Bosnian Cyrillic known as Bosančica is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet that originated in medieval Bosnia. The term was coined at the end XIX century by Ćiro Truhelka, it was used in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the bordering areas of modern-day Croatia. Its name in Serbo-Croatian is bosančica and bosanica the latter of which can be translated as Bosnian script. Serbian scholars consider it as part of variant of Serbian Cyrillic because of a lot of mentions of Bosnian Cyrillic as Serbian letters or Serbian characters in sources among Catholics and Muslims in Bosnia and Southern Dalmatia. Croat scholars call it Croatian script, Croatian–Bosnian script, Bosnian–Croat Cyrillic, harvacko pismo, arvatica or Western Cyrillic. For other names of Bosnian Cyrillic, see below; the use of Bosančica amongst Bosnians was replaced by Arebica upon the introduction of Islam in Bosnia Eyalet, first amongst the elite amongst the wider public. The first book in Bosančica was printed by Frančesko Micalović in 1512 in Venice.
It is hard to ascertain when the earliest features of a characteristic Bosnian type of Cyrillic script had begun to appear, but paleographers consider the Humac tablet to be the first document of this type of script and is believed to date from the 10th or 11th century. Bosnian Cyrillic was used continuously until the 18th century, with sporadic usage taking place in the 20th century. Bosnian Cyrillic is prominent in the following areas: Passages from the Bible in documents of Bosnian Church adherents, 13th and 15th century. Numerous legal and commercial documents of nobles and royalty from medieval Bosnian state in correspondence with the Republic of Ragusa and various cities in Dalmatia, beginning in the 12th and 13th centuries, reaching its peak in the 14th and 15th centuries. Tombstone inscriptions on marbles in medieval Bosnia and Herzegovina, chiefly between 11th and 15th centuries. Legal documents in central Dalmatia, like the Poljica Statute and other numerous charters from this area.
The "Supetar fragment" from the 12th century was found in Sveti Petar u Šumi in central Istria, among the stones of a collapsed southern monastery wall. Until the 15th century it was a Benedictine monastery and a Pauline monastery; this finding could indicate that Bosančica spread all the way to Kvarner Gulf. The Roman Catholic diocese in Omiš had a seminary active in the 19th century, in which arvatica letters were used. Liturgical works of the Roman Catholic Church from Dubrovnik, 15th and 16th century - the most famous is a printed breviary from 1512 The comprehensive body of Bosnian literacy associated with the Franciscan order, from the 16th to mid-18th century and early 19th century; this is by far the most abundant corpus of works written in Bosnian Cyrillic, covering various genres, but belonging to the liturgical literature: numerous polemical tractates in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, popular tales from the Bible, breviaries, historical chronicles, local church histories, religious poetry and didactic works.
Among the most important writings of this circle are works of Matija Divković, Stjepan Matijević and Pavao Posilović. After the Ottoman conquest, Bosnian Cyrillic was used, along with Arebica, by the Bosnian Muslim nobility, chiefly in correspondence from the 15th to 17th centuries. Isolated families and individuals could write in it in the 20th century. In conclusion, main traits of Bosnian Cyrillic include: It was a form of Cyrillic script in use in Bosnia and Herzegovina, central Dalmatia and Dubrovnik, its earliest monuments are from the 11th century, but the golden epoch covered the period from the 14th to 17th centuries. From the late 18th century it rather speedily fell into disuse to be replaced by the Latin script, its primary characteristics show strong connection with the Glagolitic script, unlike the standard Church Slavonic form of Cyrillic script associated with Eastern Orthodox churches. It had been in use, in ecclesiastical works in Bosnian Church and Roman Catholic Church in historical lands of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dubrovnik.
It was a widespread script in Bosnian Muslim circles, however, preferred modified Arabic aljamiado script. Serbian Orthodox clergy and adherents used the standard Serbian Cyrillic of the Resava orthography; the form of Bosnian Cyrillic has passed through a few phases, so although culturally it is correct to speak about one script, it is evident that features present in Bosnian Franciscan documents in the 1650s differ from the charters from Brač island in Dalmatia in the 1250s. The polemic about "ethnic affiliation" of Bosnian Cyrillic started in the 19th century reappeared in the mid-1990s. Without going into nuances and details, the polemic about attribution and affiliation of Bosnian Cyrillic texts seems to rest on further arguments: Serbian scholars claim that it is just a variant of Serbian Cyrillic. Accordingly, Bosnian Cyrillic texts belong to the Serbian literary corpus; some consider that a strong argument in favour of the Serbian side is the fact that there are a lot of mentions of Bosnian Cyrillic as "Serbian letters" or "Serbian characters" among Catholics a
Prekmurje Slovene known as the Prekmurje dialect, East Slovene, or Wendish, is a Slovene dialect belonging to a Pannonian dialect group of Slovene. It is used in private communication and publications by authors from Prekmurje, it is spoken in the Prekmurje region of Slovenia and by the Hungarian Slovenes in Vas County in western Hungary. It is related to other Slovene dialects in neighboring Slovene Styria, as well as to Kajkavian with which it retains partial mutual intelligibility and forms a dialect continuum with other South Slavic languages; the Prekmurje dialect is spoken by 110,000 speakers worldwide. 80,000 in Prekmurje, 20,000 dispered in 10,000 in other countries. In Hungary it is used by the Slovene-speaking minority in Vas County in and around the town of Szentgotthárd. Other speakers of the dialect live in other Hungarian towns Budapest, Szombathely and Mosonmagyaróvár; the dialect was spoken in Somogy, but it has nearly disappeared in the last two centuries. There are some speakers in Austria, the United States, Argentina.
Prekmurje Slovene has a defined territory and body of literature, it is one of the few Slovene dialects in Slovenia, still spoken by all strata of the local population. Some speakers have claimed. Prominent writers in Prekmurje Slovene, such as Miklós Küzmics, István Küzmics, Ágoston Pável, József Klekl Senior, József Szakovics, have claimed that it is a language, not a dialect. Evald Flisar, a writer and playwright from Prekmurje, states that people from Prekmurje "talk in our own language." It had a written standard and literary tradition, both of which were neglected after World War II. There were attempts to publish in it more in the 1990s in Hungary, there has been a revival of literature in Prekmurje Slovene since the late 1990s. Others consider Prekmurje Slovene a regional language, without denying; the linguist Janko Dular has characterized Prekmurje Slovene as a "local standard language" for historical reasons, as has the Prekmurje writer Feri Lainšček. However, Prekmurje Slovene is not recognized as a language by Slovenia or Hungary, nor does it enjoy any legal protection under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, although in 2016 the General Maister Society proposed that primary schools offer education in the dialect and some regional politicians and intellectuals advocate Prekmurje Slovene.
Together with Resian, Prekmurje Slovene is the only Slovene dialect with a literary standard that has had a different historical development from the rest of Slovene ethnic territory. For centuries, it was used as a language of religious education, as well as in the mass; the historical Hungarian name for the Slovenes living within the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary was Vendek, or the Wends. In the 18th and 19th centuries Prekmurje authors used to designate this dialect as sztári szlovenszki jezik'old Slovene'. Both and now, it is referred to as the "Slovene language between the Mura and Raba". Prekmurje Slovene is used in the regional media, literature; the younger generation write SMS messages and web comments in their local tongue. In the Prekmurje and Hungary a few streets, hotels, etc. have Prekmurje Slovene names. In the 2012 protests in Slovenia in Murska Sobota the protesters use, it is the liturgical language in the Lutheran and Pentecostal churches, in the Catholic Church of Hungarian Slovenes.
Marko Jesenšek, a professor at the University of Maribor, states that the functionality of Prekmurje Slovene is limited, but "it lives on in poetry and journalism." Prekmurje Slovene is part of the Pannonian dialect group known as the eastern Slovene dialect group. Prekmurje Slovene shares many common features with the dialects of Haloze, Slovenske Gorice, Prlekija, with which it is mutually intelligible, it is closely related to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian, although mutual comprehension is difficult. Prekmurje Slovene its more traditional version spoken by the Hungarian Slovenes, is not understood by speakers from central and western Slovenia, whereas speakers from eastern Slovenia have much less difficulty understanding it; the early 20th-century philologist Ágoston Pável stated that Prekmurje Slovene "is in fact a large, autonomous dialect of Slovene, from which it differs in stress, consonant softness and—due to the lack of a significant language reform—a scarceness of vocabulary of modern terms" and that it preserves "many ancient features."
Prekmurje Slovene was not written with the Bohorič alphabet used by Slovenes in Inner Austria, but with a Hungarian-based orthography. János Murkovics's textbook was the first book to use Gaj's Latin Alphabet. Before 1914: Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Cscs, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gygy, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Lyly, Mm, Nn, Nyny, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Őő, Pp, Rr, Szsz, Ss, Tt, Uu, Üü, Űű, Vv, Zz, Zszs. After 1914: Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Čč, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gjgj, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Ljlj, Mm, Nn, Njnj, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Šš, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Zz, Žž; the Prekmurje dialect has a phonology similar to the phonolo
Banat Bulgarian dialect
Banat Bulgarian is the outermost dialect of the Bulgarian language with standardized writing and an old literary tradition. It is spoken by the Banat Bulgarians in Romania and Serbia, it is spoken by 8,000 people, though other estimates give numbers up to 15,000. In 1998, Jáni Vasilčin from Dudeştii Vechi translated the New Testament into Banat Bulgarian: Svetotu Pismu Novija Zákun. In 2017 published Ána Marijka Bodor an Banat Bulgarian translation of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince; the Banat Bulgarians are predominantly Roman Catholic people. Their ancestors arrived in the region centuries ago from Northern Bulgaria, they settled in Oltenia under the Wallachian prince when Oltenia fell to the Ottomans, they fled to Hungary. The ancestor of the Banat Bulgarian language is the Paulician dialect, member of the Rup dialect group. In the 1740s, Blasius Hristofor instituted the first school in Dudeştii Vechi in which Banat Bulgarian was taught using the Latin script; some Bulgarian priests of the time used the Latin alphabet, banned by the bishops.
In the 19th century, the group's national consciousness strengthened and more Banat books were written. In the 19th century, Banat Bulgarian schools used the Illyrian-Slavic language. In the course of using Illyrian-Slavic, the more Slovenisms entered the language; the Hungarian Imre Berecz and the Croatian András Klobucsár wrote a few books in their mother tongue. Berecz wrote a catechism in Banat Bulgarian. Klobucsár designed a prayer- and hymn-book. One of the teachers, János Uzun wrote secular verses. In 1866, József Rill published Balgarsku právupisanj; the Balgarsku právupisanj was used to design coursebooks in Banat Bulgarian, including an ABC book and reader, together with Biblijata and Gulemija Kátaæizmus. Teacher Leopold Koszilkov was translating Gospels. Fránc Glász and the German Ludovik Fischer wrote a prayer-book; this were notable works notables in Banat Bulgarian literature, as were popular. The prayerbooks contain prayers and the biographies of saints. Koszilkov published calendars.
Banat Bulgarians retained their language. Romanian and Serbian were used in schools, but in the catechisms henceforward Banat Bulgarian was used; the vernacular of the Bulgarians of Banat can be classified as a Paulician dialect of the Eastern Bulgarian group. A typical feature is the "ы" vowel, which can either take an etymological place or replace "i". Other characteristic phonological features are the "ê" reflex of the Old Church Slavonic yat and the reduction of "o" into "u" and sometimes "e" into "i": puljé instead of pole, sélu instead of selo, ugništi instead of ognište. Another feature is the palatalization of final consonants, typical for other Slavic languages but found only in some nonstandard dialects in Bulgarian and not in standard Bulgarian. Lexically, the language has borrowed many words from languages such as German, Hungarian and Romanian due to the close contacts with the other peoples of the multiethnic Banat and the religious ties with other Roman Catholic peoples. Banat Bulgarian has some older loanwords from Ottoman Turkish and Greek, which it shares with other Bulgarian dialects.
Loanwords constitute around 20% of the Banat Bulgarian vocabulary. The names of some Banat Bulgarians are influenced by Hungarian names, as the Hungarian name order is sometimes used and the female ending "-a" is dropped from family names. Thus, Marija Velčova would become Velčov Marija. In addition to loanwords, the lexicon of Banat Bulgarian has acquired calques and neologisms, such as svetica, oganbalváč, predhurta; the Banat Bulgarian language has its own alphabet based on the Croatian alphabet and preserves many features that are archaic in the language spoken in Bulgaria. Banat Bulgarian was codified as early as 1866 and is used in literature and the media, which distinguishes it from other Bulgarian dialects; the following is the Banat Bulgarian Latin alphabet: Нягулов, Благовест. Банатските българи. Историята на една малцинствена общност във времето на националните държави. София: Парадигма. ISBN 978-954-9536-13-3. SVETA UD PUKRAJ NÁMU Virtuálna Biblioteka UBBR - Sájta na palćenete
The Bohorič alphabet was an orthography used for Slovene between the 16th and 19th centuries. Its name is derived from Adam Bohorič, who codified the alphabet in his book Articae Horulae Succisivae, it was printed in 1583 and published in 1584. The Bohorič alphabet was first used by the Lutheran preacher Primož Trubar, the author of the first printed book in Slovene. However, Trubar did not follow strict rules and used alternate spellings for the same word; the alphabet consists of 25 letters in the following order: a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p r ſ ſh s sh t u v z zh The Bohorič alphabet differs from the modern Slovene alphabet in the following letters: In the early Bohorič alphabet, some letters shared majuscule forms: I was the majuscule form of i and j V was the majuscule form of u and v S was the majuscule form of s and ſ SH was the majuscule form of sh and ſhThere were other differences from the modern Slovene orthography. The schwa sound preceding R was written with the letter E, while in modern Slovene the E is omitted: the Slovene name for the city of Trieste, was thus written as Terſt, the word for "square" was written as terg, etc.
One-letter prepositions, such as v, s/z, or k/g were written with an apostrophe: thus, the phrase "in Ljubljana" would be written v'Ljubljani instead of modern Slovene v Ljubljani, "to my place" would be k'meni instead of modern k meni, etc. Bohorič's alphabet was first codified in 1584 by the Protestant author Adam Bohorič in his book Articae horulae succisivae, considered to be the first grammar book of the Slovene language, it was based on the Latin script adopted from the German by Primož Trubar since 1555 and used extensively for thirty years. It differed somewhat from the original alphabet also due to changes introduced by Sebastjan Krelj and Jurij Dalmatin, it was used in Dalmatin's first translation of the entire Bible to the Slovene. Although the Counter-Reformation destroyed the Protestant religious community in the Slovene Lands, the alphabet was taken over by Catholic authors, most notably by the Roman Catholic bishop of Ljubljana Thomas Chrön. In the 17th and early 18th century few literary texts were written in Slovene.
Slovene names in Valvasor's German-written book The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, for example, were all rendered in this script. In the late 18th century, with the revival of Slovene, Bohorič's script came back into general use, it was modernized by 18th-century philologists Marko Jurij Japelj. By the end of the 18th century, it was accepted by the Enlightenment intellectuals around Sigmund Zois. With the authors Anton Tomaž Linhart and Valentin Vodnik, it became an established tool of literary expression again; the Bohorič alphabet was quite successful, but it suffered from a number of flaws: Slovenian has eight vowels, but the Bohorič alphabet only has five vowel characters. The combination "sh" could be read as a digraph, it did not distinguish vowel length. It did not distinguish tone; the script remained unchallenged until the 1820s, when there were several attempts to replace them with phonetic alphabets. The two most famous attempts were made by Peter Dajnko in 1824 and Fran Metelko in 1825.
These attempts, sponsored by the philologist Jernej Kopitar, were however fiercely opposed by the Romantic intellectual circle around Matija Čop and France Prešeren. This debate over orthographic reform became known as the so-called Slovene alphabet war. By the mid-1830s, the supporters of Bohorič's script gained their battle against the innovators with the support of the Czech linguist František Čelakovský. However, criticisms of the bohoričica script remained alive. In the 1840s, the editor Janez Bleiweis proposed a compromise solution by introducing a modified version of the Croatian Gaj's Latin alphabet for his journal Kmetijske in rokodelske novice; this solution was accepted by all sides, by 1848/1850, Gaj's reformed alphabet replaced Bohorič's script. Suggestions to revive the Bohorič script were advanced in the 1980s. Several people suggested that a modified version of the script should be revived for IT purposes because the first computers for general use could not handle non-standard Latin characters.
In the 1990s, a "reformed Bohorič alphabet" was adopted by a group of authors around the journal SRP. This has been the only attempt to revive the Bohorič alphabet and has gained no attention outside the editorial board of the journal. Media related to Bohorič alphabet at Wikimedia Commons
Gaj's Latin alphabet
Gaj's Latin alphabet is the form of the Latin script used in Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian and Montenegrin. It was devised based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, a expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia; the alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters: Gaj's original alphabet contained the digraph ⟨dj⟩, which Serbian linguist Đuro Daničić replaced with the letter ⟨đ⟩. The letters do not have names, consonants are pronounced as such when spelling is necessary; when clarity is needed, they are pronounced similar to the German alphabet: a, be, ce, če, će, de, dže, đe, e, ef, ge, ha, i, je, ka, el, elj, em, en, enj, o, pe, er, es, eš, te, u, ve, ze, že.
