Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g. medical peer review. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty tenure. Henry Oldenburg was a British philosopher, seen as the'father' of modern scientific peer review. WA prototype is a professional peer-review process recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting, engineering and forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy; this may take a variety of forms, including mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, the significance of an idea may never be appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.
The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion; each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation; the meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web; the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review.
In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320, Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004. Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review. Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards. Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity as a database search term. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more expand their customer base in journals where authors pay a fee before public
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Indian Academy of Sciences
The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was founded by C. V. Raman, was registered as a Society on 24 April 1934. Inaugurated on 31 July 1934, it began with 65 founding fellows; the first general meeting of Fellows, held on the same day, elected Raman as President, adopted the constitution of the Academy. The aims of the Academy are to: Promote progress in pure and applied branches of science. Encourage important research in various branches of science. Represent the scientific work of India internationally. Publish work relating to scientific research initiated by the Academy, Provincial Academies and Government Scientific Institutions. Organise meetings of Committees and Conferences to discuss papers submitted to the Academy. Advise Government and other bodies on scientific and other matters referred to the Academy; the first issue of the Academy Proceedings appeared in two sections in July 1934. They were split into two in July 1935 - one part devoted to physical sciences and the other to life sciences.
In 1973 the Academy's publications were further split into several journals aimed as specific scientific disciplines. The Academy publishes a monthly journal called Resonance since January 1996. Aimed at undergraduates, it contains some material for junior and senior academic levels; each issue focuses on the work of a famous scientist. It incorporates articles reviewing new classics; the Editorial Board comprises 40 scientists from across the country. The Academy publishes a monthly research journal called Sadhana - Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences since 1978; the journal covers all branches of Engineering Science. Sadhana is distributed in print outside online worldwide by Springer; the Academy publishes 12 Journal, viz. Resonance – Journal of Science Education, Journal of Biosciences, Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Journal of Genetics, Journal of Earth System and Science, Sadhana – Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences, Pramana – Journal of Physics, Proceedings of Mathematical Sciences, Journal of Chemical Sciences, Bulletin of Material Science, DIALOGUE: Science and Society, Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series.
Aimed at enriching scientific education, the Academy launched Project Lifescape in collaboration with the Centre for Ecological Sciences at the Indian Institute of Science to spread biodiversity literacy. It aims to involve school and college students in obtaining first-hand information on the status of, ongoing changes in, ecological habitats of a set of species of considerable human significance. An objective of the project is to publish illustrated accounts of 1500 Indian species of micro-organisms and animals; the accounts would include ancillary information on the distribution and behaviour of the species. The project has published three books, Butterflies of Peninsular India, Freshwater Fishes of Peninsular India, Amphibians of Peninsular India. A fourth and Damselflies of Peninsular India is available in electronic format downloadable from the project website; the Government of India instituted the Raman Chair in 1972 to commemorate the memory of the founder of the Academy. Eminent scientists are invited by the Council of the Academy to occupy the Chair, for periods of between six weeks and six months.
The Academy sponsors and conducts two-week Refresher Courses for selected teachers from across India. It awards annual Summer Research Fellowships to talented teachers and students to work with Academy Fellows on research-oriented projects in various research centres across India, it conducts Lecture Programmes at schools and universities on various research topics. Partha P Majumder Ramakrishna Ramaswamy Manindra Agrawal Bapat, Sharmila Gautam Biswas Renee Borges Mihir Kanti Chaudhuri Rohini Godbole Jayaram, Vikram V. Nagaraja Kapil Hari Paranjape Radhakrishnan, T P Mythily Ramaswamy Srivastava, D C Nikhil Tandon Sampat Kumar Tandon Raghavan Varadarajan Umesh Waghmare The list of presidents of the academy. National Academy of Sciences, India Indian National Science Academy The Indian Academy of Sciences website Resonance Journal website World Wide Science website
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power. ProQuest provides products for libraries, its resources and tools support research and learning and dissemination, the acquisition and discovery of library collections. From its founding as a producer of microfilm products and as an electronic publisher, the company has grown through acquisitions. Today, the company provides tools for discovery and citation management and platforms that allow library users to discover, manage and share research gained from authoritative content. Total content, including dissertations and theses, newspapers, historical collections and cultural archives and other aggregated databases is estimated at over 125 billion digital pages. Content is accessed most through library Internet gateways; the current chief executive officer is Matti Shem Tov. ProQuest is part of Cambridge Information Group. ProQuest was founded as a microfilm publisher.
