Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs was an American fiction writer best known for his celebrated and prolific output in the adventure and science-fiction genres. Among the most notable of his creations are the jungle hero Tarzan, the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter and the fictional landmass within Earth known as Pellucidar. Burroughs' California ranch is now the center of the Tarzana neighborhood in Los Angeles. Burroughs was born on September 1, 1875, in Chicago, the fourth son of Major George Tyler Burroughs, a businessman and Civil War veteran, his wife, Mary Evaline Burroughs, his middle name is from Mary Coleman Rice Burroughs. He was of entirely English ancestry, with a family line, in North America since the Colonial era. Through his Rice grandmother, Burroughs was descended from settler Edmund Rice, one of the English Puritans who moved to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the early 17th Century, he once remarked, "I can trace my ancestry back to Deacon Edmund Rice." The Burroughs side of the family was of English origin and emigrated to Massachusetts around the same time.
Many of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Some of his ancestors settled in Virginia during the colonial period, Burroughs emphasized his connection with that side of his family, seeing it as romantic and warlike, and, in fact, could have counted among his close cousins no less than seven signers of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, including his third cousin, four times removed, 2nd President of the United States John Adams. Burroughs was educated at a number of local schools, he attended Phillips Academy, in Andover and the Michigan Military Academy. Graduating in 1895, failing the entrance exam for the United States Military Academy at West Point, he became an enlisted soldier with the 7th U. S. Cavalry in Fort Grant, Arizona Territory. After being diagnosed with a heart problem and thus ineligible to serve, he was discharged in 1897. After his discharge Burroughs worked a number of different jobs. During the Chicago influenza epidemic of 1891, he spent half a year at his brother's ranch on the Raft River in Idaho, as a cowboy, drifted somewhat afterward worked at his father's Chicago battery factory in 1899, marrying his childhood sweetheart, Emma Hulbert, in January 1900.
In 1903, Burroughs joined his brothers, Yale graduates George and Harry, who were, by prominent Pocatello area ranchers in southern Idaho, partners in the Sweetser-Burroughs Mining Company, where he took on managing their ill-fated Snake River gold dredge, a classic bucket-line dredge. The Burroughs brothers were the sixth cousins, once removed, of famed miner Kate Rice, a brilliant and statuesque Maths professor who, in 1914, became the first female prospector in the Canadian North. Journalist and publisher C. Allen Thorndike Rice was his third cousin; when the new mine proved unsuccessful, the brothers secured for Burroughs a position with the Oregon Short Line Railroad in Salt Lake City. Burroughs resigned from the railroad in October 1904. By 1911, after seven years of low wages as a pencil-sharpener wholesaler. By this time, Emma and he had two children and Hulbert. During this period, he began reading pulp-fiction magazines. In 1929, he recalled thinking that...if people were paid for writing rot such as I read in some of those magazines, that I could write stories just as rotten.
As a matter of fact, although I had never written a story, I knew that I could write stories just as entertaining and a whole lot more so than any I chanced to read in those magazines. In 1913, Burroughs and Emma had their third and last child, John Coleman Burroughs known for his illustrations of his father's books. In the 1920s, Burroughs became a pilot, purchased a Security Airster S-1, encouraged his family to learn to fly. Daughter Joan married Tarzan film actor, James Pierce, starring with her husband, as the voice of Jane, during 1932-34 for the Tarzan radio series; the pair were wed for more than forty years, until her death, in 1972. Burroughs divorced Emma in 1934 and, in 1935, married the former actress Florence Gilbert Dearholt, the former wife of his friend, Ashton Dearholt, with whom he had co-founded Burroughs-Tarzan Enterprises while filming The New Adventures of Tarzan. Burroughs adopted the Dearholts' two children, he and Florence divorced in 1942. Burroughs was in his late 60s and was in Honolulu at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Despite his age, he applied for and received permission to become a war correspondent, becoming one of the oldest U. S. war correspondents during World War II. This period of his life is mentioned in William Brinkley's bestselling novel Don't Go Near the Water. After the war ended, Burroughs moved back to Encino, where after many health problems, he died of a heart attack on March 19, 1950, having written 80 novels, he is buried at Tarzana, California, US. When he died, he was believed to have been the writer who had made the most from films, earning over $2 million in royalties from 27 Tarzan pictures; the Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Burroughs in 2003. Aiming his work at the pulps, Burroughs had his first story, Under the Moons of Mars, serialized by Frank Munsey in the February to July 1912 issues of The All-Story – under the name "Norman Bean" to protect his reputation. Under the Moons of Mars inaugurated the Barsoom series and earned Burroughs US$400, it was first published as a book by A.
Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in Southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west, separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south from Santa Clara River Valley to the north and Santa Clarita Valley to the northeast; the Oxnard Plain is to the west of Santa Susana Mountains. The Newhall Pass separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains to the east. Newhall Pass is the major north-south connection between the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Clarita Valley, Interstate 5 and a railroad line share Newhall Pass; the Santa Susana Pass connects the Simi and San Fernando valleys, separates the Santa Susana Mountains from Simi Hills to the south. Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, is located in the Simi Hills, just south of the Santa Susana Pass, at the northwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley; the Santa Susana Mountains are not as high as the San Gabriel Mountains. The western half of the range lies in Ventura County, the eastern half lies in Los Angeles County.
The southeastern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains are part of the City of Los Angeles, housing subdivisions, including Porter Ranch, have been built on the lower slopes of the range. The city of Simi Valley lies to the southwest. North of the range is the fast-growing city of Santa Clarita, several large subdivisions in unincorporated Los Angeles County, including Lyons Ranch and Newhall Ranch, have been approved for development; the Sunshine Canyon Landfill is at the mountains' eastern end, several canyons in the northwest corner of the range have been proposed for more landfills. The mountains have a mild climate, with cool, wet winters. Snow melts quickly. Annual Precipitation totals vary between 18 and 25 inches, depending on exposure to the rain-bearing winds. Most of the rain falls between March; because of the summer drought, wildfires sometimes occur in summer and fall before the rains start during hot, dry "Santa Ana" wind events. The highest peaks in the range are Oat Mountain, Mission Point, Rocky Peak, Sand Rock Peak.
The summit of Rocky Peak lies directly atop the line separating Ventura and Los Angeles counties and is indicated by a battered marker imbedded into the sandstone boulder summit. The first discovery of oil in California was in Pico Canyon, on the north side of the mountains, The California Star Oil Works Chevron, succeeded with Pico Well No. 4. It became famous not only as the first well in California, but as the longest-producing well in the world, having been capped in September, 1990 after 114 years. Well No. 4 has the distinction of being the first site in Los Angeles County to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in 1966. The surrounding town, Mentryville, is maintained as the oil "ghost town" Mentryville Historical Park, within Pico Canyon Park. Many active oil and gas fields remain in the area, with some of the larger operators including Vintage Production, Freeport McMoRan, the Southern California Gas Company; the largest of SoCalGas's four underground storage natural gas facilities is within the Aliso Canyon Oil Field north of Porter Ranch.
The mountains are within the acquisition area for the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, which operates several parks, including Santa Clarita Woodlands Park, Rocky Peak Park, Joughin Open Space Preserve, Happy Camp Canyon Park, other Santa Susana parks in the Santa Susana Mountains through the Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority. The City of Los Angeles maintains O'Melveny Park at the eastern end of the mountains. Note: the Santa Susana Field Laboratory, once operated by and still owned by Rocketdyne until toxics are cleaned up, is in the Simi Hills, which are adjacent to the south of the Santa Susana Mountains; the south-facing slopes are covered in Chaparral shrubland and oak savanna. The north-facing slopes are home to magnificent oak woodlands and conifer woodlands, some of which have been protected in the Santa Clarita Woodlands Park and other large open space preserves; the mountains are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. The oaks, include the evergreen coast live oak, the deciduous valley oak, the coastal scrub oak all can be found in the area.
Spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Mariposa lily, canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the native plant habitat community. Various ferns are found in moister and tree-shaded areas. Many bird species thrive in the Santa Susana Mountains; the most common raptors observed soaring over the brushy, boulder-strewn landscape are turkey vultures, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels. In oak woodlands it is not uncommon to see red-shouldered hawks flying from limb to limb. Through the cover of dense, trailside chaparral you might glimpse the California towhee or the colorful spotted towhee, birds who make their presence known by rustling up leaf litter on the ground. California quail, greater roadrunner, common raven are residents of the range; the eerie and enchanting call of the common poorwill can be heard after dark while quick eyes might observe the silent flight of great horned owls and phantom-like barn owls. A handful of fascinating amphibians live in the area.