These rules for pronunciation of individual letters are common as far as the 22 letters that match the ISO basic Latin alphabet are concerned. The use of others is limited to the context of linguistics, while in mathematics, ⟨j⟩ is pronounced jot, as in German; the missing four letters are pronounced as follows: ⟨q⟩ as ku or kju, ⟨w⟩ as dublve or duplo ve, ⟨x⟩ as iks, ⟨y⟩ as ipsilon. Letters ⟨š⟩, ⟨ž⟩, ⟨č⟩ and ⟨dž⟩ represent the sounds, but are transcribed as /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/. Note that the digraphs dž, lj, nj are considered to be single letters: In dictionaries, njegov comes after novine, in a separate ⟨nj⟩ section after the end of the <n> section. In vertical writing, ⟨ dž ⟩, ⟨ lj ⟩, ⟨. For instance, if mjenjačnica is written vertically, ⟨nj⟩ appears on the fourth line. In crossword puzzles, ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩, ⟨nj⟩ each occupy a single square. If words are written with a space between each letter, each digraphs is written as a unit. For instance: M J E NJ A Č N I C A. If only the initial letter of a word is capitalized, only the first of the two component letters is capitalized: Njemačka, not NJemačka.
In Unicode, the form ⟨Nj⟩ is referred to as titlecase, as opposed to the uppercase form ⟨NJ⟩, representing one of the few cases in which titlecase and uppercase differ. Uppercase would be used if the entire word was capitalized: NJEMAČKA; the Croatian Latin alphabet was designed by Ljudevit Gaj, who modelled it after Czech and Polish, invented ⟨lj⟩, ⟨nj⟩ and ⟨dž⟩. In 1830, he published in Buda the book Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja, the first common Croatian orthography book, it was not the first Croatian orthography work, as it was preceded by works of Rajmund Đamanjić, Ignjat Đurđević and Pavao Ritter Vitezović. Croats had used the Latin script, but some of the specific sounds were not uniformly represented. Versions of the Hungarian alphabet were most used, but others were too, in an confused, inconsistent fashion. Gaj followed the example of Pavao Ritter Vitezović and the Czech orthography, making one letter of the Latin script for each sound in the language, his alphabet mapped on Serbian Cyrillic, standardized by Vuk Karadžić a few years before.Đuro Daničić suggested in his Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika published in 1880 that Gaj's digraphs ⟨dž⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ should be replaced by single letters: ⟨ģ⟩, ⟨đ⟩, ⟨ļ⟩ and ⟨ń⟩ respectively.
The original Gaj alphabet was revised, but only the digraph ⟨dj⟩ has been replaced with Daničić's ⟨đ⟩, while ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ have been kept. In the 1990s, there was a general confusion about the proper character encoding to use to write text in Latin Croatian on computers. An attempt was made to apply the 7-bit "YUSCII" "CROSCII", which included the five letters with diacritics at the expense of five non-letter characters, but it was unsuccessful; because the ASCII character @ sorts before A, this led to jokes calling it žabeceda. Other short-lived vendor-specific efforts were undertaken; the 8-bit ISO 8859-2 standard was developed by ISO. MS-DOS introduced 8-bit encoding CP852 for Central European languages, disregarding the ISO standard. Microsoft Windows spread yet another 8-bit encoding called CP1250, which had a few letters mapped one-to-one with ISO 8859-2, but had some mapped elsewhere. Apple's Macintosh Central European encoding does not include the entire Gaj's Latin alphabet. Instead, a separate codepage, called MacCroatian encoding, is used.
EBCDIC has a Latin-2 encoding. The preferred character encoding for Croatian today is either the ISO 8859-2, or the Unicode encoding UTF-8. However, as of 2010, one can still find programs as well as databases that use CP1250, CP852 or CROSCII. Digraphs ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ in their upper case, title case and lower case forms have dedicated UNICODE code points as shown in the table below, these are included chiefly for backwards compatibility (with legacy encodings which kept a one-to-one correspondence
Bulgarian dialects are the regional spoken varieties of the Bulgarian language, a South Slavic language. Bulgarian dialectology dates to the 1830s and the pioneering work of Neofit Rilski, Bolgarska gramatika. Other notable researchers in this field include Marin Drinov, Konstantin Josef Jireček, Lyubomir Miletich, Aleksandar Teodorov-Balan, Stoyko Stoykov; the dialects of Macedonian were for the most part classified as part of Bulgarian in the older literature. The Bulgarian linguistics continue to treat it as such in. Since the second half of the 20th century, foreign authors have adopted the convention of treating these in terms of a separate Macedonian language, following the codification of Macedonian as the literary standard language of Yugoslav Macedonia. However, some contemporary linguists still consider Macedonian as a dialect of Bulgarian. Macedonian authors in turn tend to treat all dialects spoken in the geographical region of Macedonia as Macedonian, including those spoken in Bulgarian Macedonia.
Together with their closest lexical and grammatical relative they comprise the Eastern South Slavic branch. The present article treats all these dialects together, because of their close structural similarity and the fact that many important dialect boundaries intersect both territories; the Bulgar nation absorbed diverse Slavic tribes and not a particular language. The main isogloss separating the Bulgarian dialects into Eastern and Western is the yat border, marking the different mutations of the Old Bulgarian yat form, pronounced as either /ʲa/ or /ɛ/ to the east and as /ɛ/ to the west of it throughout former Yugoslavia. Isoglosses shape three groups. Besides the Eastern and Western dialects, the Rup group of dialects is distinct, which comrpises the Rhodopes and everything southwards from Thessaloniki to Istanbul, although it is an Eastern dialect; the official language derives most from the northeastern group of dialects nominally based on Veliko Tarnovo dialect. Many Western South Slavic lexical and phonological isoglosses are present in all Western Bulgarian dialects and rarer in Rup dialects, which peak in Torlakian.
Bulgarian and Serbian dialects share characteristics far beyond the Torlakian area and beyond the contested territories of the medieval Bulgarian and Serbian states, which are west of Sofia. So, these political entities are not responsible for the transitional features, but they are rooted in other type of evolution in a makeup in the contact area of the two sources of Eastern and Western South Slavic tribes; the transitional dialect from Tran shares more similarities with Serbo-Croatian than with Bulgarian. The makeup of the transitional area shows a mix of Eastern and Western South Slavic characteristics found in western Bulgaria, which contact happened in the Balkans assuming the exact location of this area. All isoglosses share gradual borders deep inside the country, but the northeast always don't, which means that the contact zone mixed after the settling of the Slavs in the Balkans. In one instance both a and ъ for nasal yus are part of Elin Pelin dialect. One of the words that remain the same on one of the largest areas in Bulgaria is that for night nosht, at best rare in other Slavic languages, in which along with the Torlaks in Bulgaria noch means night.
The same diversity of phonetic characteristics of the nosal big yus isoglosses as a root of the words zab maž, bachva, etc. featuring other vowels than u or o, are documented only in Eastern South Slavic and Lechitic dialects. The official pronunciation of a is now used in Kashubian; the modern official Polish this is still inscribed with a, but pronounced in number of varieties such as om as preserved in the Kostur dialect or e as in Varna dialect. Present and medieval Lechitic dialects are likely the only documented speech that would match analogously with the ending of the standard Bulgarian verbs in first person in present tense with yus endings am or a in singular form or in plural form. In eastern Bulgarian dialects in contrast with the other South Slavic languages, standard Ukrainian and Czech, the unstressed vowel e by palatalization turns into i or ie; the Bulgarian pronouns in third person toy, te are documented in some Ukrainian dialects. Bulgarian dialects can be divided into the following dialectal groups and individual dialects: History of the Bulgarian language Bulgarian lexis Bulgarian grammar Torlakian dialect Macedonian language Slavic dialects of Greece Стойков, Стойко.
Българска диалектология. София: Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов". ISBN 954-430-846-6. OCLC 53429452. Иванов, Йордан. Български диалектен атлас: Български говори от Егейска Македония. София: Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов". OCLC 7321826. Кочев, Иван. Български диалектен атлас. София: BAN, KK "Trud". ISBN 954-90344-1-0. OCLC 48368312
The Zeta–Raška dialect is a subdialect of the Štokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian. Its prevalence is in southern Montenegro and parts of the historical region of Raška in Serbia, it is spoken by local ethnic Serbs, Montenegrins and Muslims. Zeta–Raška dialect is found in the southern half of Montenegro. At its westernmost boundary, speakers of the dialect can be found along the Adriatic Sea from Ulcinj at its southernmost point to the town of Perast near Kotor in the north, where it borders with the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect; this border runs northeast toward Grahovo and further east to Kolašin. The border continues northeast toward Bijelo Polje and crosses into Serbia near the town of Brodarevo and meets the Ibar river near Sjenica; the border continues east, just south of Sjenica, into Ibarski Kolašin, where it borders the Kosovo–Resava dialect. The Zeta–Raška dialect veers south toward Leposavić, reaching the vicinity Kosovska Mitrovica before continuing westward across Mokra Gora and Žljeb back into Montenegro.
