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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by oxidising nutrients and releasing waste products. Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the organism, while physiologic respiration concerns the diffusion and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment. In animals with lungs, physiological respiration involves respiratory cycles of inhaled and exhaled breaths. Inhalation is an active movement; the contraction of the diaphragm muscle cause a pressure variation, equal to the pressures caused by elastic and inertial components of the respiratory system.

In contrast, exhalation is a passive process. Breathing in brings air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries The process of breathing does not fill the alveoli with atmospheric air during each inhalation, but the inhaled air is diluted and mixed with a large volume of gas known as the functional residual capacity which remains in the lungs after each exhalation, whose gaseous composition differs markedly from that of the ambient air. Physiological respiration involves the mechanisms that ensure that the composition of the functional residual capacity is kept constant, equilibrates with the gases dissolved in the pulmonary capillary blood, thus throughout the body. Thus, in precise usage, the words breathing and ventilation are hyponyms, not synonyms, of respiration. There are several ways to classify the physiology of respiration: Aquatic respiration Buccal pumping Animal respiration Breathing Gas exchange Arterial blood gas Control of respiration Apnea Huff and puff Spirometry Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Bell Jar Model Lung Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Myasthenia gravis Asthma Drowning Choking Dyspnea Anaphylaxis Pneumonia Severe acute respiratory syndrome Pulmonary aspiration – Pulmonary edema Death CPR Mechanical ventilation Intubation Iron lung Intensive care medicine Liquid breathing ECMO Oxygen toxicity Medical ventilator Paramedic Life support General anaesthesia Laryngoscope Respiratory therapy Breathing gases Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Hypoxia Gas embolism Decompression sickness Barotrauma Oxygen toxicity Nitrogen narcosis Carbon dioxide poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning HPNS Diffusing capacity List of basic biology topics Respiratory sounds Respiratory monitoring Nelsons VCE Units 1–2 Physical Education.

2010 Cengage Copyright. Overview at Johns Hopkins University Clinical Sciences – Respiratory An iPhone app covering detailed respiratory science and anatomy Nilsson, Goran E.. Respiratory Physiology of Vertebrates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70302-4. Randall, David. Eckert Animal Physiology. New York: W. H. Freeman and CO. ISBN 0-7167-3863-5. Human biology 146149 C. Michael Hogan. 2011. Respiration. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Mark McGinley and C. J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC

Golliwog

The golliwog, golliwogg or golly is a fictional character created by Florence Kate Upton that appears in children's books in the late 19th century and depicted as a type of rag doll. It was reproduced, both by commercial and hobby toy-makers, as a children's toy called the "golliwog", a portmanteau of golly and polliwog, had great popularity in the UK and Australia into the 1970s; the doll is characterised by black skin, eyes rimmed in frizzy hair. Though home-made golliwogs were sometimes female, the golliwog was male. For this reason, in the period following World War II, the golliwog was seen, along with the teddy bear, as a suitable soft toy for a young boy. In years the image of the doll has become the subject of controversy. While some people see the doll as a symbol of childhood and an innocuous toy, it is considered as racist by others along with pickaninnies, mammy figures, other caricatures of black Africans; the golliwog has been described by the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia as "the least known of the major anti-Black caricatures in the United States".

In recent years, changing political attitudes with regard to race have reduced the popularity and sales of golliwogs as toys. Manufacturers who have used golliwogs as a motif have either withdrawn them as an icon or changed the name. In particular, the association of the golliwog with the pejorative term "wog" has resulted in use of alternative names such as "golly" and "golly doll". Since 2015, alternative histories have emerged suggesting the dolls are based on Egyptian workers forced to serve under British occupation during the Anglo-Egyptian war. However, the claim appears to be pseudohistory. Florence Kate Upton was born in 1873 in Flushing, New York, United States, the daughter of English parents who had emigrated to the United States three years previously. Following the death of her father, she moved back to England with her mother and sisters when she was fourteen. There she spent several years developing her artistic skills. To afford tuition to art school, she illustrated a children's book entitled The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls and a Golliwogg.

The 1895 book included a character named the Golliwogg, first described as "a horrid sight, the blackest gnome", but who turned out to be a friendly character, is attributed with a "kind face." A product of the blackface minstrel tradition, the Golliwogg had jet black skin. He wore red trousers, a shirt with a stiff collar, red bow-tie, a blue jacket with tails – all traditional minstrel attire. Upton's book and its many sequels were successful in England because of the popularity of the Golliwogg. Upton did not trademark her character, its name, spelt "golliwog", became the generic name for dolls and images of a similar type; the golliwog doll became a popular children's toy throughout most of the 20th century, was incorporated into many aspects of British commerce and culture. Upton's Golliwogg was jovial and gallant, but some golliwogs were sinister or menacing characters; the golliwog contributed enormously to the spread of blackface iconography in Europe. It made its way back across the Atlantic in the form of children's literature, children's china and other toys, ladies' perfume, jewellery.

Golliwogg's Cakewalk is the sixth and final piece in the Children's Corner, a suite for piano published by Claude Debussy in 1908. British jam manufacturer James Robertson & Sons used a golliwog called Golly as its mascot from 1910, after John Robertson saw children playing with golliwog dolls in the United States. Robertson's started producing promotional Golly badges in the 1920s, which could be obtained in exchange for tokens gained from their products. In 1983, the company's products were boycotted by the Greater London Council as offensive, in 1988 the character ceased to be used in television advertising; the company used to give away golliwog badges and small plaster figures playing musical instruments or sports and other such themes. The Gollywog badge collection scheme was withdrawn in 2001. According to an editorial in The Times newspaper, golliwogs were banned by the Nazis in 1934 on the grounds they were inappropriate toys for young German children, "for of all non-Aryans none is more non-Aryan than he...

Some say he is so attractive an advertisement for a black face that his presence makes it harder to teach the young to wash."In a statement reported by the BBC, Virginia C. Knox brand director for Robertson's and Chief Operating Officer of the Culinary Brands Division of RHM, told The Herald newspaper in Scotland in 2001 that the decision to remove the Golly symbol from Robertson's jam and marmalade jars was taken after research found that children were not familiar with the character, although it still appealed to the older generations. "We sell 45 million jars of jam and marmalade each year and they have pretty much all got Golly on them," said Ms Knox. "We sell 250,000 Golly badges to collectors and only get 10 letters a year from people who don't like the Golliwog image." Today, Robertson's Golly badges remain collectible, with the rarest sometimes selling for more than £1,000. An aniseed-flavoured chewy confection called a Blackjack was marketed in the United Kingdom from the 1920s with a golliwog's face on the wrapper.

In the late 1980s, the manufacturer, replaced the image with the face of a black-bearded pirate. Art historian Si

Mathew Caldwell

Matthew Caldwell spelled Mathew Caldwell was a 19th-century Texas settler, military figure, Captain of the Gonzales – Seguin Rangers and a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Because of his recruitment ride ahead of the Battle of Gonzales, some call him the Paul Revere of Texas. Matthew Caldwell, nicknamed "Old Paint", was born in Kentucky on March 8, 1798, he moved to Missouri with his family in 1818, where he traded and learned the ways of the Indians. He, his wife, family arrived in Texas in the Green DeWitt Colony on February 20, 1831. On June 22, 1831, he received the title to a parcel of land near the Zumwalt Settlement, southwest of current Hallettsville, Texas. Settling in Gonzales, Caldwell acquired the original James Hinds residence on Water Street and soon became a person of notoriety, involved in security and command of minutemen rangers in Gonzales and the surrounding areas. Recruiting before the battle of Gonzales in October 1835, he rode from Gonzales to Mina informing colonists of the dire need of their support in the volunteer army.