Streams and creeks support populations of Pacific tree frog, the small amphibian whose signature chorus adds an aura of mystery and inexplicable be
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways, between urban centres at the highest level of service possible; as such, many arteries are feature restrictions on private access. Though the design of arterial roads varies from country to country, city to city, within cities, they share a number of common design characteristics. For example, in many cities, arteries are arranged in a grid. Many jurisdictions classify arterial roads as either principal or minor. In traffic engineering hierarchy, an arterial road delivers traffic between collector roads and freeways. For new arterial roads, intersections are reduced to increase traffic flow. In California, arterial roads are spaced every half mile, have intersecting collector and streets; some arterial roads, characterized by a small fraction of intersections and driveways compared to most arterial roads, are considered to be expressways in some countries and some states of the United States.
The Traffic Engineering Handbook describes "Arterials" as being either principal or minor. Both classes serve to carry longer-distance flows between important centers of activity. Arterials are laid out as the backbone of a traffic network and should be designed to afford the highest level of service, as is practical, as per the aforementioned "Traffic Engineering Handbook"; the construction and development of arterial roads is achieved through two methods. By far the most common is the upgrading of an existing right-of-way during subdivision development; when existing structures prohibit the widening of an existing road however, bypasses are constructed. Because of the placement and general continuity of arterial road corridors, water mains and other infrastructure are placed beneath or beside the roadbed. In North America, traffic signals are used at most intersections. In Europe, large roundabouts are more seen at the busier junctions. Speed limits are between 30 and 50 mph, depending on the density of use of the surrounding development.
In school zones, speeds may be further reduced. The width of arterial roads can range from four lanes to ten or more; some are divided at the center, while others share a common center lane, such as a contraflow lane or central turning lane. As with other roadway environmental consequences derive from arterial roadways, including air pollution generation, noise pollution and surface runoff of water pollutants. Air pollution generation from arterials can be rather concentrated, since traffic volumes can be high, traffic operating speeds are low to moderate. Sound levels can be considerable due to moderately high traffic volumes characteristic of arterials, due to considerable braking and acceleration that occur on arterials that are signalized. Grid plan The dictionary definition of arterial road at Wiktionary
A cycle track, separated bike lane or protected bike lane, is an exclusive bikeway that has elements of a separated path and on-road bike lane. A cycle track is located within or next to the roadway, but is made distinct from both the sidewalk and general purpose roadway by vertical barriers or elevation differences. In urban planning, cycle tracks are designed to encourage bicycling in an effort to relieve automobile congestion and reduce pollution, reduce bicycling fatalities and injuries by eliminating the need for cars and bicycles to jockey for the same road space, to reduce overall confusion and tension for all users of the road. In the United States, an academic analysis of eight cycle tracks found that they had increased bike traffic on the street by 75 percent within one year of installation. Rider surveys indicated that 10 percent of riders after installation would have chosen a different mode for that trip without the cycle track, 25 percent said they were biking more in general since the installation of the cycle track.
Cycle tracks may be one-way or two-way, may be at road level, at sidewalk level, or at an intermediate level. They all have in common some separation from motor traffic with bollards, car parking, barriers or boulevards. Barriers may include curbs, concrete berms, planting/median strips, trenches, or fences, they are accompanied by a curb extension or other features at intersections to simplify crossing. In the UK, cycle track is a roadway constructed for use by cyclists, but not by any other vehicles. In Ireland cycle track covers cycle lanes marked on the carriageway but only if accompanied by a specific sign. In the UK, a cycle track may be alongside a roadway for all vehicles or it may be on its own alignment; the term does not include other facilities within an all-vehicle carriageway. Bikeway safety, including studies on the safety of cycle tracks Bikeway and legislation Bikeway controversies Bikeways Cycling infrastructure List of cycleways Outline of cycling Rail trail
Reseda, Los Angeles
Reseda is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in 1912, its central business district started in 1915; the neighborhood was devoted to agriculture for many years. Earthquakes struck the area in 1971 and 1994; the neighborhood has fifteen public and five private schools. The community includes a senior center and a regional branch library. Parts of Reseda have been used in several motion television productions; the area now known as Reseda, like much of Los Angeles County was inhabited by Native Americans of the Tongva tribe who lived close to what is now known as the Los Angeles River. In 1909 the Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by H. J. Whitley, general manager of the Board of Control, along with Harry Chandler, H. G. Otis, M. H. Sherman and O. F. Brandt purchased 48,000 acres of the Farming and Milling Company for $2,500,000. Henry E. Huntington, extended his Pacific Electric Railway through the Valley to Owensmouth; the Suburban Home Company laid out plans for roads and the towns of Van Nuys and Canoga Park.
