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Resource Description Framework

The Resource Description Framework is a family of World Wide Web Consortium specifications designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information, implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats, it is used in knowledge management applications. RDF was adopted as a W3C recommendation in 1999; the RDF 1.0 specification was published in 2004, the RDF 1.1 specification in 2014. The RDF data model is similar to classical conceptual modeling approaches, it is based on the idea of making statements about resources in expressions of the form subject–predicate–object, known as triples. The subject denotes the resource, the predicate denotes traits or aspects of the resource, expresses a relationship between the subject and the object. For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", an object denoting "blue".

Therefore, RDF uses subject instead of object in contrast to the typical approach of an entity–attribute–value model in object-oriented design: entity and value. RDF is an abstract model with several serialization formats, so the particular encoding for resources or triples varies from format to format; this mechanism for describing resources is a major component in the W3C's Semantic Web activity: an evolutionary stage of the World Wide Web in which automated software can store and use machine-readable information distributed throughout the Web, in turn enabling users to deal with the information with greater efficiency and certainty. RDF's simple data model and ability to model disparate, abstract concepts has led to its increasing use in knowledge management applications unrelated to Semantic Web activity. A collection of RDF statements intrinsically represents a directed multi-graph; this in theory makes an RDF data model better suited to certain kinds of knowledge representation than are other relational or ontological models.

However, in practice, RDF data is stored in relational database or native representations. As RDFS and OWL demonstrate, one can build additional ontology languages upon RDF; the initial RDF design, intended to "build a vendor-neutral and operating system-independent system of metadata," derived from the W3C's Platform for Internet Content Selection, an early web content labelling system, but the project was shaped by ideas from Dublin Core, from the Meta Content Framework, developed during 1995–1997 by Ramanathan V. Guha at Apple and Tim Bray at Netscape. A first public draft of RDF appeared in October 1997, issued by a W3C working group that included representatives from IBM, Netscape, Reuters, SoftQuad, the University of Michigan. In 1999, the W3C published the first recommended RDF specification, the Model and Syntax Specification; this described an XML serialization. Two persistent misunderstandings about RDF developed at this time: firstly, due to the MCF influence and the RDF "Resource Description" initialism, the idea that RDF was for use in representing metadata.

RDF saw little take-up in this period, but there was significant work done in Bristol, around ILRT at Bristol University and HP Labs, in Boston at MIT. RSS 1.0 and FOAF became exemplar applications for RDF in this period. The recommendation of 1999 was replaced in 2004 by a set of six specifications: "The RDF Primer", "RDF Concepts and Abstract", "RDF/XML Syntax Specification", "RDF Semantics", "RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0", "The RDF Test Cases". This series was superseded in 2014 by the following six "RDF 1.1" documents: "RDF 1.1 Primer," "RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax," "RDF 1.1 XML Syntax," "RDF 1.1 Semantics," "RDF Schema 1.1," and "RDF 1.1 Test Cases". The vocabulary defined by the RDF specification is as follows: rdf:XMLLiteral – the class of XML literal values rdf:Property – the class of properties rdf:Statement – the class of RDF statements rdf:Alt, rdf:Bag, rdf:Seq – containers of alternatives, unordered containers, ordered containers rdf:List – the class of RDF Lists rdf:nil – an instance of rdf:List representing the empty list rdfs:Resource – the class resource, everything rdfs:Literal – the class of literal values, e.g. strings and integers rdfs:Class – the class of classes rdfs:Datatype – the class of RDF datatypes rdfs:Container – the class of RDF containers rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty – the class of container membership properties, rdf:_1, rdf:_2... all of which are sub-properties of rdfs:member rdf:type – an instance of rdf:Property used to state that a resource is an instance of a class rdf:first – the first item in the subject RDF list rdf:rest – the rest of the subject RDF list after rdf:first rdf:value – idiomatic property used for structured values rdf:subject – the subject of the RDF statement rdf:predicate – the predicate of the RDF statement rdf:object – the object of the RDF statementrdf:Statement, rdf:subject, rdf:predicate, rdf:object are used for reification.

Rdfs:subClassOf – the subject is a subclass of a class rdfs:subPropertyOf – the subject is a subproperty of a property rdfs:domain – a domain of the subject property rdfs:range – a range of the subject property rdfs:label – a hu


Koporin Monastery is a monastery at the outskirts of the town of Velika Plana, just off the road to Smederevska Palanka. The monastery church, dedicated to the St. Stephen, was built during the reign of Despot Stefan Lazarević whose portrait is preserved as a fresco inside the church, under the inscription "Despot". Stefan Lazarević acquired this title after the Battle of Ankara in 1402, on that basis paintings was dated. Ktetor and exact time of monastery founding is unknown. Stefan Lazarević is buried in this church. Monastery was in the dilapidated state until the 1880. In the late fifties and the sixties of 20th century, massive conservation of architectural elements and paintings was finished. Koporin Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1979, it is protected by Republic of Serbia. Tourism in Serbia Secrets of Koporin Despot St. Stephen

Fayetteville State University

Fayetteville State University is a black public regional university in Fayetteville, North Carolina. FSU is part of the University of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund; the second oldest state supported. Following the Civil War in 1865, a robust education agenda was begun in Fayetteville's African-American community with the founding of the Phillips and Sumner Schools for primary and intermediate learning. In 1867, the schools consolidated to form the Howard School, following the vision of the Freedmen's Bureau chief General Oliver O. Howard who erected a building on a tract of land generously donated by seven prominent African-American men – Matthew N. Leary, Andrew J. Chestnutt, Robert Simmons, George Grainger, Thomas Lomax, Nelson Carter, David A. Bryant – who together paid $136 for two lots on Gillespie Street in Fayetteville and formed among themselves a self-perpetuating Board of Trustees to maintain the property for the education of local black youth. In 1877, an act of the North Carolina legislature provided for the establishment of the first teacher training institution for African-Americans in the state.

Recognized for its successful record of educating black youth, the Howard School was selected for this designation and in that year became the State Colored Normal School and the first state-sponsored institution for the education of African-American teachers in the South. Following a succession of leaders, in 1883, Dr. Ezekiel Ezra Smith, a graduate of Shaw Collegiate Institute in Raleigh, N. C. was appointed Principal and Chief Administrative Officer of the State Colored Normal School and began a fifty-year commitment of leadership and affiliation interrupted only by opportunities to honorably serve his country – once as Resident Minister and Consul General of the United States to Liberia and as Regimental Adjutant of the Third North Carolina Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish–American War. During his distinguished tenure, Dr. Smith oversaw the school's move to a permanent site on Murchison Road and deeded additional land to bring its holdings to 92 acres that included a physical plant of several major buildings and cottages.

It was under his leadership that, in 1929, all high school work was suspended and the title of Principal changed to President. On June 30, 1933, Dr. Smith became the school's first President Emeritus. Following Dr. Smith's retirement, Dr. J. Ward Seabrook assumed the presidency of what would, under his leadership, become Fayetteville State Teachers College in 1939, a state and regionally accredited four-year college granting the Bachelor of Science degree in Education. In 1959, under the presidency of Dr. Rudolph Jones, a revision of the school's charter authorized a curricular expansion to include programs leading to degrees outside the teaching field, it was during Dr. Jones' presidency that the school became Fayetteville State College in 1963 and significant additions were made to the physical plant to accommodate a growing enrollment. In 1969, Dr. Charles Lyons Jr. became president and in that year the college was formally renamed Fayetteville State University and designated a regional university by an act of the state legislature.

In 1972, Dr. Lyons became the first chancellor of FSU when it was made a constituent institution of The University of North Carolina by legislative act, it was under the chancellorship of Dr. Lyon's that the school became a Comprehensive Level I institution offering a variety of baccalaureate and master's degree programs. Additionally, several innovative initiatives sprang forth under the leadership of Dr. Lyon's including the Fort Bragg-Pope Air Force Base Extension Center that, in collaboration with the newly established Week-End and Evening College, provided military personnel and other full-time employees the opportunity to further their education. In 1988, Dr. Lloyd Hackley was named chancellor of FSU and began an active pursuit of initiatives to further expand both undergraduate and graduate program offerings, including the establishment of the university's first doctoral program in Educational Leadership in 1994. Continuing the spirit of innovation pioneered by his predecessors, Dr. Hackley strengthened FSU's commitment to community outreach with programs aimed at at-risk children in the public schools and oversaw the completion of the university's first major public capital campaign to increase funded scholarships available to students.

Upon his departure from FSU, Dr. Hackley became the first African-American President of the North Carolina Community College System. Another first for the university came in 2003 when Dr. Thelma Jane "T. J." Bryan was elected by the University of North Carolina Board of Governors to become the first female chancellor of the school and the first African-American woman to head a UNC institution. Under her leadership, the university expanded undergraduate and graduate program offerings, secured important specialized accreditations, became third in the UNC system in distance-learning enrollments. In 2008, Dr. James Anderson became the eleventh leader of Fayetteville State University. In his current role as chancellor, Dr. Anderson oversees an institution of more than 6,300 students, over 900 faculty and staff, 67 programs of study at all academic levels. Since its humble beginnings 145 years ago, FSU has grown beyond its original mission to educate Fayetteville's African-American youth to become "among the nation's most diverse campus communities" while prioritizing community and regional outreach and service.

The primary mission of Fayetteville State University is to provide quality education to its students through a basic liberal-arts foundation, specialized professi


Ramanallur is a small islet located amid Kollidam river. This islet is a part of Alagiyamanavalam Revenue Village and Panchayat, Ariyalur taluka of Ariyalur district in the state of Tamil nadu, India. Ramanallur is located at, it stretches 5 km 2 km North to South. Ramanallur consists of Kizha Ramanallur. There are only 4 streets in Mela Ramanallur namely Vadukku Theru Mela Theru Therkku Theru Keela TheruKizha Ramanallur is another Islet located near to Mela Ramanallur amid Kollidam river; the islet has houses, a panchayat union school, a fair price shop, a temple of Pachaiamman, unearthed from a mound of sand by villagers and agricultural lands in which paddy and vegetables like brinjal are grown. They get water in borewells at a depth of 15 ft. Most of the people, who are land owners, said that they have been living for generations in this island village. Ramanallur had a total population of about 2500. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Ramanallur has an average literacy rate of 55%.

11% of the population is under 6 years of age. If they want to move on north side to Thirumanur in Ariyalur district or to the south side to Kabisthalam and Papanasam in Thanjavur district, It is a difficult task. During summer, they use bullock carts to cross the Kollidam river to a distance of 1 km on either side. In rainy season, they use wade through waist deep water; when the river is in spate, they are cut off from mainland by the above modes of transport i.e. they are in distress. The absence of physical connectivity is prime problem faced by Ramanallur Villagers, their long felt demand is for construction of bridge in the southern side connecting Papanasam and Kabisthalam villages in Thanjavur district. A village struggling sans ‘basic connectivity’ Ramanallur Islet in Hindu Ramanallur Islet was cut off from the rest of the district

Grace Zaring Stone

Grace Zaring Stone was an American novelist and short-story writer. She is best known for having three of her novels made into films: The Bitter Tea of General Yen, Winter Meeting, Escape, she used the pseudonym Ethel Vance. Born in New York City in 1891, Zaring Stone was the great-great-granddaughter of social reformer Robert Owen, her mother died during her childhood. She started writing in St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands, where she lived with her husband, Ellis Spencer Stone a commodore in the U. S. Navy, she and her husband moved to Stonington, Connecticut. They had the author and gardener, Eleanor Perenyi. Zaring Stone had used the pseudonym of Ethel Vance to write her 1939 anti-Nazi thriller Escape to avoid jeopardizing her daughter, living in occupied Europe during the Second World War. Editions of her books after World War II sometimes credited her as "Grace Zaring Stone", as Escape was her best-known book at the time of the war. Three of her novels --The Bitter Tea of General Yen and Winter Meeting—were adapted for film.

In 1955, Escape was published in Germany as Die Flucht. Zaring Stone died on September 29, 1991 at the Mary Elizabeth Nursing Center in Mystic, aged 100. Letters to a Djinn, 1922 The Heaven and Earth of Dona Elena, 1929 The Bitter Tea of General Yen, 1930 The Almond Tree, 1931 The Cold Journey, 1934 Escape, 1939 Reprisal, 1942 Winter Meeting, 1946 The Secret Thread, 1949 The Grotto, 1951 Althea, 1962 Dear Deadly Cara, 1968The Bitter Tea of General Yen, The Cold Journey, Escape and Winter Meeting were published as Armed Services Editions during WWII. Works by or about Grace Zaring Stone at Internet Archive

Senior Scout Cederberg Adventure

The Senior Scout Adventure Cederberg is a biennial event for Scouts from South Africa and other countries, organised by Scouts South Africa. The adventure takes the form of a hike of about 10 days in the Cederberg mountains. During this time, participating Scouts get to visit a number of activity centres where they can participate in activities ranging from marksmanship and rock climbing to sailing and gold panning. In 1968, Colin Inglis, the Western Cape Divisional Commissioner at the time, called a meeting to discuss the loss of 15- and 16-year-old Scouts, which happened before they achieved their 1st Class Badge, he felt that once a Scout had reached the age of 16, troop activities were no longer an adventure for them and as a result they left the movement. He suggested that an adventure activity be held for 16-year-old Scouts who had obtained their 1st Class Badge, which could be the'cherry on top' of their Scout careers; the meeting agreed and a small committee was set up to run an event late in 1969.

This committee was composed of Colin Inglis, "Fatty" Rutter, Richard Knight, "Impie" Bryant and the Divisional Secretary. The rest of the year was spent organising the location in the Cederberg, testing communications, hiring school busses, finding activity leaders and various other functions; this first adventure was open only to Scouts from the Western Cape, but it was so successful that it was requested for subsequent events to be opened to Scouts from all over South Africa. The team decided to rename it'The National Senior Scout Adventure' and open it to all Scouts over 15 and 6 months of age who held the 1st Class Badge, it was decided that if the national event was a success it would be opened up to international Scouts. Due to pressure, the minimum age was lowered to 14 for Scouts who held their 1st Class Badge and were recommended by their Scouter. However, in 2004 the minimum age of 15 was reinstated; the first national event was held over new years of 1970/1971 and was an greater success that the experimental event and it was decided that it would be repeated every 2 years.

However, this was not always possible and the next one was only held in 1974. After the 1974 adventure the Cederberg was declared a wilderness area and activity centres were no longer allowed to be in the same location for more than 24 hours due to the new forestry rules. For this reason the 1976 adventure was moved to the Winterhoek. On this adventure a storm made rivers uncrossable and the adventure came to a stand-still for several days until the water subsided. To date, this was the only adventure where a helicopter has been used to rescue Scouts, who were trapped in a kloof by rising water. Although unexpected, this added a new dimension to the adventure; the following three were held in the Witzenberg Valley over the new years of 1978, 1981 and 1983. These adventures went well with the 1983 adventure being the biggest with 600 Scouts. In 1985, permission was obtained from private landowners in the Cederberg to put activity centres on their land and the Department of Forestry gave permission for Scouts to hike and camp in the wilderness area.

In December 1986, the National Senior Scout Adventure moved back to the Cederberg and has remained there since. Colin Inglis continued to organise adventures in 1988, 1990, 1992 and 1994, until handing over to Richard Goldschmidt for the 1996 and 1998 adventures. Buzz Macey took over as the organiser for 2000 and 2002 when the event was opened up to Guides and Girl Scouts. John Mütti was 2006/7 Centenary of Scouting. Buzz Macey ran the 2008 and 2010 Adventures, Nigel Forshaw ran the Adventure in December 2012. Cederberg Adventure