Because of this, some call him the Paul Revere of Texas. As a participant at the battle, he served as a mediator. On Nov. 3, 1835, the delegates of the citizens of Texas established the provisional Texas government by the Consultation of 1835. The Consultation authorized the recruitment of 25 Rangers, was increased to three companies of 56 men each. Caldwell was appointed a subcontractor to the Texian Army by the Provisional Government of Texas, to supply and administer a volunteer army at the siege of Bexar and the Alamo. On 1 February 1836, he and John Fisher were elected delegates from Gonzales to the Texas Independence Convention of 1836 at Washington on the Brazos, both were signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence, on March 2; the convention appointed a committee of three, of which Caldwell was a member, to assess the situation of the enemy on the frontier and the condition of the Texian army. They dispatched couriers with the message of independence. Caldwell went along with them, paying close attention to the state of the new republic as they passed through numerous settlements.

On February 4, 1836, Matthew Caldwell was named, along with Byrd Lockhart and William A. Matthews, as commissioners to raise a group of volunteers for a Gonzales Ranging Company; the company was mustered by March 23, 1836. The muster list of 23 rangers is shown here. Officers Capt. Byrd Lockhart, Lt. George C. Kimble, First Sergeant William A. Irvin Privates John Ballard, John Davis, Andrew Duvalt, Jacob Darst, Frederick C. Elm, Galba Fuqua, William Fishbaugh, John Harris, Andrew J. Kent, David B. Kent, John G. King, Daniel McCoy, Jesse McCoy, Prospect McCoy, Isaac Millsaps, William Morrison, James Nash, Marcus L. Sewell, William Summers, Robert White After the call for reinforcements from Lt. Col. William B. Travis by way of courier Captain Albert Martin on February 25, Lt. George C. Kimble responded on the 27th with twelve of the original rangers. Twenty more men joined on their ride to the Alamo; the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers company consisted of family men from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony, gathering after the call for support was issued.

After receiving Travis's "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World" appeal on February 25, the Gonzales Rangers departed the town of Gonzales on the evening of Saturday, February 27, led by commanding officer Lieutenant George C. Kimble and Captain Albert Martin, the Alamo courier delivering Travis's appeal at Gonzales. Of the twenty-three original members mustered into the Gonzales Ranger Company on the 23rd, a total of twelve are thought entered the Alamo with the final Relief Force on March 1st, all but one died there. Lockhart, John William Smith and others accompanied the thirty-two Rangers into the Alamo and departed, at night, as other couriers left. According to one account, a group of twenty-five men left Gonzales at two in the evening on the 27th; as they passed through Green Dewitt's Colony toward the Umphries Branch community and on to the Cibolo Creek, the company gained eight more members, increasing the company to thirty-two men. The youngest member of the Alamo defenders, William Philip King, 16-years old, became a part of this group.

Due to family illness, he substituted in his father's place. On the 29th, the group searched to find a way through the Mexican lines. At three o'clock, in the early hours of March 1st, they made a wild dash into the fort while shot at by Alamo sentries. One man was wounded, after a few rash words, the Alamo gates flew open for the Gonzales force to enter; the list of the 32 immortals are: Isaac G. Baker, John Cain, George Washington Cottle, David P. Cummings, Jacob Darst, John Davis, Squire Daymon, William Dearduff, Charles Despallier, William Fishbaugh, John Flanders, Dolphin Ward Floyd, Galba Fuqua, John E. Garvin, John E. Gaston, James George, Thomas J. Jackson, John Benjamin Kellogg II, Andrew Kent, George C. Kimble, William Philip King, Jonathan L. Lindley, Albert Martin, Jesse McCoy, Thomas R. Miller, Isaac Millsaps, George Neggan, Marcus L. Sewell, William Summers, George Washington Tumlinson, Robert White, Claiborne Wright. Knowing their chance of survival was slim, the Gonzales Rangers remained in the Alamo, serving as the only reinforcements to make it into the Alamo during the siege.

The 1836 Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers all perished in the battle of the Alamo. For their efforts to support the besieged and outnumbered Texians, they are remembered as the "Immortal Thirty-Two". In the fall of 1837, after the revolution, settlers returned to Gonzales. Nothing remained of the former town except one charred building; the Comanche