click links in text for more info


Restitutus was a Romano-British bishop from Londinium, one of the British delegation who attended the church synod or Council held at Arles, in Gaul, in AD 314. The list of those who signed the Acta, the decisions made by the Council, included three bishops, along with a "presbyter" and a "deacon", from Britain; the British bishops were Eborius "de civitate Eboricensi" – from the city of Eboracum. The text, which survives only in a number of manuscript copies, is corrupt in assigning two bishops to London. Since London was not a colonia, suspicion has fallen on the place of origin of Adelfius, bishop of the "colonia of the people of London". Most authorities have suggested emending "Colonia Londenensium" to "Colonia Lindensium" – the colonia of the people of Lindum; however S. N. Miller considered that the word "colonia" was suspect. Miller argued that "de civitate Colonia Londenensium" was a mistake for "de civitate Camu/lodunensium" – "the city of the people of Camulodunum"; this view was supported by archaeologist Sir Ian Richmond.

Others have identified Adelfius as Bishop of Caerleon-on-Usk. Notwithstanding the debate about the role of Adelfius, it seems most probable that the identification of Restitutus as Bishop of London was correct. However, no more is known about him, nor about his predecessors and successors in the Romano-British see of London, his name does not appear in the list of supposed early "Archbishops of London" that the 16th-century historian John Stow attributed to Jocelin of Furness. Stow himself noted this anomaly, the fact that Restitutus was listed as a bishop and not an archbishop. Writers attempted to reconcile the two sources by inserting Restitutus into "Jocelin's" list, either between Hilarius and Guitelinus, or after Guitelinus. List of bishops of London Early Christianity in Britain Celtic Christianity

Planner (program)

Planner is a free personal information manager for Emacs written in Emacs Lisp. It helps keep track of schedules, daily notes, days to remember etc. and takes advantage of the ease of keyboard shortcuts that Emacs provides for fast access to all data. One of the main advantages of Planner is that it stores all data as hyperlinked plain text files which enables users to use planner data in a variety of ways. One of them is publishing your planner data to an HTML page. Planner was written by John Wiegley, who wrote many other extensions during the years, including Alert, a Growl-style workalike system for Emacs. Planner was popular within the Emacs community at first, but has been surpassed by the org-mode package with time. Planner is released under the GNU GPL v3+. PlannerMode page on EmacsWiki

Tommy Duncan

Thomas Elmer Duncan, better known as Tommy Duncan, was a pioneering American Western swing vocalist and songwriter who gained fame in the 1930s as a founding member of The Texas Playboys. He toured with bandleader Bob Wills on and off into the early 1960s. Duncan was born near Whitney, Texas on a large farm into a large and impoverished family of truck farmers, he was one of 14 children. His most profound influences as a young singer were Jimmie Rodgers, Bing Crosby, Emmett Miller and other country and blues musicians, he left home at 13 to sharecrop on a cousin's farm, by 1932 was surviving as a busker in Fort Worth singing at a root beer stand. That year he won an audition against 64 other singers to join the Light Crust Doughboys, a popular local band which featured Bob Wills on fiddle. Another man had auditioned who sounded exactly like Duncan but was turned down because of his crossed eyes. Duncan was hired after he sang a version of Emmett Miller's "I Ain't Got Nobody" and impressed Wills with his yodeling ability and bluesy phrasing.

As was common at the time, the Doughboys appeared on a radio show under the sponsorship of a local business, in their case Light Crust Flour. Duncan became a sensation, both on the show and at dances and other appearances; when bandleader Wills decided to form an independent band, he and Duncan became the creative core of The Texas Playboys. Duncan was versatile in his singing style and repertoire, was credited with a fine voice and range, was ideal for the kind of dance music Wills performed and recorded, he sang everything from ballads and folk to pop, Tin Pan Alley, Broadway and Cowboy songs. As a lyricist, he contributed to "New San Antonio Rose". Duncan married. Duncan's first royalty check for "Time Changes Everything" was used to cover her funeral expenses. Duncan soon set the standard for Western swing vocals. In California he became friends with Bing Crosby. A virtual "human jukebox," Duncan memorized the lyrics and melodies to more than 3,000 songs, he was a master stylist with the ability to make each song sound.

Duncan was a multi-instrumentalist who could play piano and bass. After a decade of musical success, Duncan was the first member of Wills's band to volunteer for the armed services after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, his service lasted less than a year when he received a medical discharge and he rejoined Wills in 1944 as the war neared its end. He appeared with Wills and the other Playboys in several movies, including Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys, Rhythm Roundup, Blazing the Western Trail, Lawless Empire and Frontier Frolic, his voice matured in the middle to late 1940s. Duncan joined Wills in writing several more numbers, including "New Spanish Two Step", "Stay A Little Longer", "Cotton-Eyed Joe" and "Sally Goodin". One night in a bar visiting with songwriter Cindy Walker, Duncan motioned for her to look at a gentleman sitting just a few tables away, staring at his glass of beer. Duncan commented to her that he's just "watchin' the bubbles in his beer." They both realized they had a song idea and "Bubbles in My Beer" became one of the staples of Western swing songs.

Aside from "Faded Love", sung by Rusty McDonald, every Texas Playboys record, a hit featured Duncan on vocals, cementing his status as the finest vocalist Wills had. Rumors about Duncan having been a heavy drinker were false. Many band members considered him a troublemaker, but the accusations may have stemmed from professional jealousy. Duncan was admired by contemporaries including Tex Ritter, Tex Williams, Teddy Wilds, Hank Penny and Ole Rasmussen. By 1948, Wills' drinking was becoming too out of control for Duncan. Wills missed shows, when the headliner failed to appear, the band's pay reverted to union scale. After a string of performances in 1948 without Wills, Wills overheard Duncan complaining one night before a performance. Wills told guitarist Eldon Shamblin to "fire" Duncan, he organized another Western swing band called Tommy Duncan and His Western All Stars featuring his younger brother Glynn, a Western swing pioneer, on bass. Another brother, Joe Duncan, was the lead vocalist for Johnnie Lee Wills' band for a period of time.

At the height of the band's popularity and the band made an appearance in the 1949 Western film, South of Death Valley, starring Charles Starrett and Smiley Burnette. Musical tastes were changing and attendance at the Western All Stars' dances ranged from fair to poor not enough to sustain a large band, which lasted less than two years. From 1959 to 1961, Duncan again toured and recorded with Wills, rekindling much of their former success. By this time Duncan's voice had evolved to a mature mellow croon and he used it to the greatest effect, but when Wills began drinking, he again made personal appearances with various bands. Wills' band never achieved the same greatness it had with Duncan, Duncan's solo efforts paled in comparison to his Wills output. Although known for Western swing, Duncan enjoyed singing country hits of the day. Duncan, who had previous heart problems, died in his motel room in San Diego, California after a performance at Imperial Beach on July 24, 1967; the coroner's


Arnis known as Kali or Eskrima/Escrima, is the national martial art of the Philippines. The three are interchangeable umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines, which emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, bladed weapons, various improvised weapons, as well as "open hand" or techniques without weapons, it is known as Estoque and Garrote. In Luzon it may go by the name of Arnis de Mano; the indigenous martial art that the Spanish encountered in 1610 was not yet called "Eskrima" at that time. During those times, this martial art was known as Paccalicali-t to the Ibanags, Didya to the Ilokanos, Sitbatan or Kalirongan to Pangasinenses, Sinawali to the Kapampangans, Calis or Pananandata to the Tagalogs, Pagaradman to the Ilonggos and Kaliradman to the Cebuanos. Kuntaw and Silat are separate martial arts that are practised in the Philippine Archipelago. There have been campaigns for arnis to be nominated in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, along with other Philippine martial arts.

As of 2018, UNESCO has inscribed 9 martial-arts–related intangible heritage. Arnis includes hand-to-hand combat, joint locks and weapon disarming techniques. Although in general, emphasis is put on weapons for these arts, some systems put empty hands as the primary focus and some old school systems do not teach weapons at all. For all intents and purposes, arnis and kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts and fighting systems. Both Arnis and Eskrima are loans from Spanish: Arnis comes from arnés, Old Spanish for "armor", it is said to derive from the armor costumes used in Moro-moro stage plays where actors fought mock battles using wooden swords. Arnes is an archaic Spanish term for weapon, like in the following sentence from Ilustracion de la Deztreza Indiana by Francisco Santos de la Paz in 1712: Eskrima is a Filipinization of the Spanish word for fencing, esgrima, their cognate in French is escrime and is related to the English term'skirmish'. Kali has multiple theories on its origin:One theory is that the word comes from tjakalele, a tribal style of stick-fencing from Indonesia.

