Drum and bass
Drum and bass, is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s. The style is characterised by fast breakbeats with heavy bass and sub-bass lines, sampled sources, synthesizers; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. Drum and bass incorporates a number of styles. A major influence on jungle and drum and bass was the original Jamaican reggae sound. Another feature of the style is the complex syncopation of the drum tracks' breakbeat. Drum and bass subgenres include breakcore, ragga jungle, darkstep, neurofunk, ambient drum and bass, liquid funk, jump up, drumfunk, sambass and drill'n' bass. From its roots in the UK, the style has established itself around the world. Drum and bass has influenced many other genres like hip hop, big beat, house, trip hop, ambient music, jazz and pop. Drum and bass is dominated by a small group of record labels.
The major international music labels had shown little interest in the drum and bass scene, until BMG Rights Management acquired RAM in February 2016. Drum and bass remains most popular in the UK although it has developed scenes all around the world, in countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, the Czech Republic and Australia. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a growing nightclub and overnight outdoor event culture gave birth to a new electronic music style in the rave scene, which combined sampled syncopated beats or breakbeats, other samples from a wide range of different musical genres and samples of music and effects from films and television programmes. A faster subgenre was known as "hardcore" but from as early as 1991, some musical tracks made up of these high-tempo break beats, with heavy basslines and samples of older Jamaican music, were referred to as "jungle techno", a genre influenced by Jack Smooth and Basement Records, just "jungle", which became recognised as a separate musical genre popular at raves and on pirate radio in Britain.
It is important to note when discussing the history of drum and bass that prior to jungle, the music was getting faster and more experimental. Professional DJ and producer C. K. states, "There was a progression. Anyone buying vinyl every week from 1989 to 1992 noticed this." By 1994, jungle had begun to gain mainstream popularity and fans of the music became a more recognisable part of youth subculture. The genre further developed and fusing elements from a wide range of existing musical genres, including the raggamuffin sound, dancehall, MC chants, dub basslines, complex edited breakbeat percussion. Despite the affiliation with the ecstasy-fuelled rave scene, jungle inherited some associations with violence and criminal activity, both from the gang culture that had affected the UK's hip-hop scene and as a consequence of jungle's aggressive or menacing sound and themes of violence. However, this developed in tandem with the positive reputation of the music as part of the wider rave scene and dancehall-based Jamaican music culture prevalent in London.
By 1995, whether as a reaction to, or independently of this cultural schism, some jungle producers began to move away from the ragga-influenced style and create what would become collectively labelled, for convenience, as drum and bass. As the genre became more polished and sophisticated technically, it began to expand its reach from pirate radio to commercial stations and gain widespread acceptance, it began to split into recognisable subgenres such as jump-up and Hardstep. As a lighter and jazz-influenced style of drum and bass gained mainstream appeal, additional subgenres emerged including techstep which drew greater influence from techno music and the soundscapes of science fiction and anime films; the popularity of drum and bass at its commercial peak ran parallel to several other homegrown dance styles in the UK including big beat and hard house. But towards the turn of the millennium its popularity was deemed to have dwindled as the UK garage style known as speed garage yielded several hit singles.
Speed garage shared high tempos and heavy basslines with drum and bass, but otherwise followed the established conventions of "house music", with this and its freshness giving it an advantage commercially. London DJ/producer C. K. says, "It is forgotten by my students that a type of music called "garage house" existed in the late 1980s alongside hip house, acid house and other forms of house music." He continues, "This new garage of the mid 90s was not a form of house or a progression of garage house. The beats and tempo that define house are different; this did cause further confusion in the presence of new house music of the mid-1990s being played alongside what was now being called garage." Despite this, the emergence of further subgenres and related styles such as liquid funk brought a wave of new artists incorporating new ideas and techniques, supporting continual evolution of the genre. To this day drum and bass makes frequent appearances in mainstream media and popular culture including in television, as well as being a major reference point for subsequent genres such as grime and dubstep and successful artists including Chase & Status and Australia's Pendulum
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Music of Austria
Vienna has been an important center of musical innovation. 18th- and 19th-century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, made Vienna the European capital of classical music. Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert and Johann Strauss II, among others, were associated with the city, with Schubert being born in Vienna. During the Baroque period and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music. Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural center in the early 16th century, was focused around instruments including the lute. Yodeling, a form of singing that involves rapid and repeated changes of register, was developed in the Alps. What Austria called it was "juchizn". Falco was the most popular Austrian solo artist throughout the 1980s, his song "Rock Me Amadeus" reached the Billboard Hot 100 in 1986. His sudden death in 1998 in the Dominican Republic catapulted his music from the 1980s once again into the spotlight. Although Austria is not the biggest exporter of international rock and pop-bands, there are a few notable musicians and bands.
