William Bradford (Rhode Island politician)
William Bradford was a physician and politician, serving as United States Senator from Rhode Island and deputy governor of the state. William Bradford was born at Massachusetts to Lt. Samuel Bradford and Sarah Gray, he was a great-great-grandson of the William Bradford, Governor of the Plymouth Colony. The younger man first studied medicine at Hingham and practiced at Warren, Rhode Island. Bradford moved to Mount Hope Farm in Bristol, Rhode Island, where he was elected to the colonial assembly in 1761, he was elected to additional terms at various times up until 1803, served as Speaker of the Assembly in several terms. He expanded his abilities with the study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1767, established a practice at Bristol, he served as Deputy Governor of Rhode Island from November 1775 to May 1778. He served as major general in command of the colony's militia from June-October 1775 until being relieved by Major General Joshua Babcock, he did not attend. Bradford served on the Committee of Safety of Bristol County, Rhode Island and from 1773 to 1776 on the Committee of Correspondence for the Rhode Island colony.
When the British Navy bombarded Bristol on October 7, 1775, his home was among the buildings destroyed. He afterward went aboard ship to negotiate a cease fire. After the United States government was established, Bradford was elected to the United States Senate, taking office on March 4, 1793, he was the President pro tempore of the Senate from July 6, 1797 until he resigned from the Senate in October of that year. He returned to his home in Bristol and died there in 1808. Buried in Bristol's East Burying Ground, his grave was moved to the Juniper Hill Cemetery, he had a family, including daughter Nancy Ann Bradford. In 1790, she married James DeWolf of Bristol, a successful slave trader and belonged to a large and influential family that went into banking and insurance, he was elected to the US Senate in the 1820s. They were the great-great-grandparents of publisher Charles Dana Gibson. United States Congress. "William Bradford". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Wiliam Bradford entry at The Political Graveyard William Bradford at Find a Grave Template:Rhode Island in the American Revolutionary War
DeWitt Clinton was an American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator, Mayor of New York City and sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity, he was responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton was a major candidate for the American presidency in the election of 1812, challenging incumbent James Madison. A nephew of long-time New York Governor George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton served as his uncle's secretary before launching his own political career; as a Democratic-Republican, Clinton won election to the New York State Legislature in 1798 before serving as a U. S. Senator. Returning to New York, Clinton served three terms as Mayor of New York City and won election as the Lieutenant Governor of New York. In the 1812 election, Clinton won support from the Federalists as well as a group of Democratic-Republicans dissatisfied with Madison. Though Madison won re-election, Clinton carried most of the Northeastern United States and fared better than the previous two Federalist-supported candidates.
After the presidential election, Clinton continued to affiliate with the Democratic-Republican Party. Clinton served as Governor of New York from 1817 to 1822 and from 1825 to 1828, presiding over the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton believed that infrastructure improvements could transform American life, drive economic growth, encourage political participation, he influenced the development of New York State and the United States. DeWitt Clinton was born on March 2, 1769, the second son born to Major-General James Clinton and his wife Mary DeWitt, a descendant of the Dutch patrician De Witt family, he attended Kingston Academy and began his college studies at the College of New Jersey before transferring to King's College. Kings was renamed Columbia College, Clinton was the first to graduate under the school's new name, he was the brother of U. S. Representative George Clinton Jr. the half-brother of U. S. Representative James G. Clinton, the cousin of Simeon De Witt, he became the secretary to his uncle George Clinton, governor of New York.
Soon after, he became a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1798, of the New York State Senate from the Southern District in 1798–1802 and 1806–1811 He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention in 1801, he was a member of the Council of Appointments in 1801–1802 and 1806–1807. He won election by the New York State Legislature to the U. S. Senate seat left vacant by the resignation of John Armstrong, Jr. and served from February 9, 1802 to November 4, 1803. He resigned over unhappiness with living conditions in newly built Washington, D. C. and was appointed Mayor of New York City. He served as Mayor of New York from 1803 to 1807, 1808 to 1810, 1811 to 1815. While serving as mayor, he was its president, he helped re-organize the American Academy of the Fine Arts in 1808, served as its president between 1813 and 1817. He was a Regent of the University of the State of New York from 1808 to 1825. Clinton was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, served as its vice president from 1821 to 1828.
In 1816 he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. In 1811, the death of John Broome left a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor of New York. In a special election, Clinton defeated the Federalist Nicholas Fish and the Tammany Hall candidate Marinus Willett, to become Lieutenant Governor until the end of the term in June 1813. Clinton's uncle, George Clinton, had attempted to challenge James Madison for the presidency in 1808, but was chosen as the party's vice presidential nominee instead. In 1812, after George Clinton's death, the elder Clinton's supporters gravitated towards DeWitt Clinton. Clinton ran for President of the United States as candidate for both the Federalist Party and a small group of anti-war Democratic-Republicans. In the close election of 1812, Clinton was defeated by President Madison, it was the strongest showing of any Federalist candidate for the Presidency since 1800, the change of the votes of one or two states would have given Clinton the victory.
