Research institute

A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may be oriented to applied research. Although the term implies natural science research, there are many research institutes in the social science as well for sociological and historical research purposes. In the early medieval period, several astronomical observatories were built in the Islamic world; the first of these was the 9th-century Baghdad observatory built during the time of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun, though the most famous were the 13th-century Maragheh observatory, the 15th-century Ulugh Beg Observatory. The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India; the school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently discovered a number of important mathematical concepts.

The earliest research institute in Europe was Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg complex on the island of Hven, a 16th-century astronomical laboratory set up to make accurate measurements of the stars. In the United States there are numerous notable research institutes including Bell Labs, Xerox Parc, The Scripps Research Institute, Beckman Institute, SRI International. Hughes Aircraft used a research institute structure for its organizational model. Thomas Edison, dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park", was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention in the late 1800s, because of that, he is credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. From the throes of the Scientific Revolution came the 17th century scientific academy. In London, the Royal Society was founded in 1660, in France Louis XIV founded the Académie royale des sciences in 1666 which came after private academic assemblies had been created earlier in the seventeenth century to foster research..

In the early 18th century Peter the Great established an educational-research institute to be built in his newly created imperial capital, St Petersburg. His plan combined provisions for linguistic and scientific instruction with a separate academy in which graduates could pursue further scientific research, it was the first institution of its kind in Europe to conduct scientific research within the structure of a university. The St Petersburg Academy was established by decree on 28 January 1724. Research institutes came to emerge at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1900, at least in Europe and the United States, the scientific profession had only evolved so far as to include the theoretical implications of science and not its application. Research scientists had yet to establish a leadership in expertise. Outside scientific circles it was assumed that a person in an occupation related to the sciences carried out work, "scientific" and that the skill of the scientist did not hold any more merit than the skill of a labourer.

A philosophical position on science was not thought by all researchers to be intellectually superior to applied methods. However any research on scientific application was limited by comparison. A loose definition attributed all occurring phenomena to "science"; the growth of scientific study stimulated a desire to reinvigorate the scientific discipline by robust research in order to extract "pure" science from such broad categorisation. This began with research conducted autonomously away from public utility and governmental supervision. Enclaves for industrial investigations became established; these included the Rockefeller Institute, Carnegie Institution of Washington and the Institute for Advanced Study. Research was advanced in both application; this was aided by substantial private donation. As of 2006, there were over 14,000 research centers in the United States; the expansion of universities into the faculty of research fed into these developments as mass education produced mass scientific communities.

A growing public consciousness of scientific research brought public perception to the fore in driving specific research developments. After the Second World War and the atom bomb specific research threads were followed: environmental pollution and national defense. Ames Research Center Bell Labs Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering Marine Sciences Research Center Palo Alto Research Center Thomas J. Watson Research Center Biological Research Centre Pennington Biomedical Research Center Think tank European Survey Research Association London Research Institute

Open prison

An open prison is any jail in which the prisoners are trusted to serve their sentences with minimal supervision and perimeter security and are not locked up in their prison cells. Prisoners may be permitted to take up employment while serving their sentence. In the UK, open prisons are part of a rehabilitation plan for prisoners moved from closed prisons, they may be designated "training prisons" and are only for prisoners considered a low risk to the public. The idea of an open prison is criticised by members of the public and politicians. Prisoners in open jails do not have complete freedom and are only allowed to leave the premises for specific purposes, such as going to an outside job. In Ireland, there has been controversy about the level of escape from open prisons, attributed to the use of the prison by the Irish Prison Service to transfer prisoners unsuitable for open conditions but to reduce overcrowding in the closed prisons; the idea of open prisons is to rehabilitate prisoners rather than to punish them.

United KingdomHM Prison Prescoed, South Wales HM Prison Ford, West Sussex, England HM Prison Blantyre House, Kent, England HM Prison Askham Grange, England HM Prison Leyhill, South Gloucestershire, England HM Prison Castle Huntly, Longforgan and Kinross, ScotlandIrelandLoughan House, County Cavan, Ireland Shelton Abbey Prison, County Wicklow, IrelandIndiaYerwada Open Jail, in Yerwada, Maharashtra Tihar Open Jail, in Delhi In Germany the "Offener Vollzug" is part of the rehabilitation process for about 16% of prisoners. Prison security categories in the United Kingdom House arrest

