Thomas J. Watson Research Center
The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for IBM Research. The center comprises two sites, with its main laboratory in Yorktown Heights, New York, U. S.38 miles north of New York City and with offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The center, headquarters of IBMs Research division, is named for both Thomas J. Watson, Sr. and Thomas Watson, Jr. who led IBM as president and CEO respectively from 1915 to 1971. The research is intended to improve hardware, software, the center was founded at Columbia University in 1945 as the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, on 116th Street in Manhattan, expanding to 115th Street in 1953. The new headquarters were located with a new lab in Yorktown Heights designed by architect Eero Saarinen completed in 1961. IBM donated the New York City buildings to Columbia University, they are now known as the Casa Hispanica, the lab expanded to Hawthorne in 1984. Gunn, Leroy Chang,1973 Physics Nobel Prize winner, Leo Esaki, the work done at the Center from 1960–1984 was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009.
Another well-known installation is Watson, an intelligence system capable of answering natural language questions. Games against human contestants in February 2011 on the site, due to this construction, none of the offices have windows. The lowest level is underground in some areas toward the shorter side of the crescent. A large overhang protrudes from the front entryway of the building, the building houses a library, an auditorium and a cafeteria. It was designed by the architect Eero Saarinen and built in 1956–1961, Hawthorne The Hawthorne building was a leased facility located on Skyline Drive, which is part of an industrial park shared by several area businesses. In 2012 the Hawthorne lease was closed by IBM and remaining employees were relocated to the Yorktown Heights site, the Hawthorne building is easily recognizable by its mirrored facade and large blue pole. Located approximately 25 miles north of New York City, the Hawthorne site was smaller than its site at Yorktown Heights. The building contained a cafeteria, presentation center and library, the site, opened in 1984, was designed by Michael Harris Spector.
Research at Cambridge comprises the Collaborative User Experience Group and the XML Standards/Technology Team, tech companies in the New York metropolitan area Brennan, Jean Ford. The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, A History, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines. Computer, Bit Slices from a Life, 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBMs Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s
PARC, formerly Xerox PARC, is a research and development company in Palo Alto, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems. Xerox formed Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated as an owned subsidiary in 2002. Pake selected Palo Alto, California, as the site of what was to become known as PARC. S, the integration of Ethernet prompted the development of the PARC Universal Packet architecture, much like todays Internet. Xerox has been criticized for failing to properly commercialize and profitably exploit PARCs innovations. A favorite example is the user interface, initially developed at PARC for the Alto. Although very significant in terms of its influence on future system design, a small group from PARC led by David Liddle and Charles Irby formed Metaphor Computer Systems. They extended the Star desktop concept into a graphic and communicating office-automation model. Among PARCs distinguished researchers were three Turing Award winners, Butler W.
Lampson, Alan Kay, and Charles P. Thacker. The Association for Computing Machinery Software System Award recognized the Alto system in 1984, Smalltalk in 1987, InterLisp in 1992, and the remote procedure call in 1994. Lampson, Bob Taylor, and Charles P. Thacker received the National Academy of Engineerings prestigious Charles Stark Draper Prize in 2004 for their work on the Alto, PARCs developments in information technology served for a long time as standards for much of the computing industry. Many advances were not equalled or surpassed for two decades, enormous timespans in the fast-paced high-tech world, a number of GUI engineers left to join Apple Computer. Work at PARC since the early 1980s includes advances in computing, aspect-oriented programming. Xerox Daybreak GlobalView Michael A. Hiltzik, Dealers of Lightning, Xerox PARC, Fumbling the Future, How Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer ISBN 1-58348-266-0 M. Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine, J. C. R. Strassmann Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Oral history interview with William Crowther Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Nokia Bell Labs is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to laboratories around the rest of the United States. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory, Bell Labs was at one time a division of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary. Eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories, in 1880, the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs, approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone. Bell used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D. C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter, the laboratory is variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory. The laboratory focused on the analysis and transmission of sound, Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf.
This resulted in the founding of the Volta Bureau c,1887, located at Bells fathers house at 1527 35th Street in Washington, D. C. where its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building, close by at 1537 35th St. specifically to house the lab, the building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical, the first president of research was Frank B. Jewett, who stayed there until 1940, ownership of Bell Laboratories was evenly split between AT&T and the Western Electric Company. Its principal work was to plan and support the equipment that Western Electric built for Bell System operating companies and this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, and transmission equipment. Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, a few workers were assigned to basic research, and this attracted much attention, especially since they produced several Nobel Prize winners.
Until the 1940s, the principal locations were in and around the Bell Labs Building in New York City. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence, the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. Since 2001, many of the locations have been scaled down or closed. The Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007, the mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a commercial and residential project. The prospects of success are clouded by the difficulty of readapting Saarinens design and by the current glut of aging, eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories
Ames Research Center
Ames Research Center, known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in Californias Silicon Valley. It was founded as the second National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics laboratory and that agency was dissolved and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space Administration on October 1,1958. NASA Ames is named in honor of Joseph Sweetman Ames, a physicist, at last estimate NASA Ames has over US$3.0 billion in capital equipment,2,300 research personnel and a US$860 million annual budget. Ames was founded to conduct research on the aerodynamics of propeller-driven aircraft, its role has expanded to encompass spaceflight. Ames plays a role in many NASA missions, Ames develops tools for a safer, more efficient national airspace. The centers current director is Eugene Tu, the site is mission center for several key current missions and a major contributor to the new exploration focus as a participant in the Orion crew exploration vehicle.
Although Ames is a NASA Research Center, and not a center, it has nevertheless been closely involved in a number of astronomy. The Pioneer programs eight successful missions from 1965 to 1978 were managed by Charles Hall at Ames. By 1972, it supported the bold flyby missions to Jupiter and Saturn with Pioneer 10 and those two missions were trail blazers for the planners of the more complex Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 missions, launched five years later. In 1978, the end of the program brought about a return to the solar system, with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multiprobe. Lunar Prospector was the mission selected by NASA for full development. Based on Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer data, mission scientists have determined that there is indeed water ice in the craters of the Moon. The 11-pound GeneSat-1, carrying bacteria inside a laboratory, was launched on December 16,2006. The very small NASA satellite has proven that scientists can quickly design, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite mission to look for water on the moon was a secondary payload spacecraft.
LCROSS began its trip to the moon on the rocket as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. It launched in April 2009 on an Atlas V rocket from Kennedy Space Center, the Kepler mission is NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size and smaller planets. The Kepler mission will monitor the brightness of stars to find planets that pass in front of them during the planets orbits, during such passes or transits, the planets will slightly decrease the stars brightness. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is a joint venture of the U. S, the aircraft is supplied by the U. S. and the infrared telescope by Germany
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
The Pennington Biomedical Research Center, located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is a campus of the Louisiana State University System and conducts clinical and population science research. According to its website, its mission is to discover the triggers of chronic diseases through innovative research that improves human health across the lifespan and it is the largest academically based nutrition research center in the world, with the greatest number of obesity researchers on faculty. The Center’s over 500 employees occupy several buildings on the 222-acre campus, the center was designed by the Baton Rouge architect John Desmond. In 1980, Baton Rouge oilman and philanthropist C. B, doc Pennington and his wife, provided $125 million to fund construction of the nutritional research center. With a U. S. Department of Defense contract and funding from the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Governor Buddy Roemer proclaimed the official opening of the Center in 1988. Dr George A. Bray, a renowned obesity researcher, was recruited to be the first executive director of the center and under his leadership the center reached its present status in the scientific world.
One of the employees was the late state legislator Leonard J. Chabert from Terrebonne Parish. The comprehensive research program at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center focuses on ten specific research areas as outlined below. Cancer, William Hansel Cancer Prevention Diabetes and Gene Regulation, John S McIlhenny Skeletal Muscle Physiology, the Clinical Science Core provides researchers access to clinical research study protocol development tools, Internal Review Board submission, budgeting assistance, and contract support. The Center assists with study participant recruitment, specimen collection and analysis, dietary assessment, exercise testing, psychological review, the Core provides meal preparation using the Metabolic Kitchen and provides support for data collection and storage. The National Institutes of Health awards center grants to institutions with groups of established researchers working in a variety of research fields. There are three NIH Centers of Excellence at Pennington Biomedical Research Center
It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field, to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences, there are several forms of research, humanities, economic, business, practitioner research, technological, etc. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577, Research has been defined in a number of different ways. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell and it consists of three steps, pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary and this material is of a primary source character.
The purpose of the research is to produce new knowledge. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to, in analytical work, there are typically some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals, graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature, scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic, Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the correct answer to a question.
Context is always important, and context can be social, political, cultural, an example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, Artistic research, seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge