A cook is a profession for individuals who prepare food for consumption in the food industry in settings such as restaurants. A cook is sometimes referred to as a chef, although in the culinary world, the terms are not interchangeable. Cooks' responsibilities include preparing food, managing food stations, cleaning the kitchen, helping the chefs. Restaurants will give a title to the cooks according to their designated stations. Examples are broiler cooks, fry cooks, pantry cooks, sauce cooks. In 776 BC, Coroebus of Elis who won the Ancient Olympic Games in a sprint race was a cook. In the Middle Age of Northern France, being a cook was a known profession in the community. In a sense, cooks were acknowledged as trained craftsmen. Taillevent wrote in the Le Viandier- a classic recipe collection in Medieval France- that he underwent different levels of training such as being an apprentice and journeyman before he acquired a master grade; the master or queu attained knowledge passed from one generation to another.
Georges Auguste Escoffier described cook in the Brigade De Cuisine as the Cuisinier. They help the top levels in the hierarchy, such as chefs, prepare specific dishes. During the Ming Dynasty, the profession of cook was one that served, on the most part, the upper echelons of society, serving the likes of merchants and landlords; the development of the culinary world in China during the Ming dynasty, due to the new ‘New World’ crops, such as maize and chilis, created an environment which led to a new and quality foods being accessible to more and more people in Ming China.. The new variety in foods on offer to cooks led to various instruction manuals and recipe books on food preparation; the Cooks that prepared and cooked the food for those of the Chinese population that were in the upper echelons of society and therefore could afford it, would operate through inns, restaurants and by roaming the streets as a street vendor, thus offering customers a variety of options.. However, despite the growing variety of foods and food sellers in Ming China, the services of most of the professional cooks was reserved for the elite class..
The Court was an large employer of cooks throughout the entirety of the Ming dynasty, with over 9,000 cooks employed in the 15th Century, the cooks in the employment of the court would be expected to provide for around 10,000 to 15,000 people on a daily basis, including providing them all with wine. Aside from just cooking food to be eaten, the court employed around 1,800 cooks to prepare sacrifices and offerings for rituals, around 200,000 animals were sacrificed yearly, including vast amounts of geese and sheep. Cooks would provide meals for merchants and landlords as well, they weren’t employed at the same high rate as the cooks employed by the court; the merchants and landlords who could afford the luxury of cooked food by a professional chef could expect a great quality and extremely skill-heavy and laborious types of cooking, for example baking and sugar animals. This exclusivity of cooks for the rich associated the profession and its work with the greed and gluttony of the elite classes, so private food preparation with cooks would be connected with evil or villainy..
The cooks in Ming China, as mentioned before, was only available to be utilised by the wealthy. Despite the exclusive nature of the job and the status levels of those they prepared food for, the occupation of the cook during Ming times was not a coveted profession due to the amount of animal killing involved with being a cook; the negative karma associated with killing the sentient living beings, using this as a means of making a living, makes the profession of cook one, described to be avoided. The nature of a cooks work and the religious values of Taoism and Buddhism clash reinforcing this idea of a cook being an undesirable occupation, cooks were known to request the safe passage of their slaughtered animals to the Pure Land through Amitabha.. Despite the various negative aspects associated with the cook profession in Ming China, there were still some positives for it, being a cook required a certain level of skill and to a certain extent it was artisanal, demanding fine tuning of skills and finesse, which in turn earnt the profession of cook and other similar professions respect amongst their peers.
Cooks in Ming China could learn their trade through the multitude of recipe books and herbal guides, punished during the Ming Dynasty. These books and guides were published as a way to promote individual health, dealt with the health benefits of foods and yangsheng, meaning ‘nourish life’. An example of one of these Recipe books is titled the Old Glutton’s Collection, written by Zhang Dai. Zhang Dai not only provided recipes for guidance, he wrote about the connections between food and health as well as the relationship to class levels and food Based on the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of work opportunities for cooks is expected to go up by 6 percent during the time period of 2016 to 2026. In 2016, the number of jobs for a cook was at 2,403,000; the rate is projected to increase slower than food preparation workers and chefs. In addition, cooks earn about $22,850 a year, about $10.99 an hour. As of October 2017, the average income for cooks was around C$33,400 a year; as of 2018 cooks in Australia earn about AU$20.48 for every hour of work.
There is not a strict set of achievements. There are institutions that provide culinary programs, such as vocation
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
Waiting staff are those who work at a restaurant or a bar, sometimes in private homes, attending customers—supplying them with food and drink as requested. A server or waiting staff takes on a important role in a restaurant, to always be attentive and accommodating to the customers; each waiter follows guidelines that are developed by the manager. Wait staff can abide by these rules by completing many different tasks throughout their shifts, such as food-running, polishing dishes and silverware, helping bus tables, restocking working stations with needed supplies. Waiting on tables is part of the service sector, among the most common occupations in the United States; the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that, as of May 2008, there were over 2.2 million persons employed as servers in the U. S. Many restaurants choose a specific uniform for their wait staff to wear. Waitstaff may receive tips as a minor or major part of their earnings, with customs varying from country to country. An individual waiting tables is called a server, front server, waiter, member of the wait staff, waitstaff or serving staff server, waitperson, or less the 1980s American neologism waitron.
Archaic terms such as serving girl, serving wench, or serving lad are used only within their historical context. The duties a waiter, wait staff or server partakes in can be tedious and challenging but are vital to the success of the restaurant; such duties include: preparing a section of tables before guests sit down. In some higher-end restaurants, servers have a good knowledge of the wine list and can recommend food–wine pairings. At more expensive restaurants, servers memorize the ingredient list for the dishes and the manner in which the food is prepared. Silver service staff are specially trained to serve at high-end restaurants; these servers follow specific rules and service guidelines. They wear black and white with a long, white apron; the head server is in charge of the waiting staff and is frequently responsible for assigning seating. The head server must insure; the functions of a head server can overlap to some degree with that of the maître d'hôtel. Restaurants in North America employ an additional level of waiting staff, known as busboys or busgirls referred to as busser or server assistant, to clear dirty dishes, set tables, otherwise assist the waiting staff.
Emotional labour is required by waiting staff at many high-class restaurants. Restaurant serving positions require on-the-job training that would be held by an upper-level server in the restaurant; the server will be trained to provide good customer service, learn food items and drinks, maintain a neat and tidy appearance. Working in a role such as captain in a top rated restaurant requires disciplined role-playing comparable to a theater performance. In the United States, some states require individuals employed to handle food and beverages to obtain a food handler's card or permit. In these States, servers that do not have a permit or handler's card can not serve; the server can achieve handler's card online. No food certification requirements are needed in Canada. However, to serve alcoholic beverages in Canada, servers must undergo their province's online training course within a month of being hired. Different countries maintain different customs regarding tipping, but, in the United States, a tip paid in addition to the amount presented on the bill for food and drinks is customary.
At most sit-down restaurants and bartenders expect a tip after a patron has paid the check. The minimum required hourly wage paid to waiters and waitresses in many U. S. states is lower than the minimum wage employers are required to pay for most other forms of labor in order to account for the tips that form a significant portion of the server's income. If wages and tips do not equal the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour during any week, the employer is required to increase cash wages to compensate. Tips average between 15% and 20% of the bill. Twenty percent is expected for good service, more than 20% is expected for great service, some patrons tip more for exceptional service. If the server goes above and beyond to ensure the patron enjoys his meal, it is customary to give a higher tip; some restaurants charge an automatic gratuity for larger parties, the gratuity ranges from 15% to 20% depending on the restaurant. Bikini barista Breastaurant Chamberlain Hospitality Soda jerk Table service Waiters' Race USA Today article on wait staff treatment Why is service still so bad in the UK
A pastry chef or pâtissier, is a station chef in a professional kitchen, skilled in the making of pastries, desserts and other baked goods. They are employed in large hotels, restaurants and some cafés; the pastry chef is a member of the classic brigade de cuisine in a professional kitchen and is the station chef of the pastry department. Day-to-day operations can require the pastry chef to research recipe concepts and develop and test new recipes; the pastry chef does all the necessary preparation of the various desserts in advance, before dinner seating begins. The actual plating of the desserts is done by another station chef the garde manger, at the time of order; the pastry chef is in charge of the dessert menu, which besides traditional desserts, may include dessert wines, specialty dessert beverages, gourmet cheese platters. Pastry chefs are expected to understand their ingredients and the chemical reactions that occur when making fine pastries. Precise timing and temperatures are critically important.
In larger kitchens, the pastry chef may have a number of other chefs working in their station, each responsible for specific types of pastries: boulanger: responsible for breads and breakfast pastries confiseur: responsible for candies and petit fours décorateur: responsible for specialty cakes and show pieces glacier: responsible for cold and frozen desserts List of chefs List of pastry chefs List of restaurant terminology Pastry blender Pastry brush Friberg, Bo. The Professional Pastry Chef. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-01597-6. Pastry Chef Education & Career Guide
For people with the surname, see Saucier. A saucier or sauté chef is a position in the classical brigade style kitchen, it can be translated into English as sauce cook. In addition to preparing sauces, the saucier prepares stews, hot hors d'œuvres, sautés food to order. Although it is considered the highest position of the station cooks, the saucier is still tertiary to the chef and sous-chef. In Georges Auguste Escoffier's system of the classic kitchen brigade, outlined in his Guide Culinaire, the saucier is "responsible for all sautéed items and most sauces." The 1979 film Apocalypse Now character, "Chef" Hicks says that he was "raised to be a saucier" in New Orleans. In Tropic Thunder, the character Kirk Lazarus claims to have been a saucier in San Antonio in reference to Apocalypse Now. In Futurama, Bender Bending Rodriguez claims the title of “Zinc Saucier” after defeating Elzar in The 30% Iron Chef. List of restaurant terminology
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula; this somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not the same as Vulgar Latin; the latter served as ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it; some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular. Late Latin is not identical to Christian patristic Latin, used in the theological writings of the early Christian fathers.
While Christian writings used a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote extensively in Late Latin in the early part of the period. Late Latin formed when mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard language for communicating between different socioeconomic registers and separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis in which the people were to be addressed, all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin; the linguist Antoine Meillet wrote, "Without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language", and, "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary".
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern concepts. A notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin into ante-classic, quite classic, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin, which indicates the term was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century; the term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and by century. In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period, the Second Period and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, Centuries 3–6 together, a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late."
Imperial Latin went on into English literature. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works; the Silver Age was extended the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author, its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many expansions by other authors subsequently; the title varies somewhat. It has been translated by expressions of different meanings.
The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents. In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; the two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin". Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero, he has said in the Preface that he rejects the a
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor