A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past. Such myths serve as an important national symbol and affirm a set of national values. A national myth may sometimes take the form of a national epic or be incorporated into a civil religion. A group of related myths about a nation may be referred to as the national mythos, from μῦθος, the original Greek word for "myth". A national myth is a legend or fictionalized narrative, elevated to a serious mythological and esteemed level so as to be true to the nation, it might over-dramatize true incidents, omit important historical details, or add details for which there is no evidence. The national folklore of many nations includes a founding myth, which may involve a struggle against colonialism or a war of independence. In many cases, the meaning of the national myth is disputed among different parts of the population. In some places, the national myth may be spiritual in tone and refer to stories of the nation's founding at the hands of a God, several gods, leaders favored by gods, or other supernatural beings.
National myths serve many political purposes. National myths exist only for the purpose of state-sponsored propaganda. In totalitarian dictatorships, the leader might be given, for example, a mythical supernatural life history in order to make him or her seem god-like and supra-powerful. However, national myths exist in every society. In liberal regimes they can serve the purpose of inspiring civic virtue and self-sacrifice, or of consolidating the power of dominant groups and legitimizing their rule. National myths have been created and propagated by national intellectuals, who have used them as instruments of political mobilization on demographic bases such as ethnicity; the concept of national identity is inescapably connected with myths. A complex of myths is at the core of every ethnic identity; some scholars believe that national identities, supported by invented histories, were constructed only after national movements and national ideologies emerged. All modern national identities were preceded by nationalist movements.
Although the term "nation" was used in the Middle Ages, it had different meaning than in the age of nationalism, where it was linked to the efforts aimed to creation of the nation-states. Besides their social background, nationalist myths have a psychological explanation, connected with nationalist myth of stable homeland community; the complexity of relations with the modern external world and incoherence of the inner psychological world can result with anxiety, reduced by static self-labelling and self-construction and gaining an imaginary emotion of stability. Two of nationalism's primary myths are connected with beliefs in: community's permanence, based on its national character and institutions and on its continuity across many generations, community's common ancestry; the nationalist myths portray the nation as sleeping and waiting to be awakened, but scholarly discourse avoids such images because national identity either exists or not and can not be asleep and awakened. Nationalist myths sometimes have a tendency to stimulate conflicts between nations, to magnify distinctive characteristics of the national group and to overstate the threat to the nation posed by other groups propagating militant fulfilment of their goals.
Civil religion Euromyth Folk epics Founding myth Historiography and nationalism Mythomoteur Nation branding National monument National mysticism Noble lie Political myth Ernst Renan What is a Nation? Renan, Ernest. Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?. Birch, Anthony and national integration, London. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. Geoffrey Hosking. J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11481-1, OCLC 47182376 Abizadeh, Arash. "Historical Truth, National Myths, Liberal Democracy". Journal of Political Philosophy. 12: 291–313. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-9760.2004.00201.x
A national language is a language that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to informally or designated in legislation as national languages of the country. National or national languages are mentioned in over 150 world constitutions. C. M. B. Brann, with particular reference to India, suggests that there are "four quite distinctive meanings" for national language in a polity: "Territorial language" of a particular people "Regional language" "Language-in-common or community language" used throughout a country "Central language" used by government and having a symbolic value; the last is given the title of official language. Standard languages, such as Standard German, Standard French, Standard Spanish, may serve as national and international languages. "National language" and "official language" are best understood as two concepts or legal categories with ranges of meaning that may coincide, or may be intentionally separate.
Stateless nations are not in the position to legislate an official language, but their languages may be sufficiently distinct and well-preserved to be national languages. Some languages may be recognized popularly as "national languages," while others may enjoy official recognition in use or promotion. In many African countries, some or all indigenous African languages are used, promoted, or expressly allowed to be promoted as semi-official languages whether by long-term legislation or short-term, case-by-case executive measures. To be official and written languages may enjoy government or federalised use, major tax-funded promotion or at least full tolerance as to their teaching and employers' recognition in public education, standing on equal footing with the official language. Further, they may enjoy recognition as a language used in compulsory schooling and treasury money may be spent to teach or encourage adults in learning a language, a minority language in a particular area to restore its understanding and spread its moral stories, poems, phrases and other literary heritage which will promote social cohesion or will promote nationalist differentiation where another, non-indigenous language is deprecated.
Albanian is a national language in Albania and Kosovo and a regional national language for parts of Macedonia, southern Montenegro and Serbia. Arabic is the national language in Algeria. Berber is an official language. French has no official status but is used in education and the media. Andorra's national language is Catalan. Armenia's national language is a separate branch in the linguistic family of Indo-European languages, Armenian. Armenian is spoken in Armenia as well as in its diaspora; the Armenian spoken in Armenia is known as Eastern Armenian, this dialect is spoken as well, in the Armenian communities of Russia and Iran. While on the other hand, other Armenian communities such as the Armenian communities of Lebanon, Jerusalem etc. speak the Western Armenian dialect. |° Australia has no official language, but is monolingual with English being the de facto national language. A considerable proportion of first and second generation migrants are bilingual. According to Ethnologue, 81% of people spoke English at home, including L2 speakers.
Other languages spoken at home included Chinese 2.9%, Italian 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, Greek 1%, Vietnamese 0.9% and Spanish 0.4%. There were 400 languages spoken by Indigenous Australians prior to the arrival of Europeans. Only about 70 of these languages have survived and all but 30 of these are now endangered. Azerbaijani language is the national language in Azerbaijan. Bengali is the sole official language of Bangladesh. Bosnia and Herzegovina's de facto sole national language is Serbo-Croatian, it is defined under the three names Bosnian and Serbian, corresponding to the country's constituent ethnic groups. The Latin and Cyrillic alphabets both have official status. Bulgarian is the national language in Bulgaria. Canada's official languages since the Official Languages Act of 1969 are French. Depending on one's views of what constitutes a "nation", these two languages may be considered two equal national languages of the nation of Canada, or the national languages of two nations within one state, English Canada and French Canada.
Quebec nationalists consider Quebec French the language of the Quebec nation. Two of Canada's northern territories legislate a variety of Indigenous languages. Nunavut holds Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun as official languages, Northwest Territories has nine official languages aside from English and French: Cree, Dënesųłiné, Gwich’in, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun and South Slavey and Tłı̨chǫ; as these official languages are legislated at a territorial level, they can be construed as national languages. Besides these there many Indigenous languages of Canada which are the national languages of one or more of Canada's First Nations groups, Inuit and Métis (mixed First Nations-Euro