It began publishing doctoral dissertations in 1939, has published more than 3 million searchable dissertations and theses, is designated as an offsite digital archive for the United States Library of Congress. The company's scholarly content includes dissertations and theses, primary source material, scholarly journals and current newspapers and periodicals, data sources, other content of interest to researchers. ProQuest Video Preservation and Discovery Service, allows libraries to preserve and provide access to their proprietary audio and video collections. In May 2014, ProQuest LLC operated businesses under the following names: Bowker provides bibliographic information management solutions to publishers and booksellers, is the ISBN Agency for the United States. Dialog is an online information service with more than 1.4 billion unique records curated for corporate and government researchers, with a focus on pharmaceutical and patent research. EBL, an ebook aggregator with a catalog of titles from academic publishers, serves academic and research libraries while supporting emerging collection development models such as patron-driven acquisition.
Ebrary offers access to ebook collections, by subscription or a perpetual archive model, in subject packages tailored for academic, government and high school libraries. Eugene Power, a 1930 M. B. A. graduate of the University of Michigan, founded the company as University Microfilms in 1938, preserving works from the British Museum on microfilm. By June 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve library collections. In his autobiography Edition of One, Power details the development of the company, including how University Microfilms assisted the OSS during World War II; this work involved filming maps and European newspapers so they could be shipped back and forth overseas more cheaply and discreetly. Power noticed a niche market in dissertations publishing. Students were forced to publish their own works in order to finish their doctoral degree. Dissertations could be published more cheaply as microfilm than as books.
ProQuest still publishes so many dissertations that its Dissertations and Theses collection has been declared the official U. S. off-site repository of the Library of Congress. The idea of universal adoption of microfilm publication of doctoral dissertations was furthered by two articles researched and written by a recent recipient of the doctorate in History at Stanford University. Vaughn Davis Bornet seized on the idea and published "Doctoral Dissertations and the Stream of Scholarship" and "Microfilm Publication of Doctoral Dissertations"; as the dissertations market grew, the company expanded into filming periodicals. The company's main newspaper database is ProQuest NewsStand. Xerox owned the company for a time in the 1980s. In 1985 it was purchased from Xerox by Howell. In the 1980s, UMI began producing CD-ROMs that stored databases of periodicals abstracts and indexes. At a time when modem connections were slow and expensive, it was more efficient to mail database CD-ROMs to subscribing libraries, who installed the discs on dedicated PCs.
The ProQuest brand name was first used for databases on CD-ROM. An online service called ProQuest Direct was launched in 1995; the bibliographic databases are sold to schools and libraries. In 1998, the company announced the "Digital Vault Initiative", purported to include 5.5 billion images digitized from UMI microfilm, including some of the best existing copies of major newspapers dating back 100 to 150 years, Early English books dating back to the 15th century. While work continues to digitize the contents of the microfilm vault, ProQuest is providing navigation of 125 billion digital pages, including nearly 20 million pages of newspaper content dating from pre-Revolutionary War America. In 1999, the company name changed to Bell & Howell Information and Learning, in 2001 to ProQuest Information and Learning. In 1999, the company acquired Chadwyck-Healey, a one-time microfilm publishing company, one of the first to produce full-text CD-ROM databases; this acquisition gave Proquest ownership of a 100+ person publishing operation based
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and discussion of research, they are peer-reviewed or refereed. Content takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, book reviews; the purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, perfecting all Philosophical Arts, Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; the first academic journal was Journal des sçavans, followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
The first peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of " people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters" was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Humanist scholar Denis de Sallo and printer Jean Cusson took Mazerai's idea, obtained a royal privilege from King Louis XIV on 8 August 1664 to establish the Journal des sçavans; the journal's first issue was published on 5 January 1665. It was aimed at people of letters, had four main objectives: review newly published major European books, publish the obituaries of famous people, report on discoveries in arts and science, report on the proceedings and censures of both secular and ecclesiastical courts, as well as those of Universities both in France and outside. Soon after, the Royal Society established Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in March 1665, the Académie des Sciences established the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences in 1666, which more focused on scientific communications.
By the end of the 18th century, nearly 500 such periodical had been published, the vast majority coming from Germany and England. Several of those publications however, in particular the German journals, tended to be short lived. A. J. Meadows has estimated the proliferation of journal to reach 10,000 journals in 1950, 71,000 in 1987. However, Michael Mabe warns that the estimates will vary depending on the definition of what counts as a scholarly publication, but that the growth rate has been "remarkably consistent over time", with an average rates of 3.46% per year from 1800 to 2003. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first peer-reviewed journal. Peer review was introduced as an attempt to increase the pertinence of submissions. Other important events in the history of academic journals include the establishment of Nature and Science, the establishment of Postmodern Culture in 1990 as the first online-only journal, the foundation of arXiv in 1991 for the dissemination of preprints to be discussed prior to publication in a journal, the establishment of PLOS One in 2006 as the first megajournal.
There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Upon receipt of a submitted article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by outside scholars of the editor's choosing who remain anonymous; the number of these peer reviewers varies according to each journal's editorial practice – no fewer than two, though sometimes three or more, experts in the subject matter of the article produce reports upon the content and other factors, which inform the editors' publication decisions. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review; the editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, or accept the article for publication.
Accepted articles are subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print. The peer review can take from several weeks to several months. Review articles called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals; some journals are devoted to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, others do not publish review articles. Such reviews cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms; some journals are enumerative. Yet others are evaluative; some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research article
Outline of academic disciplines
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge and researched as part of higher education. A scholar's discipline is defined by the university faculties and learned societies to which she or he belongs and the academic journals in which she or he publishes research. Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in all universities and have well-defined rosters of journals and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, these are called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are disciplines of the social sciences or of the humanities; the following outline is provided as topical guide to academic disciplines. Biblical studies Religious studies Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Greek, Aramaic Buddhist theology Christian theology Anglican theology Baptist theology Catholic theology Eastern Orthodox theology Protestant theology Hindu theology Jewish theology Muslim theology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Archaeology Accounting Business management Finance Marketing Operations management Edaphology Environmental chemistry Environmental science Gemology Geochemistry Geodesy Physical geography Atmospheric science / Meteorology Biogeography / Phytogeography Climatology / Paleoclimatology / Palaeogeography Coastal geography / Oceanography Edaphology / Pedology or Soil science Geobiology Geology Geostatistics Glaciology Hydrology / Limnology / Hydrogeology Landscape ecology Quaternary science Geophysics Paleontology Paleobiology Paleoecology Astrobiology Astronomy Observational astronomy Gamma ray astronomy Infrared astronomy Microwave astronomy Optical astronomy Radio astronomy UV astronomy X-ray astronomy Astrophysics Gravitational astronomy Black holes Interstellar medium Numerical simulations Astrophysical plasma Galaxy formation and evolution High-energy astrophysics Hydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Star formation Physical cosmology Stellar astrophysics Helioseismology Stellar evolution Stellar nucleosynthesis Planetary science Also a branch of electrical engineering Pure mathematics Applied mathematics Astrostatistics Biostatistics Academia Academic genealogy Curriculum Multidisciplinary approach Interdisciplinarity Transdisciplinarity Professions Classification of Instructional Programs Joint Academic Coding System List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States List of academic fields Abbott, Andrew.
Chaos of Disciplines. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00101-2. Oleson, Alexandra; the Organization of knowledge in modern America, 1860-1920. ISBN 0-8018-2108-8. US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. Classification of Instructional Programs. National Center for Education Statistics. Classification of Instructional Programs: Developed by the U. S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics to provide a taxonomic scheme that will support the accurate tracking and reporting of fields of study and program completions activity. Complete JACS from Higher Education Statistics Agency in the United Kingdom Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification Chapter 3 and Appendix 1: Fields of research classification. Fields of Knowledge, a zoomable map allowing the academic disciplines and sub-disciplines in this article be visualised. Sandoz, R. Interactive Historical Atlas of the Disciplines, University of Geneva
Azim Premji University
Azim Premji University was established as a not-for-profit, private autonomous university focused on minorities welfare and minorities development under the Azim Premji University Act 2010 of the Karnataka Legislature in India. The Azim Premji Foundation is the sponsor of the university. Azim Premji is the chancellor of the university and Anurag Behar is the vice chancellor; the university offers post-graduate courses in Development. Starting July 2015, it offers undergraduate programmes leading to a degree in Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. Specializations are offered in the Humanities and Economics. Students have the opportunity to take up research and projects to obtain an honours degree; this is a three-year, residential programme. The campus is on Hosur Road on the outskirts of Bangalore in Karnataka, a leased premise; the private campus is under construction between Sarjapura. Azim Premji University was established by the Azim Premji Foundation. APF is a left leaning organization focused on primary education.
The university was granted its charter by the Karnataka Legislative Assembly through The Azim Premji University Act of 2010. The university began with the launch of two post-graduate programmes: Master of Arts in Education and Master of Arts in Development with a few specializations; the first academic session started in August 2011. The first batch of 86 students who joined in July 2011 completed their two-year program in May 2013; the university held its first convocation ceremony on 1 October 2013 at Bangalore. The governor of Karnataka, Hans Raj Bhardwaj, the Visitor of the University and Azim Premji, chancellor of the university, presented degrees to the first batch; the university student strength rose to 260 in the third batch inducted in July 2013. There were nearly 400 students in the two Masters programs and more than 120 faculty and staff in 2013. Nearly 50 % of students were from small towns of India, across 20 states. Azim Premji University began its operations from an interim campus on the premises of PESIT BSC on Hosur Road in Bangalore.
The university operates on leased premises of over 1 lakh square feet. A permanent campus for the university is being developed on Sarjapur Road on the outskirts of Bangalore; the new 80-acre campus will cater with staff and student residences. Azim Premji University offers post-graduate programs in education and public policy & governance. From the year 2015, undergraduate courses for students have been started; the University is organized into a university wide Research centre. The five schools are: School of Education School of Policy and Governance School of Development School of Liberal Studies School of Continuing Education & University Resource Centre The library, which spans over 8000 sq. ft area, has a collection of over 27,633 books and more than 150 print and online journals. The modern IT infrastructure in the library allows students and researchers to access to its catalog and e-resources through WiFi technology; the library has a comprehensive collection of print and media resources on education, psychology, development studies, political science and public policy.
Online resources such as Ebsco, JSTOR, Questia and World Bank eLibrary are provided for the teaching and research staff. UG programme: Admissions are open to 12th standard/pre-university certificate students from all disciplines; the admission process includes an interview. The program is residential. PG programme: Admissions are open to graduates from all disciplines. Students from rural areas are given preference. Students have to clear a three-layered admission process including a written test, group discussion and interview; the university extends some scholarships to help students cover their fees. The scholarships may cover part of the tuition and student accommodation related boarding and lodging expenses or sometimes the entire expenses. In addition to scholarships, the university offers loan repayment support for students who take up careers in the social sector or pursue higher education in related domains, contribute through teaching, research or field engagement; this support is provided to students in forms such as interest waiver or subsidy, part reimbursement of the loan.
For the selected students, the university works out the procedure for such support on a case-by-case basis during the admission process. The university helps arrange concessional education loans for students as well; the university has a faculty group of over 100 in varied disciplines and fields including Education, Science, Social Science & the Humanities. More than 60% of the faculty have doctoral degrees in relevant domains; the student-faculty ratio is 65:1. It has some of the well-known scientists, educationalists, writers and many more famous personalities as its faculty. Azim Premji University is engaged in research projects and has conducted more than 30 capacity-enhancement programs in education perspectives and academics for government functionaries, it has Memoranda of Understanding with national and state capacity development institutions such as Administrative Training Institute and National Institute of Administrative Research to develop capacity enhancement frameworks for government functionaries in leadership positions.
The university has partnered with Michigan State University and to train education experts and improve India's vas