Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education, formerly the Times Higher Education Supplement, is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. It is the United Kingdoms leading publication in its field, from its first issue, in 1971, until 2008 the Times Higher Education Supplement was published in newspaper format and was born out of, and affiliated with, The Times newspaper. On 10 January 2008, it was relaunched as a magazine and it is published by TES Global, which until October 2005 was a division of Rupert Murdochs News International. The magazine is edited by John Gill, phil Baty is the editor at large, and is responsible for international coverage. He is the editor of the magazines World University Rankings, the magazine features a fictional satirical column written by Laurie Taylor, the Poppletonian, which reflects on life at the fictional Poppleton University. In 2011 Times Higher Education was awarded the titles of Weekly Business Magazine of the Year, Times Higher Education became known for publishing the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, which first appeared in November 2004.
On 30 October 2009 Times Higher Education broke with QS, its partner in compiling the Rankings, the magazine developed a new methodology in consultation with its readers and its editorial board. Thomson Reuters collects and analyses the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education, the results have been published annually since autumn 2010. QS, which collected and analysed the data from 2004-2009. The magazine runs two sets of awards annually, the first is the Times Higher Education Awards. The 2011 awards took place on 24 November at the Grosvenor House Hotel on Londons Park Lane, seventeen universities were given awards in different categories, with the University of Sheffield being University of the Year. Tessa Blackstone was given the Lord Dearing Lifetime Achievement Award, the University of Strathclyde was named as the University of the Year at the 2012 awards which took place on 29 November 2012 at the Grosvenor House Hotel on Londons Park Lane. University of Strathclyde Principal and Vice-Chancellor Professor Sir Jim McDonald received the award at the ceremony, the Times Higher Education Leadership and Management Awards were launched in 2009.
The Thelmas were set up to recognise the impact that administrative staff have on the success of education institutions
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.
In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford
Nicholas Herbert Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford, FRS, FBA is a British economist and academic. Since 2013, he has been President of the British Academy and he was the Chief Economist and Senior Vice-President of the World Bank from 2000 to 2003, and was recently a civil servant and government economic advisor in the United Kingdom. In June 2007, Stern became the first holder of the I. G. Patel Chair at the London School of Economics. In 2008, he was appointed Chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment and he is Chair of the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy at Leeds University and LSE. He was a lecturer at University of Oxford from 1970 to 1977, economics of climate change and he taught from 1986 to 1993 at the London School of Economics, becoming the Sir John Hicks Professor of Economics. From 1994 until 1999 he was the Chief Economist and Special Counsellor to the President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and his research focused on economic development and growth, and he wrote books on Kenya and the Green Revolution in India.
Since 1999, he is a member of the International Advisory Council of the Center for Social, from 1999 until 2000 Stern was Chairman of the consultancy London Economics founded by John Kay. M. Treasury, initially with responsibility for public finances, and head of the Government Economic Service. At the time, he ceased to be a permanent secretary at the Treasury though he retained the rank until retirement in 2007. He subsequently lacked a real role and spent most of his working on major international reports on global warming and alleviating poverty in Africa. The Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change was produced by a led by Stern at HM Treasury. In the Review, climate change is described as an economic externality, Stern has subsequently referred to the climate change externality as the largest ever market failure, Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. Regulation, carbon taxes and carbon trading are recommended to reduce gas emissions.
It is argued that the economy can lower its greenhouse gas emissions at a significant. The Review concludes that immediate reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to reduce the worst risks of climate change, the Reviews conclusions were widely reported in the press. Sterns relatively large cost estimates of climate change damages received particular attention. These are the damages that might occur should no further effort be made to cut greenhouse gas emissions. There has been a reaction to the Stern Review from economists
King's College London
Kings College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. Kings was established in 1829 by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington, in 1836, Kings became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. It is a member of organisations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association. Kings has five campuses, its main campus on the Strand in central London. In 2015/16, Kings had an income of £738.4 million, of which £193.2 million was from research grants and contracts and as of 2014/15. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, and its academic activities are organised into nine faculties which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. Kings is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a member of the Kings Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute.