Opus made it in the charts worldwide as well. In the last few years, several music groups toured Europe and had commercial success in the international charts; the most prominent being Christina Stürmer. SheSays, who supported Bryan Adams on his European tour and some other bands like AOR, Cornerstone, are notable for their recent contributions. Blackened death metal trio Belphegor leads the Austrian metal scene, which includes Hollenthon, Pungent Stench, Disharmonic Orchestra, Visions of Atlantis, Dornenreich and Estatic Fear. Christian Fennesz is an Austrian electronic musician. Other electronic musicians who call Austria home include Der Blutharsch, active in the Neofolk scene, as are Sturmpercht. Drummer Thomas Lang was born in Vienna in 1967, has played with artists such as Robert Fripp, Geri Halliwell and Robbie Williams. One of the few international touring bands is Killed By Gasmac Gilmore from Vienna. Yearly the Waves Vienna Music Festival & Conference takes place in October; this festival is a showcase festival for European pop music acts.
The Vienna Philharmonic is a world-renowned classical music ensemble and tours throughout the year all over the world. Their New Year's Day concert held in Vienna every year in the Musikverein is one of Europe's most important classical concerts during the year. There is a vital electronic music scene in Austria. Groups and artists include Parov Stelar, Bernhard Fleischmann and Dorfmeister and Elektro Guzzi. Drum'n' Bass has a healthy reputation, with internationally successful Artists like Camo & Krooked, Ill. Skillz and Mefjus. Neue Deutsche Härte is most popular in the rest of the German Sprachraum. Notable bands include Stahlhammer and L'Âme Immortelle, both of which have had some international success; the German band Samsas Traum is now based in Austria as well. At 2014, Conchita Wurst won the Eurovision Song Contest representing Austria. Conchita Wurst is a drag queen portrayed by Thomas "Tom" Neuwirth. Following the win, the 60th anniversary Eurovision was held in Vienna in 2015; this was the second Eurovision contest to be held in Austria, first one being in 1967, after the winning performance Merci, Chérie by Udo Jürgens.
Austrian folk dance Ländler Music of Vienna Music of Innsbruck Schlager music#Germany and Austria "Famous Austrian Composers." Naxos Records Wagner, Christopher. "The Alpunk Phenomenon". 2000. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol. 1: Africa and the Middle East, pp 7–12. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Wagner, Christopher. "Soul Music of Old Vienna". 2000. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol. 1: Africa and the Middle East, pp 13–15. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Music Information Center Austria Audio clip: traditional Austrian music. Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. Accessed November 25, 2010. Schrammel-Quartett – from the web encyclopedia www.aeiou.at Music Shoppe Gerald Braden Classical Music Channel, YouTube
John B is an English DJ and electronic music producer. He is recognised for his eccentric clothing and wild hair and his production of several cutting edge drum and bass tracks. John B ranked #76 in DJ Magazine's 2010 Top 100 DJs annual poll, announced on 27 October 2010. Williams started producing music around the age of 14, now is the head of drum and bass record label Beta Recordings, together with its more specialist drum and bass sub-labels Nu Electro and Chihuahua, he has releases on Formation Records and Planet Mu. Williams was ranked 1st drum and bass DJ on the 2009 DJMag's top 100. and #92 on the DJ List as of 3 October 2009. While his trademark sound has evolved through the years, it involves female vocals and trance-like synths, his most recent concentration is a 1980s electroclash influenced fusion of electro and drum and bass, dubbed'electrostep'. At first, this style seemed comical to some in the drum and bass community. However, this move has given John the ability to carry his style of bass forward.
He has dabbled in darkstep and various other styles in his time. When he DJs, he is known to spin both drum and bass and electro house, sometimes with other genres such as disco and rock, in the same sets. Visions Catalyst Future Reference Brainstorm Mercury Skies In:transit American Girls Electrostep To Russia With Love Light Speed John B Official Homepage John B Podcast Beta Recordings' Website John B discography at Discogs John B at Rolldabeats
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material