After the resignation of Governor Tompkins, elected Vice President, he won a special gubernatorial election in which he was the only candidate. 1,479 votes were cast for Peter Buell Porter – against Clinton's 43,310 – because the Tammany organization, which fiercely hated Clinton, had printed ballots with Porter's name on them and distributed them among the Tammany followers in New York City. On July 1, 1817, Clinton took office as Governor of New York, he was re-elected in 1820, defeating the sitting Vice President Tompkins in a narrow race – DeWitt Clinton 47,447 votes, Tompkins 45,900 – and served until December 31, 1822. During his second term, the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 shortened the gubernatorial term to two years, moved the beginning of the term from July 1 to January 1 cutting off the last 6 months of the 3-year-term he had been elected to; the gubernatorial election was moved from April to November, but Clinton was not renominated by his party to run for re-election in November 1822.
So, he still kept his post as President of the Erie Canal Commission. In April 1824, a majority of his political enemies, the Bucktails, voted in the New York State Legislature for his removal from the Canal Commission; this caused such a wave of indignation among the electorate, that he was nominated for Governor by the "People's Party", was re-elected governor against the official candidate of the Dem
Resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position. A resignation can occur when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down, but leaving a position upon the expiration of a term, or choosing not to seek an additional term, is not considered resignation; when an employee chooses to leave a position, it is considered a resignation, as opposed to involuntary termination. Whether an employee resigned or was terminated is sometimes a topic of dispute, because in many situations, a terminated employee is eligible for severance pay and/or unemployment benefits, whereas one who voluntarily resigns may not be eligible. Abdication is the equivalent of resignation for a reigning monarch, pope, or holder of another similar position. A resignation is a personal decision to exit a position, though outside pressure exists in many cases. For example, Richard Nixon resigned from the office of President of the United States in August 1974 following the Watergate scandal, when he was certain to have been impeached by the United States Congress.
Resignation can be used as a political manoeuvre, as in the Philippines in July 2005, when ten cabinet officials resigned en masse to pressure President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to follow suit over allegations of electoral fraud. Arroyo's predecessor, Joseph Estrada, was forced out of office during the EDSA Revolution of 2001 as he faced the first impeachment trial held in the country's history. In 1995, the British Prime Minister, John Major, resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party in order to contest a leadership election with the aim of silencing his critics within the party and reasserting his authority. Having resigned, he was re-elected, he continued to serve as prime minister. However, ascertaining whether an employee had an intent to resign depends on all the circumstances; as the Ontario Supreme Court noted, an employee's storming off may not be a resignation. Although government officials may tender their resignations, they are not always accepted; this could be a gesture of confidence in the official, as with US President George W. Bush's refusal of his Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's twice-offered resignation during the Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal.
However, refusing a resignation can be a method of severe censure if it is followed by dismissal. For many public figures departing politicians, resignation is an opportunity to deliver a valedictory resignation speech in which they can elucidate the circumstances of their exit from office and in many cases deliver a powerful speech which commands much attention; this can be used to great political effect as, subsequent to resigning, government ministers are no longer bound by collective responsibility and can speak with greater freedom about current issues. In academia, a university president or the editor of a scientific journal may resign in cases where an idea which runs counter to the mainstream is being promoted. In 2006, Harvard president Lawrence Summers resigned after making the provocative suggestion that the underrepresentation of female academics in math and science could be due to factors other than sheer discrimination, such as personal inclination or innate ability. In a club, society, or other voluntary association, a member may resign from an officer position in that organization or from the organization itself.
In Robert's Rules of Order, this is called a request to be excused from a duty. A resignation may be withdrawn. Lists of resignations Resignation from the United States Senate Request to be excused from a duty Resignation syndrome Barclay, Theo. Fighters And Quitters: Great Political Resignations. London: Biteback Publishing. ISBN 9781785903540. Frenchwood, Fancy; the Perfect Resignation Letter: I Fired My Boss. Infinite Momemtum. ISBN 0578154641. Kumar, Harbans Lal. Law Relating to Resignation and VRS. Delhi: Universal Law Pub. Co. ISBN 8175347309; the Bird of Wifdom Remarks on the Resignation of a Noble Lord
Frederick Frelinghuysen (general)
Frederick Frelinghuysen was an American lawyer and senator from New Jersey. A graduate of the College of New Jersey, Frederick went on to become an officer during the American Revolutionary War. In addition, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, he was a United States Senator from New Jersey from 1793 until 1796, served as the United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey in 1801. He was born near Somerville in the Province of New Jersey to John Frelinghuysen of Flatbush and Dinah Van Berg of Amsterdam, his father, was the son of the immigrant minister Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen, the progenitor of the Frelinghuysen family in New Jersey. He graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1770, was the sole instructor at Queen's College, New Brunswick from 1771 to 1774, he was admitted to the bar in 1774, practicing law in Somerset County, New Jersey. With the coming of the American Revolution, he became a member of the provincial congress of New Jersey from 1775 to 1776.
In the War of Independence he served in the New Jersey militia as an artillery captain, seeing action at Trenton and Monmouth. In 1779 he served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, he served as a clerk to the Court of Common Pleas of Somerset County, New Jersey from 1781 to 1789. He served in the New Jersey General Assembly in 1784 and again from 1800 to 1804, he was a member of the New Jersey convention that ratified the United States Constitution in 1787. He was a member of the New Jersey Legislative Council representing Somerset County from 1790 to 1792. President George Washington appointed him as brigadier general in the United States Army for the 1790 campaign against the western Indians. Frelinghuysen was elected to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1793 to November 12, 1796, when he resigned, he was commissioned major general in the New Jersey militia during the Whiskey Rebellion. He married the daughter of Magdalen and Henry Schenck. Together, they had five children: Catharine Frelinghuysen General John Frelinghuysen Maria Frelinghuysen Theodore Frelinghuysen, a lawyer and New Jersey politician Frederick Frelinghuysen After his first wife Gertrude's death in 1794, Frederick Sr. married Ann Yard.
Frelinghuysen died in Millstone, New Jersey on April 13, 1804, his 51st birthday, was buried at the Weston Burying Ground on the border of Manville, New Jersey and Bound Brook, New Jersey. His tombstone reads as follows: Entombed beneath this stone lies the remains of Frederick Frelinghuysen, Esq. Major General of the military forces and representative in the General Assembly of this, his native state. Endowed by nature with superior talents, he was beloved by his country. From his youth he was entrusted with the most important concerns until his death, he never disappointed her hopes. In the bar he was eloquent and in the Senate he was wise, in the field he was brave. Candid and just, he was ardent in his friendships, constant to his friends; the patron and protector of his honorable merit. He gave his hand to the young, his counsel to the middle aged, his support to him, feeble in years. To perpetuate his memory, his children have raised this monument, a frail memorial of their veneration to his virtues and of their grief and their loss of so excellent a father.
He died on the 13th of April aged 51 years. Among his other descendants are Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, U. S. Senator and Secretary of State. New Jersey Congressman. "Frelinghuysen family of New Jersey". The Political Graveyard. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2010. "Frederick Frelinghuysen". Find-A-Grave. Retrieved September 24, 2010. "Frelinghuysen, Theodorus Jacobus". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1898
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
Jonathan Trumbull Jr.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. was an American politician who served as the 20th governor of Connecticut and the second Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He is confused with his younger brother, John Trumbull, a famous artist during the revolutionary war and early years of the United States. Trumbull was born in Lebanon, the second son of Jonathan Trumbull Sr. and his wife Faith Robinson, daughter of Rev. John Robinson. Trumbull graduated from Harvard College in 1759, gave the valedictory address when he received his master's degree in 1762, his brother John Trumbull was a noted painter of the Revolution. Carrying on the family's tradition of public service, Trumbull began with town and colony offices: lister, grand juror, surveyor of highways, justice of the peace, selectman. In 1774 he was elected deputy; the first of seven terms representing Lebanon. He served in the state legislature three times. Trumbull served in the Continental Army as paymaster general of the Northern Department from July 28, 1775 to July 29, 1778.
In February 1781, he was given the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was included in the general orders of June 1781: "Jonathan Trumbull. Esqr. Junior, is appointed Secretary to the Commander in Chief and to be respected accordingly." He served for the duration of the war as aide-de-camp to General George Washington until December 28, 1783. After the war, he became an original member of the Connecticut Society of the Cincinnati. Elected to the First and Third Congresses, Trumbull served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1795, he was the Speaker of the House in the Second Congress, both preceded and succeeded by Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg, he instead ran for the United States Senate. When Trumbull was elected to the United States Senate, he served from March 4, 1795 to June 10, 1796. On June 10, 1796, he resigned from the United States Senate to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut; when the Governor died in December 1797, he became governor and was re-elected to eleven consecutive terms until his death in Lebanon, Connecticut.
Trumbull married Eunice Backus. Together, they had one son and four daughters: Jonathan Trumbull, who died young Faith Trumbull, who married Daniel Wadsworth, an artist and architect Mary Trumbull Harriet Trumbull Silliman, who married Benjamin Silliman, a scientist. Maria Trumbull, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1804. Trumbull died August 1809, aged 69 years and 134 days, he is interred at Trumbull Cemetery, Connecticut. He was one the original members of the board of trustees of Bacon Academy. Trumbull, Connecticut Trumbull County, Ohio Jonathan Trumbull Jr. at Find a Grave National Governors Association Notable Names Data Base
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing