The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Keith Leslie Smith is a former British keyboardist, once in the bands Anathema and Cradle of Filth. He was born in 1967 in the United Kingdom, England, he did session work on keyboards for the British band Anathema on their album Eternity, released in 1996. During his time in Cradle of Filth, his stage persona consisted of wearing a custom Vicar Priest top, black leather trousers and goth make-up, he played keyboards in two of Cradle's releases: Cruelty and the Beast and From the Cradle to Enslave. Les was a session musician of the band Tourettes. Post-Cradle of Filth, he accused vocalist Dani Filth of considering it his own solo project. However, they are on good terms these days. Les had a tenure with Anathema, but on their official site it was announced Les quit on 13 September 2011 due to "creative and musical differences". Eternity Pressure A Fine Day to Exit programming & engineering as "Les" A Natural Disaster programming & engineering "Les" Were You There? production & mixing A Moment in Time Hindsight engineering & mixing We're Here Because We're Here Everything Dreaming Light Cruelty and the Beast Twisted Nails of Faith PanDaemonAeon From the Cradle to Enslave Out There Somewhere & Let's Get This Mother Outta Here – Ship of Fools Subvert – Pain Control In the Big Ending...
– The Clan Destined Blood on Snow – Eastern Front
Duncan Patterson is an English musician, best known for his work as a member of Anathema and Antimatter. Patterson was a driving force behind Anathema's success during their earlier years, being the principle songwriter on the Eternity and Alternative 4 albums; these songs were Anathema's shift towards a softer, deeper style.. He formed a new project called Antimatter. After releasing four albums with Antimatter, spanning several genres, he started another full-time project called Íon, a mix of acoustic and traditional music. In between recording and touring his own projects, he has enjoyed chart success with the Irish alternative rock band The Aftermath, playing on three Top 20 singles, as well as appearing on their debut album, Friendlier Up Here alongside The Waterboys' Steve Wickham. Patterson wrote and performed the music on the German rapper Bushido's single, "Von der Skyline zum Bordstein zurück", which charted at #14 in Germany, he is the founder of Strangelight Records, a small independent record label.
Patterson's music was used in Hisham Zreiq's films, music, composed for Íon was used in the award-winning film The sons of Eilaboun, music, composed for Antimatter was used in the film, Just Another Day. In December 2011 he recorded another full-length album, with a new project titled Alternative 4 titled'The Brink' released by Avantgarde Music. In 2012, he recorded mandolin for the unofficial Irish Euro 2012 anthem alongside Shane MacGowan, entitled "The Rockier Road To Poland". Alternative 4 - The Brink Alternative 4 - The Brink re-release CD/DVD Alternative 4 - The Obscurants Anathema - They Die/Crestfallen 7" V/A - Volume 4 Anathema - The Crestfallen Anathema - Serenades Anathema - We Are The Bible 7" V/A - In The Name Of Satan Anathema - Pentecost III Anathema - The Silent Enigma Anathema - Eternity V/A - Under The Sign Of The Sacred Star V/A - Slatanic Slaughter II Anathema - A Vision Of A Dying Embrace VHS V/A - X Anathema - Alternative Future EP Anathema - Alternative 4 Anathema - Resonance Anathema - Resonance 2 Anathema - A Vision Of A Dying Embrace DVD Anathema - Hindsight Antimatter - Saviour Antimatter - Live@K13 Antimatter - Lights Out Antimatter - Unreleased 1998-2003 V/A - The Lotus Eaters Antimatter - Planetary Confinement Antimatter - Alternative Matter boxset Íon - Madre, Protégenos Íon - Immaculada Duncan Patterson - The Eternity Suite Gashead 2000 - demos The Illuminoids - unreleased tracks Deathcap - Ibiza Love Missile single W.
E. B - Don't Wake Futility Breaklose - Always Late Enough The Aftermath - One Is Fun single The Aftermath - Hollywood Remake single Bull Doza - Celebration Bushido - Von der Skyline zum Bordstein zurück The Aftermath - All I Want Is for You to Be Happy The Aftermath - Friendlier Up Here The Eternal - Kartika V/A - Enemies Phase - In Consequence Corde Oblique - A Hail Of Bitter Almonds Pete Courtney - White Roses Shane MacGowan, The Aftermath & Friends - The Rockier Road To Poland DuncanPatterson.com, full discography and news Íon, official website Just another day - sound track The Sons of Eilaboun - sound track
The Final Cut (album)
The Final Cut is the twelfth studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released on 21 March 1983 in the United Kingdom and on 2 April in the United States, through Harvest and Columbia Records. Initial recording for the album took place from 1978 to 1979, where outtakes from the group's previous record, The Wall, were shelved and used for the record. Additional recording took place throughout 1982 in several studios in Britain; the sessions were plagued by interpersonal conflict, was the last album from the group to feature founding member Roger Waters, who departed the band in 1985, the first to not feature keyboardist Richard Wright. Waters planned the album as a soundtrack for the 1982 film adaptation of The Wall, but with the onset of the Falklands War, he rewrote it as a concept album exploring what he considered the betrayal of his father, who died serving in the Second World War. Waters sings most of the lyrics, lead guitarist David Gilmour provides lead vocals on one track; the record is somewhat viewed as a de facto solo album from Waters, as he is the only member to receive writing credits in the lining notes.
It was accompanied by a short film released in the same year. The Final Cut received mixed reviews from critics, but was a commercial success, reaching number one in the UK and number six in the US. Retrospective reception towards the record has been more favorable, with praise directed towards its concept. Since its release, it has sold over 2 million copies; the Final Cut was planned as a soundtrack album for the 1982 film Pink Floyd – The Wall. Under its working title Spare Bricks, it would have featured new music or songs rerecorded for the film, such as "When the Tigers Broke Free". Bass guitarist and primary songwriter Roger Waters planned to record a small amount of new material for the album, expanding The Wall's narrative; as a result of the Falklands War, Waters wrote new material. He saw British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's response to Argentina's invasion of the islands as jingoistic and unnecessary, dedicated the new album—provisionally titled Requiem for a Post-War Dream—to his father, Eric Fletcher Waters.
A second lieutenant of the 8th Royal Fusiliers, Eric Waters died during the Second World War at Aprilia in Italy, on 18 February 1944. Waters said:The Final Cut was about how, with the introduction of the Welfare State, we felt we were moving forward into something resembling a liberal country where we would all look after one another... but I'd seen all that chiselled away, I'd seen a return to an Dickensian society under Margaret Thatcher. I felt as now, that the British government should have pursued diplomatic avenues, rather than steaming in the moment that task force arrived in the South Atlantic. Gilmour was unimpressed by Waters' politicising, the new creative direction prompted arguments. Several pieces of music not used on The Wall, including "Your Possible Pasts", "One of the Few", "The Final Cut" and "The Hero's Return", had been set aside for Spare Bricks, although Pink Floyd had reused older material, Gilmour felt the songs were not good enough for a new album, he wanted to write new material, but Waters remained doubtful as Gilmour had contributed little to the band's repertoire.
Gilmour said:I'm guilty at times of being lazy, moments have arrived when Roger might say, "Well, what have you got?" And I'd be like, "Well, I haven't got anything right now. I need a bit of time to put some ideas on tape." There are elements of all this stuff that, years you can look back on and say, "Well, he had a point there." But he wasn't right about wanting to put some duff tracks on The Final Cut. I said to Roger, "If these songs weren't good enough for The Wall, why are they good enough now?" The album's working title was changed to The Final Cut, a reference to William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar: "This was the most unkindest cut of all". "When the Tigers Broke Free" was issued as a single on 26 July 1982, with "Bring the Boys Back Home" on the B-side, the single was labelled "Taken from the album The Final Cut" but was not included on that album until the 2004 CD reissue. The Final Cut is an anti-war concept album, whose lyrics explore what Waters regards as the betrayal of fallen British servicemen—such as his father—who during the Second World War sacrificed their lives in the spirit of a post-war dream.
This post-war dream was that their victory would usher in a more peaceful world, whose leaders would no longer be so eager to resolve disputes by resorting to war. The album's lyrics are critical of Thatcher, whose policies and decisions Waters regarded as an example of this betrayal, she is referred to as "Maggie" throughout the album. The opening track, "The Post War Dream", begins with a recorded announcement that the replacement for the Atlantic Conveyor, a ship lost during the Falklands campaign, will be built in Japan. Waters' lyrics refer to his dead father, the loss of Britain's shipbuilding industry to Japan, Margaret Thatcher, before moving on to "Your Possible Pasts", a rewritten version of one of the songs rejected for The Wall. In "One of the Few", another rejected song, the schoolteacher from The Wall features as the main character, presented as a war hero returned to civilian life, he is unable to relate his experiences to his wife, in "The Hero's Return" is tormented by the loss of one of his air crew.
"The Gunner's Dream" discusses the post-war dream of a world free from tyranny and the threat of terrorism and is followed in "Paranoid Eyes" by the teacher's descent into alcoholism. The second half of the album deals with various war-related issues. While "Southampton Dock" is a lament to returning war heroes and other soldier
Distant Satellites is the tenth studio album by the British rock band Anathema. It was reached # 33 in the UK album charts; the album was recorded at Cederberg Studios in Oslo, with producer Christer-André Cederberg, with some songs mixed by Steven Wilson due to an operation on Cederberg's back. The artwork was created by Korean new media artist Sang Jun Yoo, based around his "Distant Light" installation; the band released a statement on their new album prior to its release: This is the first album to feature Daniel Cardoso as the band's primary drummer, replacing longtime member John Douglas. Douglas has since moved to electronic percussion and keyboards. Distant Satellites received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 80 based on ten reviews, indicating "universal acclaim"; the album ended the year at the 9th position of the 2014 Metal Hammer best albums list, as well at the 2nd position from Metal Hammer writer Adam Rees.
All tracks written by Daniel Cavanagh, except where noted.. The Lost Song – Part 3 Digital Single/EP"The Lost Song – Part 3" - 5:22 "Coda" - 1:12 "The Lost Song – Part 3" - 5:28
Alternative metal is a rock music fusion genre that infuses heavy metal with influences from alternative rock and other genres not associated with metal. Alternative metal bands are characterized by downtuned, mid-paced guitar riffs, a mixture of accessible melodic vocals and harsh vocals and sometimes unconventional sounds within other heavy metal styles; the term has been in use since the 1980s. Other genres considered part of the alternative metal movement included rap metal and funk metal, both of which influenced another prominent subgenre, nu metal. Nu metal expands the alternative metal sound, combining its vocal stylings and downtuned riffs with elements of other genres, such as hip hop, thrash metal, hardcore punk and industrial metal; the genre is considered a fusion between alternative rock and heavy metal, although Allmusic states "alt-metal is a far-reaching term, used to describe everyone from Hammerlock to Neurosis to Ministry to Limp Bizkit". They remarked that alternative metal was "a style united by its nonconformist sensibility rather than any classifiable sound."One of the main characteristics of alternative metal and its subgenres are downtuned, mid-paced "chug"-like guitar riffs.
However, funk metal bands use a more conventional riffing style influenced by 1980s thrash metal. Alternative metal features clean and melodic vocals, influenced by those of alternative rock, in contrast to other heavy metal subgenres. Bands incorporated vocal styles that alternated between clean singing and screaming. Examples include alternative metal bands associated with the nu metal movement, such as Korn and Deftones, who have been described as having "bipolar vocals". Jonathan Gold of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1990 "Just as rock has an alternative, wing-bands like the Replacements and Dinosaur Jr.-so does metal. Alternative metal is alternative music that rocks, and alternative metal these days can reach 10 times the audience of other alternative rock. Jane's Addiction plays an intense brand of'70s-influenced arty metal. In fact, the arty meanderings of Sab and the Zep themselves would be considered alternative metal." Houston Press has described the genre as being a "compromise for people for whom Nirvana was not heavy enough but Metallica was too heavy."The first wave of alternative metal bands emerged from many backgrounds, including hardcore punk, noise rock, Seattle's grunge scene, stoner rock, sludge metal, gothic metal and industrial.
These bands never formed a distinct scene. Jane's Addiction borrowed from art rock and progressive rock, Quicksand blended post-hardcore and Living Colour injected funk into their sound, for example, while Primus were influenced by progressive rock, thrash metal and funk and Faith No More mixed progressive rock, R&B, funk and hip hop. Fudge Tunnel's style of alternative metal included influences from both sludge noise rock; the origins of the genre can be traced back to funk rock music of the early to mid-1980s, when alternative bands like Fishbone, Faith No More and the Red Hot Chili Peppers started mixing heavy metal with funk, creating the alternative metal subgenre funk metal. Other early bands in the genre came from hardcore punk backgrounds. Bands such as Faith No More, Jane's Addiction and Soundgarden are recognized as some of the earliest alternative metal acts, with all three of these bands emerging around the same time, setting the template for the genre by mixing heavy metal music with a variety of different genres in the mid to late 1980s.
During the 1980s, alternative metal appealed to alternative rock fans, since all 1980s alt-metal bands had their roots in the American independent rock scene. The emergence of grunge as a popular style of rock music in the early 1990s helped make alternative metal more acceptable to a mainstream audience, with alternative metal soon becoming the most popular metal style of the 1990s. Several bands associated with the genre denied their status as metal bands. Helmet drummer John Stanier said "We fell into the whole metal thing by accident, we always hated it when people mentioned metal in conjunction with us." Saby Reyes-Kulkarni of Pitchfork Media stated "bands like Faith No More, Primus, the Rollins Band, dozens more were marketed as quasi-metal acts. This was only possible in a climate where record labels and college radio DJs understood that the metal audience could embrace new, albeit arty variations on the form." The alternative music festival Lollapalooza conceived by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell, helped bands associated with the movement such as Tool, Rage Against the Machine, Nine Inch Nails and Alice in Chains gain exposure.
The progressive rock-influenced band Tool became a leading band in the alternative metal genre with the release of their 1993 debut album Undertow. Spin stated in August 1998 that "It was Helmet that spawned the idea of alternative metal with the punk crutch of 1992's Meantime bands such as Rage Against the Machine took the concept a crucial step further, integrating hip hop to connect with skate
Vincent Cavanagh is an English singer and guitarist best known as a co-founder of British rock band Anathema. Vincent took over as Anathema's vocalist following the departure of Darren "Daz" White from the group after the Pentecost III EP, he started playing keyboards when the band switched from doom metal to a more ambient/progressive rock style. He co-wrote several Anathema songs including "Memento Mori", "Restless Oblivion", "The Beloved", "Re-Connect", "Deep, Pitiless", "Judgement", "Emotional Winter", "Leave No Trace", "Underworld", "Balance" and "Thin Air". Around 1998–1999 Vincent was a member of a band called Valle Crucis, they released an EP called Three Adorations on which he played guitar. In 2010 Vincent joined the French Rock band Devianz in studio to sing and write strings arrangements for a song of their second album, he is the younger brother of Anathema's other guitarist Danny Cavanagh, who formed the band with him in the early 1990s. He is the twin of Jamie Cavanagh, the band's bassist