Kings College London, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the controversy surrounding the founding of London University in 1826. The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated solely the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of Kings College London in response to Wellingtons support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty, the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with disgraceful and criminal motives in setting up Kings College London.
The result was a duel in Battersea Fields on 21 March 1829, Winchilsea did not fire, a plan he and his second almost certainly decided upon before the duel, Wellington took aim and fired wide to the right. Accounts differ as to whether Wellington missed on purpose, noted for his poor aim, claimed he did, other reports more sympathetic to Winchilsea claimed he had aimed to kill. Honour was saved and Winchilsea wrote Wellington an apology, duel Day is still celebrated on the first Thursday after 21 March every year, marked by various events throughout Kings, including reenactments. Kings opened in October 1831 with the cleric William Otter appointed as first principal, despite the attempts to make Kings Anglican-only, the initial prospectus permitted, nonconformists of all sorts to enter the college freely. William Howley, the governors and the professors, except the linguists, had to be members of the Church of England but the students did not, though attendance at chapel was compulsory. Kings was divided into a department and a junior department, known as Kings College School
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late-19th century. The main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road, in 2015/16, the university had 39,700 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, and the largest single-site university. The university had an income of £987.2 million in 2015–16 and it has the third largest endowment of any university in England, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. It is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities, the University of Manchester is ranked 29th in the world by QS World University Rankings 2016. In the 2015 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Manchester was ranked 35th in the world, the Global Employability University Ranking conducted by THE places Manchester at 27th worldwide and 10th in Europe, ahead of academic powerhouses such as Cornell, UPenn and LSE.
It is ranked joint 55th in the world and 8th in the UK in the 2016 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, Manchester came fifth in terms of research power and seventeenth for grade point average quality when including specialist institutions. More students try to gain entry than to any university in the country. According to the 2015 High Fliers Report, Manchester is the most targeted university by the largest number of leading graduate employers in the UK. The university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, four Nobel laureates are currently among its staff – more than any other British university. The University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics Institute in 1824, the English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science.
John Owens, a merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines. He campaigned and helped fund the chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics, the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of mainly German universities, Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects, Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic, there were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britains first chair in organic chemistry, and Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics
David Linsay Willetts, Baron Willetts, PC is an English Conservative Party politician and Visiting Professor at Kings College London. From 1992 to 2015, he was the Member of Parliament representing the constituency of Havant in Hampshire and he was the Minister of State for Universities and Science from 2010 until July 2014. Willetts became a member of the House of Lords in 2015, Willetts was educated at King Edwards School and Christ Church, where he studied Philosophy and Economics. Willetts graduated with a first class degree, having served as Nigel Lawsons private researcher, Willetts took charge of the Treasury monetary policy division at 26 before moving over to Margaret Thatchers Policy Unit at 28. Aged 31, he took over the Centre for Policy Studies. Aged 36, Willetts entered Parliament in 1992 as the MP for Havant and he quickly established himself in Parliament, becoming a Whip, a Cabinet Office Minister, and Paymaster General in his first term. During this period Willetts gained Two Brains as a nickname, a monicker reportedly coined by The Guardians former political editor Michael White and he carved out a reputation as an expert on pensions and benefits.
Since leaving the DWP post, he has been recruited as a consultant by the actuaries Punter Southall. After the 2005 election, he served as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, on 15 September he confirmed his support for Davis, at that time the bookies favourite. Davis lost the race to Cameron. On 19 May 2007, Willetts made a speech on grammar schools in which he defended the existing Conservative Party policy of not reintroducing grammar schools. The speech received a mixed reception, the analysis was applauded by The Guardian and The Times. However, the more right-wing Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail were both critical of the speech, which was unpopular with some Conservative Party activists. The Department for Education and Skills was abolished by the new Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, on 2 July 2007, Cameron reshuffled Willetts down to the junior of the two departments, the Department for Innovation and Skills. Following the 2010 general election, Prime Minister David Cameron appointed Willetts as the Minister of State for Universities and Science.
In July 2014, Willets announced that he would not contest the general election. In October 2014, Willets was appointed a professor at Kings College London. It was announced that he was to be a peer in the 2015 Dissolution Honours and was created Baron Willetts, of Havant in the County of Hampshire
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotlands ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh was ranked 17th and 21st in the world by the 2014–15 and 2015-16 QS rankings. It is now ranked 19th in the according to 2016-17 QS Rankings. It is ranked 16th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2015–16 Times Higher Education Ranking and it is ranked the 23rd most employable university in the world by the 2015 Global Employability University Ranking. It is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News Best Global Universities Ranking and it is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and it continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives approximately 50,000 applications every year, making it the fourth most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants, after St Andrews, it is the most difficult university to gain admission into in Scotland, and 9th overall in the UK. This was a move at the time, as most universities were established through Papal bulls. Established as the Tounis College, it opened its doors to students in October 1583, instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock. It was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the more populous. It was renamed King Jamess College in 1617, by the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. The universitys first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School and its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor and it went under what was North College Street, and under the university buildings until it reached the universitys anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection.
It was from this tunnel the body of William Burke was taken after he had been hanged, towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875. The medical school was more or less built to his design and was completed by the addition of the McEwan Hall in the 1880s. The building now known as New College was originally built as a Free Church college in the 1840s and has been the home of divinity at the university since the 1920s. The two oldest schools – law and divinity – are both well-esteemed, with law being based in Old College and divinity in New College on the Mound and they are represented by the Edinburgh University Sports Union which was founded in 1866. The medical school is renowned throughout the world and it was widely considered the best medical school in the English-speaking world throughout the 18th century and first half of the 19th century
University of Nottingham
The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, England, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881 and was granted a Royal Charter in 1948, outside the United Kingdom, Nottingham has campuses in Semenyih and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within there are more than 50 schools, institutes. Nottingham has about 44,000 students and 9,000 staff and had an income of £635 million in 2015/16. For 2009 entry, it was ranked 5th in England in terms of the number of students. In 2011, the university was one of 12 elite institutions that accommodated the top achieving students in England, the 2014 High Fliers survey stated that Nottingham was the most targeted university by the UKs top employers between 2013-14. In 2012, Nottingham was ranked 13th in the world in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs of the Fortune Global 500 and it is ranked 2nd in the 2012 Summer Olympics table of British medal winners.
Moreover, Nottingham is the 9th largest European producer of entrepreneurs, in the 2011, and 2014 GreenMetric World University Rankings, Nottingham was the worlds most sustainable campus. The institutions alumni have been awarded a variety of accolades, including 3 Nobel Prizes, a Turner Prize. In 1881, there were four professors – of Literature, Chemistry, the university college underwent significant expansion in the 1920s when it moved from the centre of Nottingham to a large campus on the citys outskirts. The original University College building on Shakespeare Street in central Nottingham, built it most grand and cakeily out of the noble loot derived from shrewd cash-chemistry by good Sir Jesse Boot. Apart from its physical transfer to surroundings that could not be different from its original home. The Department of Slavonic Languages was established in 1933, the teaching of Russian having been introduced in 1916, further advances were delayed by the outbreak of war in 1939. In 1970, the university established the UKs first new school of the 20th century.
In 1999, Jubilee Campus was opened on the site of the Raleigh Bicycle Company. Nottingham began to expand overseas, opening campuses in Malaysia, in 2005, the Kings Meadow Campus opened near the University Park Campus. The university has used several logos throughout its history, beginning with its coat of arms, Nottingham adopted a simpler logo, in which a stylised version of Nottingham Castle was surrounded by the text The University of Nottingham. In 2001 Nottingham undertook a major re-branding exercise, which included replacing the logo with the current one, the chief officer is the chancellor, elected by the University Court on the recommendation of the University Council