Scottish Funding Council
The Scottish Funding Council, referred to more formally as the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council, is the non-departmental public body charged with funding Scotland's further and higher education institutions, including its 25 colleges and 19 universities. The council was established by the Further and Higher Education Act 2005, it supersedes the two separate funding councils, the Scottish Further Education Funding Council and the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, which were established by the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. On its formation, the SFC acquired all assets of those councils; the SFEFC and SHEFC were defined by the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. The Act made further education institutions independent from local authorities, a side effect of, the shifting of funding responsibility from those authorities to the Scottish Office of HM Government; this Act formed a "higher education sector" in Scotland, transferring various powers and duties related to HE institutions to the funding councils.
The 1992 Act, paralleled by an Act applying only to England and Wales, was not brought into force immediately. Instead, the SHEFC was established by commencement order on 1 June 1992, the SFEFC was established by a further commencement order on 1 January 1999; as part of Scottish devolution under the Scotland Act 1998, powers and responsibilities related to the councils and education institutions were, in June 1999, transferred from the Scottish Office to the then-Scottish Executive. In April 2004, the Scottish Executive published a consultation paper requesting comment on a possible merger of the SFEFC and SHEFC; the paper cited concerns about the overlapping remits of the two councils – some FE institutions provided HE courses, but funding was allocated based on institution type and not on courses taught – and made the case that a single council would be able to fund collaboration between institutions to a greater degree than two separate councils. On 20 April 2005, the Scottish Parliament passed the Further and Higher Education 2005 Act.
The Act received royal assent on 1 June 2005. This Act established the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council, set out its role and functions, made provision for the dissolution of the SFEFC and SHEFC; the SFC's establishment was brought into force on 3 October 2005, the SFEFC and SHEFC were dissolved on 8 September 2005. The SFC was established as a non-departmental public body, meaning it operates with partial autonomy from the Scottish Ministers and may act in an advisory role; the council receives a letter of guidance from the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning each year. These letters detail the priorities and recommendations of the Scottish Ministers with regard to Scottish colleges and universities. Under schedule 1 of the 2005 Act, the SFC was transferred all staff and liabilities of the SFEFC and SHEFC merging the two councils; this schedule explicitly did not grant the SFC status as a Crown servant or agency, but some resources published by the SFC are still covered by Crown copyright and the Open Government Licence.
Schedule 2 of the Act identified "fundable bodies" – further and higher education bodies that are eligible for funding from the SFC – by listing those bodies covered separately by the SFEFC and SHEFC. Since the establishment of the SFC, this schedule has been amended numerous times to reflect the current state of eligibility for SFC funding; the Scottish Parliament passed, on 26 June 2013, the Post-16 Education Act 2013. The Act makes various provisions regarding the governance and review of FE and HE institutions; the Act defines regional strategic bodies, makes them fundable by the SFC. Before the introduction of this Act, the SFC had only funded HE institutions. A regional strategic body is a body corporate created under the Act to ensure that the colleges in its assigned region provide high-quality education and to make and oversee the carrying out of plans for its colleges to deliver further and higher education; the Act allows such bodies to provide grants, loans, or other payments to its colleges to fund the provision of further or higher education, to fund research by those colleges, to fund the provision of related facilities and services by those colleges.
Effective 1 April 2014, the Office for National Statistics reclassified Scotland's further education colleges to the public sector. The effects of this change were that funds held by the college would now count as the Scottish Government's funds, that college spending from its reserves would count towards annual budget limits, it meant that a college would only be permitted to maintain as much working capital as necessary for the college's operation. In addition to its main function of funding Scotland's HE and FE institutions, the SFC has other roles and carries out other tasks related to Scotland's education sectors. In Scotland and universities are registered charities. However, unlike its English counterpart HEFCE, the SFC does not act as the charities regulator for colleges and universities. Instead, this role is retained by the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator. OSCR and the SFC operate under a memorandum of understanding; the SFC provides advice to the Scottish Ministers relating to Scotland's FE sectors.
It provides advice regarding how education is being provided, regarding the research undertaken at HE and FE institutions funded by the SFC. The council is afforded the right to directly advise and a
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period one year. It may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities and expenses, assets and cash flows. Companies, governments and other organizations use it to express strategic plans of activities or events in measurable terms. A budget is the sum of money allocated for a particular purpose and the summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them, it may include a budget surplus, providing money for use at a future time, or a deficit in which expenses exceed income. A budget is a quantified financial plan for a forthcoming accounting period. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms. In summary, the purpose of budgeting tools: Tools provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures, that is, construct a model of how a business might perform financially if certain strategies and plans are carried out.
Tools enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast. Lastly, tools establish the cost constraint for program, or operation; the budget of a company is compiled annually, but may not be a finished budget requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future allows hundreds or thousands of people in various departments to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget. If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an'out of control' signal, the share price could suffer. Campaign planners incur two types of cost in any campaign: the first is the cost of human resource necessary to plan and execute the campaign; the second type of expense that campaign planners incur is the hard cost of the campaign itself.
A budget is a fundamental tool for an event director to predict with a reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. A budget can be used as a pricing tool. There are two basic philosophies, when it comes to budgeting. One approach is telling you on mathematical models, the other on people; the first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables and outputs, drivers and the like. Investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are held in some type of financial spreadsheet application; the other school of thought holds that it's not about models, it's about people. No matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business; the focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the business more in the budget process, building accountability for the results. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets.
While many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other. The budget of a government is a summary or plan of the intended revenues and expenditures of that government. There are three types of government budget: the operating or current budget, the capital or investment budget, the cash or cash flow budget; the budget is prepared by the Treasury team led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer and is presented to Parliament by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on Budget Day. It is customary for the Chancellor to stand on the steps of Number 11 Downing Street with his or her team for the media to get photographic shots of the Despatch Box prior to them going to the House of Commons. Once presented in the House of Commons it is debated and voted on. Minor changes may be made however with the budget being written and presented by the party with the majority in the House of Commons, the Whips will ensure that it is passed as written by the Chancellor.
The federal budget is prepared by the Office of Management and Budget, submitted to Congress for consideration. Invariably, Congress makes substantial changes. Nearly all American states are required to have balanced budgets, but the federal government is allowed to run deficits; the budget is prepared by the Budget Division Department of Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Finance annually. The Finance Minister is the head of the budget making committee; the present Indian Finance minister is Arun Jaitley. The Budget includes supplementary excess grants and when a proclamation by the President as to failure of Constitutional machinery is in operation in relation to a State or a Union Territory, preparation of the Budget of such State; the first budget of India was submitted on 18 February 1869 by James Wilson. James Wilson is known as the father of Indian budget; the Philippine budget is considered the most complicated in the world, incorporating multiple approaches in one single budget system: line-item and zero-based budgeting.
The Department of Budget and Management prepares the National Expenditure Program and forwards it to the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives to come up with a General Appropriations Bill. The GAB will go through voting. After both houses of Congress approves the GAB, the Presid
Association of University Teachers
The Association of University Teachers was the trade union and professional association that represented academic and academic-related staff at pre-1992 universities in the United Kingdom. The final general secretary of AUT was Sally Hunt. AUT had branches in a number of post-1992 universities and in university colleges, although the main union representing academic staff in these institutes was the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education. On 2 December 2005 the results of a membership ballot on a merger of NATFHE was announced; the merger was supported by 95.7 % of NATFHE members who voted. The two unions amalgamated on 1 June 2006, after a transitional year, full operational unity was achieved in June 2007; the new union is called the College Union. In 1909, Douglas Laurie, a young zoology lecturer at Liverpool University called a meeting "To consider a proposal to form an Association for bringing together the members of the Junior Staff more into touch with one another and with the life of the University" At this time an increasing number of non-professorial staff were being employed.
These Junior Staff or Assistant Lecturers were poorly paid, did the same duties as professors and had few promotion prospects. In addition they had no representation on the bodies governing the Universities. Although the society formed at Liverpool was formally a "dining and discussion society" from an early stage it was a new pressure group. At first its aims were local and in 1910 it won a campaign over representation on the faculties but on learning that similar groups had been formed or were in the process of formation they invited representatives of the junior staff from Bristol, Birmingham and Manchester for a dinner. In 1913 the junior staff at the Victoria University of Manchester presented a request for improvements in pay and grading to their University Council; this included a suggestion that the starting pay should be increased. The Council replied that while it agreed that there should be an increase, at the current time there was insufficient money to pay for this. By 1917 inflation had eroded the value of salaries and Douglas Laurie called a meeting on 15 December 1917 to draw up a memorandum to present to the Board of Education.
As an after thought he invited representatives of Assistant Lecturers from all Universities. The meeting was attended by delegates from 15 institutions; the issues raised by the memorandum drafted at the meeting included: pay. A motion was passed to a new association with the name "The Association of University Lecturers"; the name caused some dissent but a split was prevented. However the Scottish Lecturers went their own way and formed a separate Association in 1922 which merged with AUT in 1949 but retained some of its autonomy; the issue of pensions brought the idea of professional unity to the fore. The pension scheme for lecturers was to be left out of the new Teachers pension fund formed by the Teachers' Act 1918; as pension funds affect staff at levels of their career this created pressure the Association to be one which included professors as well. At a conference in Bristol 27–28 June 1919 professorial delegates were present; the name of the new Association was left. The draft rules circulated at the conference read "The name of the society shall be...".
This was to be repeated nearly a century when delegates to the 2005 AUT council were presented with a draft rulebook for the merger with NATFHE which stated: "The name of the union shall be ". Speaking from the chair Laurie pointed out that "the idea which brought the Association into being was of a trade union character, but expressed the hope that, when material conditions had been satisfactorily improved, educational matters would form the essential points on which discussion would take place". In the end it was agreed that the new association's objectives would be"the advancement of University Education and Research and the promotion of common action among University teachers in connection therewith" with membership open to professors; the name Association of University Teachers was voted for nem con and Douglas Laurie was elected as the first President. It is interesting to speculate how the Association would have developed if professors had been excluded from membership and it was set up on a basis of representing the junior staff.
The Association's structure was a federation of Local Associations which elected delegates to a Central Council. The Council delegates elected an Executive Committee; the Council itself met twice a year. In March 2004, AUT members took industrial action over the proposed new pay structures offered by the Universities and Colleges Employers Association; the original proposals from UCEA would have meant large reductions in income due to smaller annual increments. The action involved a one-day national strike and one-day strikes in each of the four countries of the UK, followed by an assessment boycott that threatened to derail examinations that summer; the industrial action lasted 25 days before UCEA agreed to many of the union's demands. The agreement included the so-called Memorandum of Understanding which provided certain safeguards on
Sir Henry Peter Francis Swinnerton-Dyer, 16th Baronet, was an English mathematician specialising in number theory at University of Cambridge. As a mathematician he was best known for his part in the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture relating algebraic properties of elliptic curves to special values of L-functions, developed with Bryan Birch during the first half of the 1960s with the help of machine computation, for his work on the Titan operating system. Swinnerton-Dyer was the son of Sir Leonard Schroeder Swinnerton Dyer, 15th Baronet, his wife Barbara, daughter of Hereward Brackenbury, he was a Fellow of Trinity College, Master of St Catharine's College and vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge from 1979 to 1983. In 1983 he was made an Honorary Fellow of St Catharine's and Chairman of the University Grants Committee and from 1989, Chief Executive of the Universities Funding Council, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967 and was made a KBE in 1987. In 2006 he was awarded the Sylvester Medal.
In 1981, he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath. Swinnerton-Dyer was, in his younger days, an international bridge player, representing the British team twice in the European Open teams championship. In 1953 at Helsinki he was partnered by Dimmie Fleming: the team came second out of fifteen teams. In 1962 he was partnered by Ken Barbour, he married Dr Harriet Crawford in 1983. Swinnerton-Dyer died on 26 December 2018 at the age of 91. Swinnerton-Dyer, H. P. F. Analytic theory of Abelian varieties, LMS Lecture Notes, 14, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-20526-3. Swinnerton-Dyer, Peter, A brief guide to algebraic number theory, LMS Student Text, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00423-3. List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge List of Masters of St Catharine's College, Cambridge Personal web page Number Theory and Algebraic Geometry -- to Peter Swinnerton-Dyer on his 75th birthday, edited by Miles Reid and Alexei Skorobogatov, LMS Lecture Notes 303, Cambridge University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-521-54518-8 Weisstein, Eric W. "Birch/Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture".
MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Swinnerton-Dyer Polynomial". MathWorld. Peter Swinnerton-Dyer interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 12 May 2008
Department for Employment and Learning
The Department for Employment and Learning, was a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive. The minister with overall responsibility for the department was the Minister for Employment and Learning; the department was known as the Department of Higher and Further Education and Employment, between 1999 and 2001. Following the Fresh Start Agreement, DEL was dissolved and its functions transferred to the Department for the Economy and Department for Communities, in order to reduce the size of the Northern Ireland Executive. DEL's overall aim was to "promote learning and skills, to prepare people for work and to support the economy"; the department's network of'job centres' and'jobs and benefits offices' advertised job opportunities for Northern Ireland residents. It was responsible for policy in the following areas: further education higher education skills and training employment rights and responsibilitiesThe Department of Education was responsible for all other levels of education in Northern Ireland.
DEL's main counterparts in the United Kingdom Government were: the Department for Business and Skills. In the Irish Government, its main counterparts were: the Department of Skills. Following a referendum on the Belfast Agreement on 23 May 1998 and the granting of royal assent to the Northern Ireland Act 1998 on 19 November 1998, a Northern Ireland Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive were established by the United Kingdom Government under Prime Minister Tony Blair; the process was known as devolution and was set up to return devolved legislative powers to Northern Ireland. DEL is one of five new devolved Northern Ireland departments created in December 1999 by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 and The Departments Order 1999; the department was named the Department of Higher and Further Education and Employment until 20 July 2001 but was changed to its current title as the initials DHEFETE were pronounced as "Defeat". A devolved minister first took office on 2 December 1999. Devolution was suspended for four periods, during which the department came under the responsibility of direct rule ministers from the Northern Ireland Office: between 12 February 2000 and 30 May 2000.
Since 8 May 2007, devolution has operated without interruption. The Independent Review of Economic Policy, which reported in September 2009, recommended a single economic policy department within the Northern Ireland Executive, which would result in the abolition of DEL. On 11 January 2012, the First Minister and deputy First Minister, Peter Robinson and Martin McGuinness announced their intention to abolish the department; the department's functions would be "divided principally" between the Department of Education and the Department of Enterprise and Investment "in an agreed manner". The proposal was resisted by the Alliance Party, which viewed it as "power grab" by the Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Féin, but was approved on 18 January 2012. No timescale for the abolition was outlined and the department remained in operation, as of February 2015. During the periods of suspension, the following ministers of the Northern Ireland Office were responsible for the department: Adam Ingram Jane Kennedy Barry Gardiner Angela Smith Maria Eagle Committee for Employment and Learning List of government ministers in Northern Ireland DEL "The Departments Order 1999".
"Department for Employment and Learning Act 2001"
University and College Union
The University and College Union is a British trade union in further and higher education. At its formation, the union had around 120,000 members, it is the higher education union in the world. UCU is a vertical union representing casualised researchers and teaching staff as well as "permanent" lecturers. Definitions of all these categories are rather ambiguous due to recent changes in fixed term and open-ended contract law. In many universities, casualised academics form the largest category of UCU members. UCU was formed by the merger on 1 June 2006 of the Association of University Teachers and the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education. For its first year, a set of transitional rules was in place until full operational unity was achieved in June 2007. During the first year of the new union the existing General Secretaries remained in post, managing the union’s day-to-day business jointly. Paul Mackney did not stand for General Secretary of UCU owing to ill-health and Sally Hunt was elected General Secretary of the union on 9 March 2007, took office on 1 June 2007.
UCU is campaigning against private finance initiatives and joint ventures, such as those proposed by INTO University Partnerships. UCU campaigns to reduce academic casualisation, including the use of temporary contracts to employ tutors and project researchers. UCU's view of project research is that research is performed more efficiently by professional and stable career researchers, based in researcher pools and assigned to projects internally as they come up, as in most non-university project-based organisations; as in industry, researchers between projects should be considered "on the bench", paid out of full economic costs from previous grant income, use their bench time to manage new project bids and fulfill their continued professional development quotas. Hourly paid bank workers on zero-hours contracts have been represented by UCU, in universities such as Edinburgh these positions have been replaced by full-time jobs as a result. UCU supports Abortion Rights which campaigns "to defend and extend women's rights and access to safe, legal abortion".
Until the merger, AUT and NATFHE members in higher education were involved in ongoing'action short of a strike' - including boycotting setting and marking exams, and'Mark and Park' where members would mark coursework but did not release marks and this action was continued by the UCU. Lecturers were taking industrial action over issues of pay, the gap that has grown up over the last 20–30 years between their remuneration and that of other qualified public-sector professionals. Prime Minister Tony Blair promised that a significant percentage of new monies released for universities would be put towards lecturers' pay and this had not happened. AUT and NATFHE rejected an offer of 12.6% over three years, made on 8 May and a further offer of 13.12% over three years made on 30 May. Concerns grew that students would not be able to graduate in 2006; the National Union of Students' leadership supported the lecturers' action and although the matter was raised at various meetings NUS support for lecturers was never challenged.
In response to feedback from a group of students' unions NUS advised AUT/NATFHE that their support for action could not be indefinite and was wholly dependent on seeking a fast resolution. Many students' unions from around the country went further and condemned the action taken by the lecturers' unions as holding the students to ransom. To support the industrial action the new union, on its first day of existence, organised a'day of solidarity' by its higher education members; this included a demonstration in London which ended with a lobby at the headquarters of the employers' body, the Universities and Colleges Employers' Association. Following further talks on 6 June 2006 between UCU and UCEA, sponsored by the TUC and Acas, the UCU agreed to a ballot of its members on the 13.1% offer over three years, with the important proviso that any monies docked from striking lecturers would be repaid and that an independent review would consider the mechanisms for future negotiations and the scope of funding available to universities for future pay settlements.
The pay increase was phased over the three years, with the final year's figure subject to further increase in line with inflation. The boycott of assessment was suspended on 7 June 2006. UCU members took part in industrial action across the UK on 31 October 2013. In 2018, members took part in strike action in February and March in a dispute with Universities UK over the Universities Superannuation Scheme. Since 2007, the UCU has been controversially involved in the academic boycotts of Israel and for rejecting the accepted definition of "anti-Semitism"; some Jewish members resigned following claims of an underlying institutional anti-Semitism. On 30 May 2007, the congress of the UCU called for the UCU to circulate a boycott request by Palestinian trade unions to all branches for information and discussion, called on lecturers to "consider the moral implications of existing and proposed links with Israeli academic institutions"; this position was described as anti-semitic by some Jewish organisations such as the Simon Wiesenthal Center.
In September 2007, delegates at the Liberal Democrat conference voted to condemn the UCU's "perverse" decision, called for UCU members to reject the proposal and continue to engage in "the fullest possible dialogue" with their Israeli and Palestinian counterparts. Susan F