Upon re-entry into Montenegro, the dialectal border continues through the Prokletije mountains and straddles along the entire Montenegrin border with Albania. Enclaves of the Zeta–Raška dialect are scant. One enclave is in Petrovo Selo near Kladovo by the Đerdap Gorge in northeastern Serbia. Another enclave is in a region near Shkodër in northern Albania; the dialect is spoken in Peroj, a town in Istria, northwestern Croatia. In the standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian, certain verbs carry the -ao ending for the active past participle in the masculine gender. However, depending on the speaker, this ending is either contracted to -a or -ä in the Zeta–Raška dialect. Thus, words like mogao and rekao are pronounced as mogā / mogä and rekā / rekä; this type of contraction is not the usual norm for Štokavian speakers, as it is elsewhere found in Croatian seaside vernaculars. Moreover, this characteristic is not present in all areas of the Zeta–Raška dialect. In certain peripheral areas, the active past participle is not contracted to either -ā or -ä and pronounced fully.
In other areas, such as Paštrovići in Budva and Zupci in Bar, speakers contract the masculine active past participle from -ao to -o, such as in mogo and reko. This type of contraction of the active past participle considered the norm among Štokavian speakers. In certain parts of the dialectal region, namely Broćanac and Pješivci, the contraction the masculine active past participle from -ao to -o takes on a further step, where speakers add a v in the coda position, giving dov from davao and prodov from prodavao. Many vernaculars in southern and southeastern Montenegro have a distinct phoneme, characterized as a sound between /a/ and /e/, unusual for Štokavian speakers; the phoneme, transcribed here as ä, can be pronounced depending on the region. This feature is characteristically a reflex of Proto-Slavic ь and ъ, but can form by analogy by the speaker; this phoneme in syllable-final position becomes nasalized by speakers found along the border with Albania, notably rekän and zatekän. The Zeta–Raška dialect follows the Ijekavian reflex of yat, where ě in Proto-Slavic became either ije, je or e, depending on length and position.
Words with a long yat reflex became pronounced as disyllabic -ije- in middle positions. Examples include bijelo, vrijeme; this transformation was ignored by ethnic Bosniaks living in Podgorica and Plav-Gusinje, who followed an Ikavian reflex of yat. Ikavian is another reflex of yat where ě in Proto-Slavic would become -i- in all positions. Notably, instead of normal Ijekavian reflexes of yat, like mlijeko and sijeno, speakers in these regions would instead say mliko and sino. Aside from disyllabic -ije-, speakers in Mrkojevići region near Bar have multiple long yat reflexes. One reflex is -je-, a long yat reflex found among Bosnian and Croatian Ijekavian speakers. Another is -e-, found among Ekavian speakers in Serbia and elsewhere. Secondary ijekavisms known as hyperijekavisms, are widespread in the dialectal region. Examples include botijega, pancijer, but drijevo and pokrijeva. Words with a short yat reflex become transformed as either -je-, -e- or -i-, depending on length and position; the transformation of the short yat reflex in a word to -je- creates a iotified vowel.
This forces the consonant that comes into contact with the iotified vowel to become either or palatalized. In the Zeta–Raška dialect, dental consonants such as d, s, t and z become palatalized into đ, ś, ć and ź before an iotified vowel. In standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian, these dentals would be palatalized, i.e. dj, sj, tj and zj respectively. This iotation is present in words that do not have a short yat reflex, namely koźetina, iźelica and kiśelo. Iotation of -je- continues in labial consonants such as b, f, m, p and v where they undergo complete palatalization before a iotified vowel. Due to the iotation of labial consonants, the short yat reflex may become transformed into either -je- or -lje- as is common in many vernaculars found in the dialectal region; such examples include: mjesec / mljesec, pjesma / pljesma and vjera / vljera. Short yat transforms into -e- before r where the Proto-Slavic