This is supported by the similarities between tjakalele and eskrima techniques, as well as Mindanao's proximity to Indonesia. According to Guro Dan Inosanto, Kali is a portmanteau of the Cebuano words "kamot", meaning hand, "lihok", meaning motion. In the Ilocano language, kali means "to dig" and "to stab". There exist numerous similar terms of reference for martial arts such as kalirongan and pagkalikali; these may be the origin of the term kali or they may have evolved from it. According to Grandmaster Vic Sanchez, the Pangasinense term Kalirongan means "Karunungan ng Lihim" or "Wisdom of Secret" or "Wisdom of Kali". In his book KALI: History of a Forbidden Filipino Fighting Arts, Fred Lazo put forward that Kali was an ancient root word for blade, that the Filipino words for right hand and left hand are contractions of the terms "way of the blade" and "without blade" as weapons are held with the right hand and the left hand is empty. In their book Cebuano Eskrima: Beyond the Myth however, Dr. Ned Nepangue and Celestino Macachor contend that the term Kali in reference to Filipino martial arts did not exist until the Buenaventura Mirafuente wrote in the preface of the first known published book on Arnis, Mga Karunungan sa Larong Arnis by Placido Yambao, the term Kali as the native mother fighting art of the Philippine islands.

Most Kali derives from the pre-Hispanic Filipino term for blades and fencing, documented by Ferdinand Magellan's expedition chronicler Antonio Pigafetta during their journey through the Visayas and in old Spanish to Filipino Mother Tongue dictionary and vocabulary books dating from 1612 to the late 1800s, such as in Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala by Fr. Pedro de San Buenaventura; the term calis in various forms was present in these old Spanish documents in Ilocano, Kapampangan, Bicolano, Hiligaynon and Moro-Maguindanao in Mindanao. In some of these dictionaries, the term calis refers to a sword or knife kris or keris, while in others it refers to both swords and knives and their usage as well as a form of esgrima stick fighting. While Mirafuente posits that the original term was "Kali" and that the letter "S" was added the late Grandmaster Remy Presas suggests that the "S" was dropped in modern times and became presently more known as "Kali" in FMA circles. Practitioners of the arts are called arnisador and arnisadora for those who call theirs arnis, eskrimador or eskrimadora for those who call their art eskrima, kalista or mangangali for those who practise kali.

As Arnis was an art practised by the poor or commoner class, most practitioners lacked the scholarly education to create any kind of written record. While the same can be said of many martial arts, this is true for Arnis because all of its history is anecdotal, oral or promotional; the origin of Arnis can be traced back to native fighting techniques during conflicts among the various Prehispanic Filipino tribes or kingdoms


Eucacopinae is an extinct clade of dissorophid temnospondyls. Eucacopines differ from the other main group of dissorophids, the Dissorophinae, in having more built skeletons and more knobby skulls; the subfamily was named Cacopinae, but since the name was established for a group of living microhylid frogs in 1931, the name was changed to Eucacopinae in 2013. Eucacopinae is a stem-based taxon defined as the most inclusive clade containing the species Cacops apsidephorus but not Dissorophus multicinctus, which belongs to Dissorophinae. According to the most recent phylogenetic analyses of Dissorophidae, Eucacopinae includes the basal species Conjunctio multidens and Scapanops neglecta from the southwestern United States and a more derived group including several species of Cacops and the Russian genera Kamacops and Zygosaurus. Derived eucacopines have two rows of bony plates called osteoderms running down their backs, while the more basal eucacopines have only a single row. Dissorophines have a double row of osteoderms but evolved them independently because the most recent common ancestor of the two groups had a single row of osteoderms

Analyst (journal)

Analyst is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of analytical chemistry and detection science. It is published by the Royal Society of Chemistry and the editor-in-chief is Duncan Graham; the journal was established in 1876 by the Society for Analytical Chemistry as The Analyst and obtained its current name in 2009. The journal is indexed in MEDLINE and Analytical Abstracts. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 3.864. In 1999, the Royal Society of Chemistry closed the journal Analytical Communications because it felt that the material submitted to that journal would be best included in a new communications section of Analyst. Predecessor journals of Analytical Communications were Proceedings of the Society for Analytical Chemistry, 1964–1974. Official website