the Maldives, but the Laccadives, Aminidivi Islands and the Chagos island groups; some medieval travellers such as Ibn Battuta called the islands Mahal Dibiyat from the Arabic word mahal, which must be how the Berber traveller interpreted the local name, having been through Muslim North India, where Perso-Arabic words were introduced to the local vocabulary. This is the name inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem; the classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives is Dibajat. The Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden, while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and to "Maldives". Garcia da Orta writes in his conversational book first published in 1563 as follows: "I must tell you that I have heard it said that the natives do not call it Maldiva but Nalediva.
In the Malabar language nale means diva island. So that in that language the word signifies "four islands," while we, corrupting the name, call it Maldiva." The first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological artifacts. Their buildings were built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds. Comparative studies of Maldivian oral and cultural traditions and customs confirm that the first settlers were people from the southern shores of the neighboring Indian subcontinent, including the Giraavaru people mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé. A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry and religious beliefs.
Malabari seafaring culture led to
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory. Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique. Portuguese trading settlements and colonies, were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gama first reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques explored the area, now Maputo Bay in 1544, he settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, his work was followed by other Portuguese explorers and traders. Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the Mozambique Company, which had the concession of the lands corresponding to the present-day provinces of Manica and Sofala, the Niassa Company, which had controlled the lands of the modern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa.
In 1951 the colonies were combined into a single overseas province under the name Moçambique as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique. Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the "pluricontinental and multiracial nation" of Portugal. Portugal claimed, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture. Lisbon wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods. However, paid forced labour, to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head tax, was not abolished until the early 1960s. During its history as a Portuguese colony, the present-day territory of Mozambique had the following formal designations: 1501–1569: Captaincy of Sofala 1570–1676: Captaincy of Mozambique and Sofala 1676–1836: Captaincy-General of Mozambique and Rivers of Sofala 1836–1891: Province of Mozambique 1891–1893: State of Eastern Africa 1893–1926: Province of Mozambique 1926–1951: Colony of Mozambique 1951–1972: Province of Mozambique 1972–1975: State of Mozambique Until the 20th century the land and peoples of Mozambique were affected by the Europeans who came to its shores and entered its major rivers.
As the Muslim traders Swahili, were displaced from their coastal centres and routes to the interior by the Portuguese, migrations of Bantu peoples continued and tribal federations formed and reformed as the relative power of local chiefs changed. For four centuries the Portuguese presence was meagre. Coastal and river trading posts were built and built again. Governors sought personal profits to take back to Portugal, colonists were not attracted to the distant area with its unattractive climate. In Portugal, Mozambique was considered to be a vital part of a world empire. Periodic recognition of the relative insignificance of the revenues it could produce was tempered by the mystique which developed regarding the mission of the Portuguese to bring their civilization to the African territory, it was believed that through missionary activity and other direct contact between Africans and Europeans, the Africans could be taught to appreciate and participate in Portuguese culture. In the last decade of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, integration of Mozambique into the structure of the Portuguese nation was begun.
After all of the area of the present province had been recognized by other European powers as belonging to Portugal, pacification of the tribes of the interior was completed and the traditional holders of political power were subordinated to the Portuguese. Civil administration was established throughout the area, the building of an infrastructure was begun, agreements regarding the transit trade of Mozambique's land-locked neighbours to the west were made. Portugal never had a racist policy or sanctioned discrimination based on race, its concept of what it called a "multiracial society" envisaged complete racial integration, including intermarriage, as well as cultural adaptation. The determined position of the Portuguese as conquerors and governors of the Africans, resulted in barriers to the formation of this ideal; the fact that most Africans were not "cultivated" in the Portuguese sense, that many participated in what were considered by the Portuguese to be pagan beliefs and uncivilized behaviour, tended to create a low opinion of Africans as a group.
The uneducated Portuguese immigrant peasants in urban areas were in direct competition with Africans for jobs and demonstrated jealousies and prejudices with racial overtones. The society was divided into two peripherally interrelated sectors; the urban-based modern sector, comprising altogether between 2 and 2.5 percent of the population, consisting of Europeans but including a few thousand Europeanised Africans and Chinese, was dominant in the economic and social realms. Communication between this sector and the large majority of rural Africans was limited. Communication between members of the ten dif
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i