The rural areas were annexed into the city of Los Angeles in 1915. On April 2, 1915 H. J. Whitley purchased the Suburban Home Company so that he would have complete control for finishing the development. On land, part of the San Fernando Mission, Reseda originated in 1912 as the town of Marian, it was named after Marian Otis Chandler, the daughter of the Los Angeles Times publisher, Harrison Gray Otis and wife of Harry Chandler. The name Reseda itself refers to the fragrant plant Reseda odorata, found in gardens of the time and is native to many areas with a Mediterranean climate; the geographic name "Reseda" was first used for a siding on a branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which ran between the cities of Burbank and Chatsworth in the San Fernando Valley. In the 1920s, the name Reseda was transferred from the Southern Pacific Railroad to the Western Division of the Pacific Electric Railway "Red Cars Line", which had expedited development after the building of the Los Angeles Aqueduct.
It was used as the name of a stop on the Pacific Electric interurban railway running along Sherman Way. Throughout this time the town's name of Marian remained; as the Zelzah Tribune reported: The Marian territory has made application for a post office to serve that district. To avoid confusion in mail distribution it is necessary that the name of the town be changed and the people of that community have decided upon the name Reseda, if the application is granted it will be the only post office in the United States by that name. Mrs. Turner, we are told, who has taken an active interest in the canvass and to create a sentiment for post office advantages, will be the postmistress. Ninety-two residents agreed to rename the town Reseda; the central business district began in 1915, at what is now the intersection of Reseda Boulevard and Sherman Way, with the construction of a hardware store. Soon a blacksmith shop and an auto repair garage were built nearby. Within a short time, these were followed by a drug store.
There were no sidewalks or pavement yet, most were beginning to be added during the 1918 to early 1920s time period. On the southwest corner of Sherman Way a wooden building housed the volunteer Fire Department until 1922, when the present brick building was erected as was the Reseda Bank; the wooden building, housing the Fire Department, was moved to the southeast side of Sherman Way, where it remained until 1933. In May 1929, the city's namesake roadway, Reseda Avenue, was renamed Reseda Boulevard by a Los Angeles City ordinance. Parts of the original 1920s and 1930s residential neighborhood remain and are found to the southwest of Sherman Way and Reseda Boulevard. Reseda grew slowly; the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequent Great Depression further slowed expansion. During the late 1920s and 1930s, the area became known for its production of lettuce, lima beans, sugar beets, walnuts; the Southern Pacific Railroad trains came up the middle of Sherman Way to pick up freight cars of lettuce on a daily basis during the lettuce harvest season.
Around that time, manufacturing roof tile, canning poultry products, processing walnuts began to emerge as viable businesses as well. Reseda remained an agricultural community with a population of 1,805 in 1930. However, by 1940 the population had increased to 4,147 residents; the mid to 1940's saw a large increase in the numbers of single-family dwellings in Reseda and the loss of numerous acres of agriculture, the addition of First Class Postal Service. Reseda was one of the first suburbs in the San Fernando Valley; the large ranches were subdivided, the area was developed by realtors just as the veterans of World War II were returning home. The familiar orange groves were successively plowed under in favor of housing. At the time, most of the jobs were in the Los Angeles Basin and to the south, over the Santa Monica mountains. By 1950, Reseda had over 16,000 residents and in the early 1950s, a population explosion took place, making Reseda one of the most popular and populated of all Valley communities.
Because of this, Reseda's merchants provided bus service to transport shoppers throughout the busy downtown Reseda areas. In the early 1950s, the Valley's population reached 400,000; the average new Valley home, in 1949, cost $9,000. By 1955, that same house could be resold for nearly $15,000. At that price, th
Orange Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line in the Metro Busway network in Los Angeles County, California. It operates between Chatsworth and the North Hollywood Metro Station in the San Fernando Valley where it connects with the Metro Red Line on the Metro Rail system for Downtown Los Angeles; the other line in the Metro Busway network is the Metro Silver Line. The 18-mile Orange Line uses a dedicated, exclusive right-of-way for the entirety of its route with stations located at one-mile intervals; the Metro Orange Line bicycle path runs alongside part of the route. The line, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, opened on October 29, 2005, with a construction cost of $324 million; the route follows part of the Southern Pacific Railroad's former Burbank Branch Line which provided passenger rail service from 1904 to 1920. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the F Line while retaining its orange coloring; because of its many differences from a standard bus service, the authority has branded the transitway as part of the region's network of light and heavy rail lines.
It appears on Metro's "Metro Busway" map. Orange Line vehicles are painted in the silver-and-gray color scheme of Metro Rail vehicles, it is one of the authority's two bus lines that have been marketed with a color designation rather than its line number. The Orange Line is referred to by its line number, but it sometimes appears on documents and destination signage; the transitway's color name, the Orange Line, refers to the many citrus trees that once blanketed the San Fernando Valley. In the planning stages the transitway was known as the San Fernando Valley East-West Transitway, the Metro Rapidway. Metro Orange Line buses to Chatsworth operate 24 hours a day. At peak hours, alternate buses run only between Canoga Station. Passengers can transfer at Canoga to a shuttle bus that serves the Warner Center area, including the former Orange Line station. Maximum recorded average weekday boardings were 31,904 during September 2013. While usage fell during the Great Recession with average weekday boarding running at 22,669 in 2010, it has since rebounded, averaging 28,263 weekday boardings so far in 2015.
Collisions Collisions with automobiles occurred weekly during the first several months of operations. Metro has noted that the Orange Line had about the same accident rate as other bus lines in the city on a per-mile basis, has stated that the line's accident rate is "less than half" of Metro's entire fleet of buses; the Blue Line had a significant number of collisions in its early years and has the highest fatality rate in North America. Metro issued slow orders after two collisions in November 2005 involving a critically injured driver. Buses were required to slow to 10 mi/h vs. 25–30 mi/h. In December 2005, Metro called for the installation of red-light cameras at most intersections. CapacityThere is concern that the Orange Line will soon reach its engineered capacity, has exceeded its designed capacity during peak periods. During peak hours, the signaling system is designed to balance the Orange Line buses with vehicle cross traffic. Adding more buses requires platooning, or bunching, the running of convoys of two or more buses together, similar to what rail achieves in having multiple cars per train.
Greater signal prioritization is an option, comes at the cost of decreasing cross street travel times and capacity. Another alternative requires the changing of state law or the granting of a Caltrans exemption from state law and the purchasing of 80-foot-long buses; the majority of the Orange Line is built on part of the former Southern Pacific Railroad, taken over for Pacific Electric Red Car service. As the Metro Rail system was being designed in the 1990s, initial plans were to build an extension of the Metro Red Line there, since the purchased right-of-way's eastern terminus was at the site of the planned North Hollywood station. However, political developments stymied these plans: community objections to surface transit along the route resulted in a 1991 law mandating that any line along the route be built as a deep-bore tunnel, but a 1998 ballot measure driven by perceptions of mismanagement banned the use of county sales tax to fund subway tunneling. Prevented from using the route for rail, Metro proceeded to create its first bus rapid transit line along the corridor, despite further lawsuits from area residents, the line opened on October 29, 2005, at a final cost of $324 million.
On June 23, 2009 construction began on a four-mile extension from Canoga northward along the Southern Pacific trackbed to the Metrolink station in Chatsworth. Metro's board approved the plan on September 28, 2006, it was completed in 2012 at a cost of $215 million; this created two branches at the western end of the line beyond Canoga station. In 2018, this branch was eliminated and replaced with a frequent service local shuttle, leaving the entirety of the Orange Line on dedicated right-of-way. In July 2017, Metro voted to begin a transition to an all-electric bus fleet. While the entire fleet will not be replaced until 2030, the transition on the two Metro Busway lines will begin much sooner
California State University, Northridge
California State University, Northridge is a public state university in the Northridge neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. With a total enrollment of 38,716 students, it has the largest undergraduate population as well as the second largest total student body of the 23-campus California State University system, making it one of the largest comprehensive universities in the State of California and the nation in terms of enrollment size; the size of CSUN has a major impact on the California economy, with an estimated $1.9 billion in economic output generated by CSUN on a yearly basis. As of Fall 2017, the university had 2,127 faculty. California State University, Northridge was founded first as the Valley satellite campus of California State University, Los Angeles, it became an independent college in 1958 as San Fernando Valley State College, with major campus master planning and construction. The university adopted its current name of California State University, Northridge in 1972. CSUN offers a variety of programs including 134 different bachelor's degrees, master's degrees in 70 different fields, 3 doctoral degrees, 24 teaching credentials.
CSUN ranks 10th in the U. S. in bachelor's degrees has over 300,000 alumni. Additionally, CSUN has been recognized as having one of the best film schools in the U. S. and in the world. CSUN is home to the National Center on Deafness and the university hosts the International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, held each year in San Diego. CSUN's Chicana and Chicano Studies Department is the largest in California; the establishment of CSUN began in 1952 with the proposal of a new satellite campus for Los Angeles State College. A Baldwin Hills location was planned in 1955, but San Fernando Valley advocates persuaded state officials to change the location to Northridge. In July 1958, the campus separated from Los Angeles State College and was renamed San Fernando Valley State College, with enrollment reaching 2,525 and tuition $29 per semester. In 1959, it became the first State College to have its own computer. In 1964, the pioneering computer lab was moved into quarters in the newly completed Sierra Hall building complex, student enrollment reached nearly 12,000.
The campus's quiet, moderately conservative and overwhelmingly white suburban setting did not shield it from a share of the noise and social upheavals of the Vietnam War era. As on many college campuses, there were large antiwar demonstrations and occasional draft card burnings. In 1966–67, there were only 23 Black and 7 Latino students. Responding to complaints about low minority representation, the administration made some attempts to boost enrollment of Latinos and Blacks in 1967. By the fall of 1968 the tally stood at about 150 75 Latino students. In March 1968, a presidential primary campaign speech by Robert F. Kennedy drew an orderly crowd of 10,000, but in the wake of the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. in April and Robert Kennedy himself in June, some events were not so peaceful. On November 4, 1968, a group of Black students held the college president and more than 30 staff members hostage in the Administration Building for several hours, pressing demands for greater outreach in minority enrollment and employment and the establishment of minority studies departments.
No one was hurt and, under duress, the president agreed to their demands. The administration kept its part of the bargain, but despite an included assurance of amnesty, 28 of the students involved were charged with kidnapping and false imprisonment. One month a fire started by an arsonist gutted the president's office. Several massive antiwar demonstrations took place during 1969–1970, variously resulting in campus shutdowns, heavy police responses, violent clashes, hundreds of arrests, in a few cases serious injuries to demonstrators; the last such demonstration was on the first anniversary of the Kent State shootings. The college renamed itself California State University, Northridge in June 1972. In 1975, the construction of the CSUN sculpture began at the southeast corner of campus. By 1977, enrollment at the university was 28,023, with tuition at $95. In 1981, the campus established a foreign exchange student program with Japan, Ukraine, South Korea, Taiwan and the Netherlands. In 1988, the campus had a $342 tuition fee.
In 1990, the Marilyn Magaram Center for Food Science and Dietetics was established. The 1994 Northridge earthquake struck on January 17 and caused $400 million in damage to the campus, the heaviest damage sustained by an American college campus; the epicenter was less than two miles away on a undiscovered blind thrust fault. The same month, Vice President Al Gore visited with a promise of funds to help with the reconstruction. Entire sections of the main library, the art building and several other major structures were either physically unusable or too hazardous to occupy, but classes soon continued in alternative locations and hastily erected temporary facilities. Among the structures judged to be so damaged that repair was not a practical option were the