Stadion Miejski, Kraków

Stadion Miejski im. Henryka Reymana is a football-specific stadium in Poland, it is used as home ground by Wisła Kraków football team playing in the Ekstraklasa. The address of the stadium is ul. Reymonta 22; the stadium has a capacity of 33,268 spectators, who are all seated, is roofed. Wisła Stadium is the fourth largest arena in Ekstraklasa. Stadium was built in 1953. From 2003 – 2011 the stadium was reconstructed with four new stands and a media pavilion being built. Reconstruction was completed in October 2011. Thanks to resolution passed by Kraków City council on 23 January 2008, the stadium is named after Wisła's legendary player Henryk Tomasz Reyman. Municipal Stadium in Kraków meets the criteria for UEFA Category 4; the current stadium is the third home of the Wisła Kraków. The first stadium was located about 500m away from the current location in the Oleandry area, it was built in 1914 and inaugurated on 16 April same year, with a 3-2 win over Czarni Lwów, but only one year it burned down.

That stadium was never finished and World War I left only rubble of the ground. In 1922 Wisła moved to a new stadium in the same area; this one couldn't cope with the post-war popularity of football. Moreover, in 1946 Kraków was afflicted by a huge storm and stadium has been damaged. In May 1953 the new stadium - third one in Wisła history - was opened next to the old stadium; this is a place. Stadium featured an oval running track surrounding football field. A characteristic feature of this building was called ‘Brandenburg Gates’ located on the stands behind the goals. Floodlights masts was installed on the stadium in 1972, their inauguration took place on 11 June 1972 during league match between Wisla Kraków and Legia Warsaw, which ended in a draw 1:1. In 1976 Wisła Kraków was playing Celtic Glasgow in UEFA Cup. After the team having drawn the first game away 2:2, crowds were flocking to see Wisła fight with the Bhoys on 29 September; the media and fans present at the game say of 45 000 spectators, however the precise number is unknown.

This game holds the stadium's record of attendance. In 1985 plans to build new main stand was announced. Therefore, sectors I, II, III, IV and V had been demolished. However, lack of funds for continuation of construction resulted in situation in which stadium remained without a main stand for more than 10 next years. Renovation of south stand and floodlights masts dismantling took place in 1995 year. Construction of the new main stand started in 1996, it was financed by the joint office of the City of Totalizator Sportowy. Opening of the new grandstand took place in March 1998 during the league match between Wisła and GKS Katowice. In 1998, the east stand underwent yet another renovation. Around 4800 plastic seats were installed. Oval running track surrounding football pitch was removed. Artificial hills behind the goals was demolished in January 1999. In July 2000, on the side of 3 Maja street, temporary south stand for the visiting team's supporters was constructed, with capacity about 250 people.

Over time it has been expanded to holds 500 people. In April 2002, new floodlights masts was installed to meet requirements imposed by the Polish Football Association. In June 2003, turf heating system was installed. In June 2004 the licensing requirements imposed by the Polish Football Association forced Wisła to build temporary all-seater and roofed north stand, its capacity was about 1000 people. At the same time, it was decided to reduce the height of the fence in front of the main stand to 1 m, in order to improve comfort of watching the matches; the construction project developed by architecture and design studio owned by Wojciech Obtułowicz has been changed four times with key features remaining the same. The first conception assumed the construction of the stadium for more than 20 000 seats with leaving of the main stand, built in the mid nineties. According to this project in November 2004, the construction of a new south stand has begun with striker Maciej Żurawski digging the first shovel.

It was completed in June 2006, costing nearly 35 mln zł. The main contractor was Budimex Dromex. In the meantime, in January 2006, construction of the twin northern stand has begun, its construction lasted 12 months with both the contractor and the cost were the same as in the case of the southern stand. In April 2007 it was announced that the UEFA European Football Championship in 2012 will be co-hosted by Poland. Kraków and Wisła Stadium, was chosen to be a reserve host for upcoming event. Therefore, the stadium project was changed to meets the requirements for elite class stadium. In September 2007, Budimex Dromex started the construction of media pavilion - a building, part of the previous concept of the stadium. In October the architectural studio of Wojciech Obtułowicz has been commissioned to carry out the new stadium project, it cost about 3.5 million zł. In January 2008 the construction of media pavilion was completed; the total cost of this investment exceeded 11 million zł. The demolition of the old east stand begun in May 2008.

In February 2009 Polimex-Mostostal started the construction of the new East stand, whose cost was 144 million zł. After the end of 2008/09 Ekstraklasa season in June 2009, Polimex-Mostostal began demolition of the main stand and the construction of the new one; the cost was over 153 million zł. Wisła Kraków played its 2009/2010 season matches at Stadion Ludowy in Sosnowiec and Stadion Suche Stawy, due to more advanced construction works on the stadium. In early October 2009, the contractor which built